ࡱ> IKBCDEFGH7 bjbjUU /7|7|l@@@<X  vvv8$wTxx 0z0z(XzXzXzXzXzXz.0001a1$6 Vf% XzXzXzXzXz%0 XzXz:000Xz" Xz Xz.0Xz.00 Xz$z ,> Dkv4P000  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTORY DIALOGUE AND DEFINITIONS Subject Given the state of knowledge already available to us, it seems ungenerous to the human condition to present any models less comprehensive--by which I mean, models that do not take into account both conventional and contemplative realms of human growth and development. The purpose of pastoral care is . . . participation in the mysteries of God in our midst and the celebration of the gospel of Christ. The Extent When I first started to look into the available literature on spirituality and pastoral care, I was not sure how far it would go beyond the books mentioned in the Preface that I had reviewed. The volume of material between 1970-1990 was way beyond my expectation. Appendix A documents the blossoming of the field. Sometimes the use of terminology was diverse and imprecise. The word spirituality is used in a broad and indistinct manner. Plus, there is no clear distinction between spirituality and a number of related terms: biblical faith, Christian values, religious experience, contemplative, meditative prayer, etc. Appendix A contains some items which would overlap with more traditional bibliographic headings dealing with mysticism and conversion. A few items from cognate fields have been included when they have been cited many times in the literature relating pastoral care and spirituality. Some items dealing primarily with spiritual direction have been included when they contain sections dealing with psychological aspects of pastoral care and counseling. However, the appendix would be greatly expanded if it included all the spiritual direction literature which incorporated aspects of pastoral care/counseling or psychology. The overall thrust that ties together the contributions of Appendix A is the intention to move beyond psychological reductionism to take seriously, on its own terms, the transcendent realm of the unknown. In addition to an extensive bibliography, the movement to relate spirituality and pastoral care has manifested in a number of seminary classes, conference and retreat offerings, journals, and in the inclusion of spirituality as a topic for discussion in the wider academy. As mentioned above, the intention of this work is to provide a critical, historical, typological understanding of these diverse contributions as well as some approaches to constructively appropriate their insights in the service of contemporary ministry. The Lack No Reviews Given the degree of its development, the amount of attention paid to the integration of spirituality in authoritative, pastoral care sources has been surprisingly lacking. For instance, as of 1998, there was no dissertation listed in Dissertation Abstracts that had the words spirituality and pastoral care in the same title. E. Brooks Holifield of Emory University has written the most scholarly and significant history of pastoral care in America. The book, published in 1983, covers the field from colonial times to the late sixties. It traces a development in pastoral care from a concern about otherworldly salvation in the colonial period to a concern for cultivating self-realization by 1970. Aside from an initial section on the concern for spiritual development in the early centuries of American life, the concept of spirituality finds little place in the twentieth century discussion. The word "spirituality" does not even appear in Holifield's index. Likewise, more recent reviews of the field make scant mention of spirituality. A review of "Psychology and Religion" by Heisig makes no mention of spirituality. Homans' review of the "Psychology and Religion Movement" makes brief mention within psychology of the interest of humanistic and transpersonal psychology in spirituality as it relates to altered states of consciousness. Clifford's review of "Psychotherapy and Religion" makes no mention of spirituality, though it refers to the recent interest by some within Jungianism in the "goddess." In his 1988 review of "The Psychology of Religious Experience" Capps gives no hint of a new interest in spirituality. Holifield's own 1988 review of "Pastoral Care and Counseling" makes no mention of a growing interest in spirituality that could possibly constitute a new, updated chapter in his book length history. Clyde Steckel's 1985 essay "Directions in Pastoral Counseling" mentions in one line that there are now books on moral and spiritual development in the pastoral care literature. Beginning Acknowledgments Though they have received scant attention in reviews of the field, a rapidly growing number of books and articles referred to above, including Nouwen (1971, 1972, 1977, 1981), Leech (1980, 1989), Loder (1981), May (1982a, 1982b), Oden (1983, 1984), Thornton (1984), Thayer (1985), and Wimberly (1982, 1990, 1994), have appeared that deal with various aspects of spirituality and pastoral care. In 1985 the Catholic publisher Paulist Press inaugurated a series titled "Integration Books: Studies in Pastoral Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality." The first volume of the series, Clinical Handbook of Pastoral Counseling, included an article by Conn on "Spirituality and Personal Maturity," and an article by the Jesuit Tyrrell on "Christotherapy." Estadt, another Catholic writer, in his 1984 essay "Pastoral Counseling: Today and Tomorrow," definitely sees a growing merger of spirituality and pastoral care and counseling. A recent bibliographic resource for psychology and religion edited by Hurd does include "spirituality" as a division heading. The 1987 dictionary of pastoral care edited by Alastair Campbell of Edinburgh includes entries on spirit, spiritual direction, spiritual healing, spiritualism/spiritism, meditation, and prayer. Hunter's 1990, more encyclopedic, dictionary of pastoral care and counseling has articles relating historic spiritual theology and spiritual direction to contemporary pastoral care. Taken together, Hunter's articles outline the mutual suspicion between spirituality and pastoral care that prevailed up to 1970, and the currently growing rapprochement. They conclude by arguing that the task of the next two decades is exploring the closer integration of these fields. The Need In this interdisciplinary work I join the task of exploring the integration through providing critical analysis, an historical perspective, and constructive appropriation of the recent (1970-1990) emphasis on spirituality within the field of mainline white Protestant pastoral care and counseling in America. The task of attempting integration is a worthwhile enterprise. Psychology-Theology Dialogue Religion and theology in the twentieth century have been in a significant dialogue with psychology and psychotherapy. No theologian can write today without taking into account the influence of such figures as Freud, Jung, Erikson, Maslow, and the general development of psychotherapeutic science. The theory and practice of pastoral theology has been especially transformed. In the late 1930's there were hardly any seminaries in America with courses in counseling that integrated contemporary psychological theories. By the early 1950's virtually every seminary program had such academic instruction. The great majority had psychologists on their faculty. A unit of experiential training in Clinical Pastoral Education became a common requirement for graduation in the 1960's, as well as for ordination by many mainline ecclesiastical bodies. By the late 1960's specialized pastoral counselors (mostly in private practice settings) were struggling to delineate how, if at all, what they were doing could be distinguished from what secular psychotherapists were doing. Diagnostically, they were relying heavily on psychological categories. Treatment modalities were similar. They shared a common suspicion that most religious ideation had infantile, pathological roots. They were reticent to use overtly religious language. It appeared as if the secularizing thrust of modernity was indeed marginalizing the sacred, even within mainline, ordained pastors. Spirituality Enters the Dialogue Now there has been this surprisingly strong upsurge of interest in relating spirituality and spiritual direction to pastoral care that began approximately at the beginning of the 1970's and continues to today. It needs to be documented and assessed. A number of questions need addressing. Are the contributions indeed deep and wide enough to constitute a renewed emphasis on spirituality within contemporary pastoral care? Is there any consensus on what spirituality means and how to relate to it? Is the spirituality a re-appropriation of traditional approaches, or something new? Is it a reaction to the strengths and weaknesses of contemporary pastoral care and counseling as of the early 1970's when the contributions began to flow? Is it tied into larger changes in American and global life? Has its impetus been more inside or outside the academy? Can it be conceptually organized in a functional way that can inform praxis? What form(s) might the integrative dialogue between spirituality and pastoral care take? A Preview A Renewal To offer a preview, the general thesis of this work is that the current emphasis on spirituality within pastoral care and counseling (evidenced through new literature, courses, and programs) is a significant development, comprising a renewed chapter in the history of the field. The renewal is both in the sense of giving the field a revitalized direction and energy, and a rejuvenated contact with a neglected dimension of its heritage. It is a development that has the potential for significantly impacting the future praxis of pastoral care. Spirituality Emerges More specifically, in the last few decades the meaning of "spirituality" has expanded greatly in both the academy and general usage from a narrow reference to the interior life of Roman Catholics seeking perfection, to the whole life of any spiritual seeker, religious or non. The dialogue with spirituality evolved out of a reaction to the pastoral care situation of the early 1970's which was characterized by a struggle with its identity, a tendency toward psychological reductionism, and a corresponding suspicion of things "spiritual." This skepticism reflected the ongoing drift of the general culture of knowledge toward the secularization of post-Enlightenment modernism. The renewed interest of spirituality within pastoral care followed, more than led, the general, cultural renewal of interest in spirituality reflected in the counter-culture phenomena, new religious movements, exploration of Eastern religions, the growth of fundamentalism in numbers and as a political force, participation in religio-therapeutic groups, etc. A Point of Contact Within pastoral care, writers interested in spirituality found a point of entrance through relating themselves to, and honoring, the twentieth century tradition of pastoral counseling and psychotherapy. Although they associated themselves with pastoral counseling, their intention was to move the field beyond preoccupation with self-realization to an acknowledgment of self-transcendence and the reality of the Sacred. They also attempted to build a bridge between previously feuding "social activists" and "pietists." This attempt has had partial success within mainline Protestant churches, but has not worked in bringing non-mainline evangelicals and mainline liberals into closer dialogue. Evangelicals have always considered themselves to be doing a biblical theology which already integrates spirituality in a similar manner to the Patristic period, and they have developed their own focus on social concerns. This is beginning to change with the emergence of such books as The Upward Call: Spiritual Formation and the Holy Life. Going Beyond In general, while the writers are recovering a place for the Sacred within pastoral care, and are encouraging the re-appropriation of traditional texts, they are also moving the field more toward an accommodation with the Perennial Philosophy, with exceptions which will be noted in chapter eight. The move of liberal pastoral care thinkers to look again at texts devoted to spiritual direction was stimulated theologically by the biblically oriented work of Moltmann, Pannenberg, and others which became prominent in the period following the cresting of the dialectic, realist, Neo-orthodox, and Neo-liberal influence of Barth, Bultmann, the Niebuhrs and Tillich. Following The spirituality and pastoral care movement has followed the broader rise of interest in spirituality in wanting to be more experientially authoritative, and provide more concrete ways to develop spiritual awareness in practice. The interest of secular therapists in exploring the spiritual dimension has also stimulated it. The literature has been somewhat late in reflecting the influence of feminist spirituality, the social dimension of black and liberation theology, and the more holistic counseling methods used by secular, humanistic and transpersonal therapists, but it is moving increasingly to do so. A Pluralistic Response The various manifestations of interest in spirituality do not represent a monolithic phenomenon. The growing literature is a pluralistic response which can be helpfully abstracted into a typology of models which have different understandings of sin, salvation, spirit, psychology, theology, and how one best undertakes pastoral care in respect to the integration of these understandings. Jones' typology of five theological worlds built around an obsessio or lived question, and an epiphania or lived answer, published in his book Theological Worlds, offers the most adequate, encompassing, and finely nuanced discussion of spiritual worlds, both theologically and psychologically. His complimentary "Theological Worlds Inventory" provides a useable way of assessing the spiritual perspective of persons, congregations, and texts. The influential writers in the field of spirituality and pastoral care generally do not reflect clear awareness of the particular theological world out of which they are writing. Of Jones' five theological worlds, the one most missing from mainline writers is that of "Condemnation and Forgiveness" which is more representative of orthodox Christianity and contemporary evangelicals. There is little reflection of traditional denominational emphases in the influential writers. Method It did not occur to most of us that perhaps different areas of study, different realms of experience, might need different kinds of science, and that the method of physics might not be applicable to the study of human behavior. The fact that our field of study featured such observables as self-consciousness and purpose, which did not exist in the realm of experience studied by the physicists, should, perhaps, have given us some clues that we might need a different method of science than they did. Indeed some students of the problem--Ernest Renan, Dilthey, and Wilhelm Windelband--had developed the theory of a method for La Science de la Humanite, a method quite different from that of the physicist, La Science de la Nature. This was widely known and discussed in the philosophy departments (where psychology lived at the time) at the turn of the century. However, we psychologists (as well as the rest of Western society) were so impressed with the progress of the natural sciences that we paid little attention. The following discussion weaves it way through many issues as it moves toward proposing definitions of what is meant by spirituality, pastoral care, and grace, the key words in the title of this work. Numerous reasons endorse such an extended exploration. To begin with, it is an interdisciplinary endeavor drawing from fields where there is no generally accepted conception of the subject matter and/or methods of study of religion, the psychology of religion, spirituality, theology, or ministry. It is necessary to characterize a position in relation to a range of possibilities, even if it is acknowledged that the pluralistic multiplicity of options might be a permanent heritage of the field. Such a project is a task of pastoral theology which, when undertaken in a public university, means having one foot in academia and one foot in the praxis of the church. This position requires accepting the burden of Schleiermacher who was searching for a dialectical resolution of the tension between theory and practice, Wissenschaft and theology, state university and Church, autonomous human culture and obedient Christian discipleship. Hans Frei focuses the problem in this way: Wherever appeal is made to the public character of the understanding informing theology--that is, to a generally intelligible hermeneutics--there the Berlin tradition rears its ugly head, demanding that theological instruction and its organization do justice both to church training and to principles of general explanation that hold for all disciplines; demanding, furthermore, that some sort of coordination or correlation be effected between the two, be it a correlation between autonomous, distinctive ways of thinking and speaking, or some attempt to locate the rightful status of the one through the priority of the other, or a claim that the two are in principle absolutely different and there can be no real contact between them. The end of this methodological discussion yields a view of pastoral care and spiritual direction as having a form, function, and integrity of their own, apart from the endorsement any particular academic tradition. However, dialogue is entered into with the principles of general explanation that hold for all disciplines in order to situate the various areas of study in relation to one another, to render intelligible what is being attempted, and to clarify what is at stake in these church-related practices. The dialogue begins with issues related to contemporary science and the philosophy of science. Here the four-quadrant, full spectrum model of Ken Wilber is highlighted because of its integrative capacity to take the disciplines of many areas on their own terms, and arrange them in a non-reductionistic relationship to each other. Addressing the problematic of the spiritual leads into further conversation with contemporary linguistics as to the nature of language and experience. This ushers into a way of articulating how science, religion, spirituality, theology, and pastoral care might be understood in themselves, and in association with each other. The tension between free-open-academic, and committed-pragmatic-ecclesial perspectives continues in the following chapters. In the history chapters the spiritual quest is accorded a non-reductionistic reality of its own, but the assumed mutual, reciprocal nature of its interaction with historical, cultural, social factors is traced over time. The history work also includes a bias toward better informing contemporary ministers of the contexts they work in. The typological chapters likewise assume the independence of spirituality and grace, at the same time they study phenomenologically how their manifestations are affected by both cultural schools of thought and personal ways of viewing the world; again, with an intent toward better equipping those engaged in the pastoral task. A correlational study between cultural-personal variables is referenced which includes empirical tools for assessing both; all of which could well be used in the pastoral service of making grace specific. The difficulty with what follows is its relatively wide scope which attempts to paint a large integration with short, broad strokes that rely heavily on previous scholarship reflected in the footnotes. The promise or hope is that at least exploring the presumption of a unity of truth in such an overview lends intelligibility and support to pastoral theologians who represent some of the last generalists in both the academy and the church. Issues The Quest Robert Torrance argues that the human species may be designated animal quaerens with at least as much right as animal rationale. More specifically, the quest is in the service of self-transcendence. This translates that humans are animals that quest for the spiritual. The quest is wide-spread and broadly conceived. Religion as process is one source of the spiritual quest. . . . But if the human being is truly animal quarens, a similar latency will be found in the biological, psychological, and linguistic conditions of human life and culture without which society and religion would themselves be inconceivable. In the psychology of religion, a lot of ink in this century has been spilled over Freuds rationale that all of life, including spiritual impulses, were ultimately meant to bring an organism back to its origins in inanimate matter. While it is the burden of this essay to examine more closely the nature of the spiritual quest, it will be assumed that Torrance and others have dealt with the Freudian materials and made a case that there is such a thing as a human quest with a telos which goes beyond non-life. The Big Three When spirituality is examined in general, or in relation to some topic such as pastoral care in particular, how should it be evaluated? How does the evaluation interface with the sociology and psychology of religion, as well as theology? How shall terms be defined? What methods are appropriate to bring to bear? Traditionally, three aspects of life have assumed importance in any comprehensive investigation: the personal, the communal, and the natural; or the I, the We, and the It. For Plato it was The True (objective It), The Good (cultural justice, We), and The Beautiful (individual-aesthetic, I). Christianity refers to Christ as Word (ultimate It), Christ as Body (ultimate community, We), and Christ Within (ultimate identity, I). Kants three Critiques were of Pure Reason (theoretical, It related), Practical Reason (intersubjective morality, We), and Aesthetic Judgment (personal, I). More recently theologian Edward Farley outlined the human condition in terms of three spheres of human reality--the personal (I), the interhuman (We), and the social (It), scientist Karl Popper designated three similar worlds, and the German sociologist-philosopher Juergen Habermas argued, With any speech act, the speaker takes up a relation to something in the objective world [It], something in a common social world [We], and something in his own subjective world [I]. The Evolutionary Synthesis Today, these three realms must be considered in light of the modern evolutionary synthesis which maintains everything within the whole is connected, grows, and evolves. In popular terminology evolution has proceeded from matter, to life, to mind. Laszlo refers to the material, biological, and historical realms; Jantsch to the cosmic, biosocial, and sociocultural; and Murphy to the physical, biological, and psychological. Wilber adopts the terminology physiosphere (matter), biosphere (life), noosphere (mind), and theosphere (soul-spirit). The Pattern That Connects According to the contemporary sciences of complexity there is a unity to diverse sciences which derives from patterns that apply equally to the realms of matter, life, mind, and spirit. Wilber notes that the problem of most attempts to outline common patterns is that they are done in the language of objective naturalism. This privileges the It domain, resulting in a reduction and not a synthesis of the I and We domains. Arthur Koestler suggests the solution of thinking of reality in terms of holons. A holon is a whole/part. Before an entity, process, or thought is anything else it is a whole that is made up of parts, and simultaneously a part of a greater whole. Researching what all holons have in common avoids privileging a particular domain. It also short-circuits the classical debates between idealism (thoughts are most real and fundamental) and materialism (the physical is most real and fundamental); and between atomism (all things are isolated parts which interact) and holism (all things only exist by Table 1.--Wilbers Twenty Tenets of Evolution 1. Reality as a whole is not composed of things or processes, but of holons. 2. Holons display capacity for self-preservation; autopoiesis, assimilation, or agency over time. 3. Holons display capacity for self-adaptation; allopoiesis, accommodation, or communion with other wholes. 4. Holons display capacity for self-transcendence, symmetry breaks, creativity (Whitehead) or emergent transformation into new wholes with new forms of agency and communion. 5. Holons display capacity for system memory and self-dissolution along the same vertical sequence on which they were built. 6. Holons emerge in unprecedented ways not determinable from knowledge of component parts. 7. Holons emerge holarchically with each higher holon embracing its junior predecessors and adding its own new and more encompassing pattern or wholeness. 8. Each emergent holon transcends but includes its predecessor, preserving its being, but negating its partiality, developing through envelopment. 9. The lower holon sets the possibilities of the higher; the higher sets the probabilities of the lower; demonstrating both upward and downward causation. 10. The number of levels which a hierarchy comprises determines whether it is shallow or deep; and the number of holons on any given level we shall call its span. (Koestler) 11. Each successive level of evolution produces greater depth and less span. 12. Destroy any type of holon, and you will destroy all of the holons above it and none of the holons below it. 13. Holarchies coevolve, the holons along with their inseparable environments. 14. The micro is in relational exchange with the macro at all levels of depth. 15. Evolution has directionality toward increasing complexity with a greater overall simplicity. 16. Evolution has directionality toward increasing differentiation (producing partness, novelty or a new manyness), and integration (producing wholeness, coherence or a new oneness). 17. Evolution has directionality toward increasing organization/structuralization. 18. Evolution has directionality toward increasing relative autonomy. 19. Evolution has directionality toward increasing telos of larger/deeper contexts. Addition 1. The greater the depth of a holon, the greater its degree of consciousness. ______________________________________________________________________ Source: Ken Wilber, Sex, Ecology, Spirituality: The Spirit of Evolution, Chapter 2, The Pattern That Connects. (adapted) virtue of a larger web or whole). In Table One Wilber provides a provisional list of twenty tenets which describe the patterns of existence, tendencies of evolution, laws of form, or propensities of manifestation, which the various domains of evolution have in common. These will be considered a functional, working hypothesis and referenced in much of the following discussion. Hierarchy A number of issues arise in light of the twenty tenets. One unmistakable conclusion is that evolution embraces a vertical as well as an horizontal dimension. Hierarchies of developmental sequences are built into life. Habermas outlines a hierarchy of communicative competence. In general, the sciences of complexity maintain that you cannot have wholeness without hierarchy, because unless you organize the parts into a larger whole whose glue is a principle higher or deeper than the parts possess alone--unless you do that, then you have heaps, not wholes. You have strands, but never a web. Even if the whole is a mutual interaction of parts, the wholeness cannot be on the same level as the partness or it would itself be merely another part, not a whole capable of embracing and integrating each and every part. Hierarchy and wholeness, in other words, are two names of the same thing and if you destroy one, you completely destroy the other. Pathology However, the nature of hierarchy can be perverted from an ordering of holons according to holistic or increasing integrative capacity in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. It can be mistranslated into forms of domination, exploitation, and repression. Some theorists have suggested that hierarchies be replaced with heterarchies in which all the parts within the whole have equal status, power, and voice. This is an appropriate designation for the holism of holons on the same level, but does not address the reality of a hierarchy of levels. The judgment of a number of two-year olds may be equal among themselves, but is not on the same level as one who has developed to embrace competent, responsible, compassionate adulthood. Wilber argues that the objective criteria for hierarchy revealed in the twenty tenets must be kept clearly in mind. Koestler suggests that holarchy is the appropriate name for systems that include the proper recognition of both hierarchy and heterarchy. Riane Eisler argues the importance of distinguishing domination hierarchies which inappropriately usurp and impose power from actualization hierarchies that support and maximize an organisms developmental potentials. In general, the evolution of higher levels of complexity brings with it new possibilities for disease and pathology, as well as expanded agency. Stones dont catch pneumonia, but humans do. More particularly, there can be both pathological hierarchy and pathological heterarchy. Higher levels, precisely because they are higher, can not only transcend but repress, not only differentiate but dissociate. The spiritual search for more light and love can render unconscious the awareness of darkness and hate. Lower levels, precisely because they are constituent parts, can affect the functioning of the greater whole. The head cannot say to the endocrine system, I have no need of you. (Tenet nine). The danger with heterarchy is that of going beyond relating and integrating to indissociating and dissolving. Catherine Keller has related the pathological dominance of agency, and the pathological fusion of communion to gender dispositions in her distinction between stereotypically male separate and female soluble self-identities. There are three basic impulses for dealing with pathological holons. One is to restore the system to harmony by addressing, rooting out, or integrating wayward holons. The other is the romantic disposition to return to earlier times before the new differentiation with its new pathology emerged. This latter move, of course, continually encounters the problem of how far back to go, since every previous stage had problems of its own. The third is for the system to transcend to a higher level which obviates the issue. Various spiritualities should have a conception of development and its correlative promises and pitfalls. Values The affirmation of holarchy implies the existence of values which can be said to be higher or lower, which again evokes the protest of value ranking as social oppression and inequality. However, those who argue against a hierarchy of values and for a heterarchy of equality are logically inconsistent in excluding their own claim. They make a morally superior argument, often based on ideals of freedom, altruism and universalism, in a world where nothing is supposed to be superior. Habermas points out there is a performative contradiction in such works as Michael Foucaults The Order of Things, in which Foucault argues truth claims are an arbitrary imposition of those in power, but presupposes a universal validity for his argument, which he denies exists, (a point the later Foucault recognized.) In his Sources of the Self, Charles Taylor defends the thesis that frameworks of qualitative discriminations, which include value hierarchies of fuller, purer, deeper, and more admirable, are constitutive of human agency. In so doing he traces historically the rise of worldviews and value judgments which deny themselves to be such. Wilber argues that cultural relativity is dead, and unconscious ranking is bad ranking by any other name. We should all admit it, and consciously join in trying to understand how to go about making valid, universal judgments. This ethical effort should interface with the sciences of holarchy so that values and facts are no longer automatically divorced. For instance, tenet twelve says that a higher holon is one that depends on lower ones as constituent parts. There is nothing arbitrary in saying a molecule is higher than an atom. Here Wilber introduces the distinction between fundamental and significant. Lower holons are said to be more fundamental because they are the building blocks of higher ones. On the other hand, they have less depth and are less significant, because higher holons organize, embrace, and hold more of the world internal to them. Apes are more significant, though less fundamental, than molecules.  Since holons on the same level simultaneously display the capacities of agency (tenet two; wholeness) and communion (tenet three; partness), there is a built in tension in the system which requires balancing, and affects value decisions. Rights (agency) for instance, need to be balanced with responsibilities (communion.) Claudio Naranjo maintains that much healing involves integrating unbalanced polarities of agency and communion. He notes that in the list below the West has historically overemphasized the left-hand side and the East the right-hand side. Both poles must be acknowledged as valid. 1. Identity of self as a distinct center, and identification with other selves. 2 Awareness of objective reality, and appreciation of subjective vision. 3. Detachment from group mind and ethos, and participation in community. 4. Personal freedom to choose, and capacity and willingness to surrender. 5. Differentiation within and between, and unification within and between. 6. Self-affirmation, and self-denial. 7. Consciousness, insight, knowledge, and intuition, awareness, understanding. Different approaches to spirituality should have a way of conceptualizing values, their hierarchies, and their inherent tensions. Meaning Closely associated with values is the issue of meaning. Since meaning is conferred relationally or by context, postmodern postructuralists have posited the death of all supposedly secure entities by placing them in a larger context. Derrida, for instance, critiques the notion of presence by noting that nothing can refer simply to itself, but is constituted with reference to the trace in it of the other elements of the system. Nothing, in either the elements or the system, is anywhere ever simply present or absent. Poststructural theorists make an important contribution through decentering supposedly autonomous units, but talk of death is a bit dramatic. They are only underlining the holonic nature of life (tenet one). Derridas interpreter Jonathan Culler notes that the basic point of deconstruction is that truth and meaning are context bound, and as Habermas notes, contexts cannot be exhausted. Wilber agrees that when poststructuralists oppose any grand narrative, they put everything into question by pointing out that everything has a context, which is simply to say that the system is sliding, or infinitely expandable. While this sliding does frustrate the desire to find an ultimate resting place in either wholeness or partness, it does not obliterate the existence of a system; simply its finality or completeness. That the system is sliding does not mean that meaning cant be established, that truth doesnt exist, or that contexts wont hold still long enough to make a simple point. When people argue that there is no absolute referent, since there are unending levels of context, this does not affect the relative placement of holons or change the meaning of higher and lower. Larger contexts simply confer new levels of meaning to holons, and require new therapies to deal with the resistance of dying to the shallower context and being reborn to a deeper and wider one. If absolutizing parts is a danger, the same is true for absolutizing the whole. This is the temptation of numerous systems, ecological, and new paradigm theorists. Fritjof Capra asserts that there are no parts at all, but merely patterns in an inseparable web of relationship. This directly contradicts tenet two. It is true that holons exist by virtue of the subsystems that comprise them and the supersystems in which they live, but they are only formed, informed, and in mutual interaction with their contexts. They are not defined by them. Rather, each holon has its own relatively autonomous and recognizable pattern that is preserved in its agency and relative autonomy over time. Wilber writes that, It is true that there are no parts, but equally true that there are no wholes--only whole/parts forever, which forever escape the totalizing lie. The danger and lie is that if absolutizing the system is translated into something like political theory, the result is a totalitarian regime with no free citizens, but only parts of the state. If the biosphere is absolutized then there can be no qualitative distinctions between an apple and an apple grower. It is not that systems theory is wrong, but partial, and in itself not a force for healing. Spiritual views should have a perspective on this issue of agency-in-communion; on how we can be true to ourselves and also be in relation with otherness. Telos The higher contexts in which a holon exists, not only confers meaning but exerts a teleological pull (tenet nineteen). As a whole, a holon is relatively complete, at peace and at rest. As a part, it lives in tension with its incompleteness, which sets up a desire and drive which cannot be resolved at its present level of existence, but only through transcending to a deeper and wider context. Thus, Augustines dictum that our hearts are restless until they find their rest in God. Scientists in both the physiophere and biosphere affirm that a holons entelechy or deep structure functions as an attractor, or mini-end point that organizes the system (even an electron cloud on the physical level) to develop or actualize along certain lines in time and space. An acorn is drawn into being an oak tree, not a rose bush. In the noosphere psychologists assume the unfolding of developmental sequences with stages of possibilities and pathologies. Larry LeShan and Victor Frankl argue further that the horizon of the future, with its hopes and dreams, is constitutive of human health and healing. Even modern philosophers from Pierce to Derrida recognize that the future affects the present through the teleological categories of purpose or final cause. Wilber notes that the minds omega point for each theorist is the ultimate context beyond which they believe growth cannot or should not go. For Freud it was the ego integrated around genital organization. Piaget underscored the equilibration which could only be reached by formal thinking. Marx looked for the classless society which would heal the alienation of labor through shared, mutual care. Language contains a relentless pressure oriented toward uncoerced mutual understanding according to Habermas. Hegel saw history moving toward Absolute Spirit manifesting through individuals in mutual community. The final Omega Point for Teilhard de Chardin was the resurrection of Christ consciousness in everyone. Transformation, or an evolutionary advance in the sciences of complexity happens through turbulence, and the resultant catastrophic bifurcations which move a system into a third state, far from equilibrium position, and then shift it from one attractor to another. Laszlo writes that when the system achieves a new state of dynamic stability, the chaotic attractors of the bifurcation epoch give way to a new set of point or periodic attractors. These attractors maintain the system in a condition far from thermodynamic equilibrium, with [1] more effective use of information, [2] greater efficiency in the use of free energies, [3] greater flexibility [relative autonomy], as well as [4] greater structural complexity on a higher level of organization. These four markers of transformation are congruent with criteria that some pastoral counselors and spiritual directors use for noting a persons growth in ability to love. Theoretically, there is no final whole or final context that growth can embrace. Gregory of Nyssa affirmed this long ago: Perfection consists in our never stopping in our growth in good, never circumscribing our perfection by any limitation. Since [the] good has no limit, the participants desire itself necessarily has no stopping place but stretches out with the limitless. However, a spirituality with a degree of completeness should have some concept of the goal of development which helps induce the necessary transformations which move towards it. For instance, is it possible that perhaps telos, perhaps Eros, moves the entire Kosmos, and God may indeed by an all-embracing chaotic Attractor, acting, as Whitehead said, throughout the world by gentle persuasion toward love? An Open Future No matter how much is known about the parts that make up a whole, the contexts in which it exists, and the goal towards which it is developing, it is important to underline tenet six which states that growth implies indeterminacy. Laszlo notes that neither knowledge of the initial conditions of a system nor of the changing conditions of its environment can yield certainty of prediction. Ernst Mayr writes that the characteristics of the whole cannot (even in theory) be deduced from the most complete knowledge of the components, taken separately or in other partial combinations. . . . As Popper said, We live in a universe of emergent novelty. The most absolute, comprehensive knowledge of both the physiosphere and biosphere could never predict the emergence of Lao Tzu, Jesus, or a 747. That this is so has always been a source of humility, hope, and curiosity for pastoral care givers, who affirm theologically that the Spirit blows where it will. In terms of scientific inquiry in general, the clear implication is that determinism, or predictive power, is an insufficient and inadequate guiding principle. It is still true that there is upward and downward causation with lower holons setting the possibilities of the higher, and higher ones setting the probabilities of the lower (tenet nine). For instance, nothing in a Moses or a hovercraft break with the laws of the physiosphere. However, determinism is a limiting case where a holons creativity or capacity for self-transcendence approaches zero. Wilber argues forcefully that all sciences are in essence reconstructive sciences. That is, we never know, and never can know exactly what any holon will do tomorrow (we might know broad outlines and probabilities, based on past observations, but self-transcendent emergence always means, to some degree: surprise!) We have to wait and see, and from that, after the fact, we reconstruct a knowledge system. However, when a holons self-transcendence approaches zero (when its creativity is utterly minimal), then the reconstructive sciences collapse into the predictive sciences. Historically, the empirical sciences got their start by studying precisely those holons that show minimal creativity [rocks in motion]. . . . By taking some of the dumbest holons in existence and making their study the study of really real reality, these physical sciences . . . were largely responsible for the collapse of the Kosmos into the cosmos, for the reduction of the Great Holarchy of Being to the dumbest creatures on Gods green Earth, and for the leveling of a multidimensional reality to a flat and faded landscape defined by a minimum of creativity (and thus a maximum of predictive power). It would take such a turn of events as Heisenbergs uncertainty principle to remind us that even the constituents of rocks are neither as predictable nor as dumb as these silly reductionisms. In the meantime, the ideal of knowledge as predictive power would ruin virtually every field it was applied to (including rocks), because its very methods would erase any creativity it would find, thus erasing precisely what was novel, significant, valuable, meaningful. Beyond the Pattern While pursuing predictive power is a problem, there is also a problem in pushing the twenty tenets too far. They are written to apply to holons in all the domains of evolution. All holons are compound individuals which transcend but include their predecessors. If we humans can evolve to incorporate mind, we can never cease being matter and organic life. This is the epistemological basis for why we can know the outer world; because it is in us. Further: there will be no knowledge, community or meditation when my body goes the way of all flesh because my parachute failed to open. The good thing about the twenty tenets is that they are not written in the It language of objective materialism. However, since they must cover all the realms of matter, life, mind, soul, and spirit, they are necessarily addressed to the lowest common denominator. The trouble with the twenty tenets is that, although we can never disregard them, they tell us little about our ideas, social life, or intuitions of Spirit. Since they must cover the It aspect of our compound individuality, they can tell us little about the I and We aspects. They dont tell us about the other things that life-holons or mind-holons can do, that go beyond their commonality with physical-holons. They inform us that evolution moves toward increasing differentiation and integration (tenet sixteen), but say nothing about reproduction, dreaming, falling in love, doing art, being curious, building ships, joining committees, writing constitutions, or being moved by Shakespeare. The twenty tenets, or dynamic systems theory in general, are in Wilbers words, the most fundamental tenets of all development, and therefore the least interesting, least significant. Table 2.--Wilbers Four Quadrants of Evolution INTERIOR-INDIVIDUAL (II) EXTERIOR-INDIVIDUAL (EI) . vis-log*. 13 .s/f3* . . formop*. 12 .s/f 2* . . conop*. 11 .struc/func 1* . . concepts. 10 .complex neo* . . symbols. 9 .neocortex* . . emotion. 8 .limbic sys* . . impulse. 7 .reptilian brain . . perception. 6 .neural cord . . sensation. 5 .neuronal organisms . . 4 .eukaryotes . . irritability. 3 .prokaryotes . . 2 .molecules . . prehension. 1 .atoms . . 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 B* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 . . physical-pleromatic. 1 .galaxies . . 2 .planets . . protoplasmic. 3 .gaia system . . vegetative. 4 .heterotrophic ecosystems . locomotive. 5 .societies with division . 6 .of labor . . uroboric. 7 .groups and . . typhonic. 8 .families . . archaic. 9 .tribes . . magic. 10 .tribal/village . . mythic. 11 .early st/emp* . . rational. 12 .nation/st* . . centa*. 13 .plan* . INTERIOR-COLLECTIVE (IC) EXTERIOR-COLLECTIVE (EC) ________________________________________________________________________ *Notes: B=common source or beginning; vis-log=vision-logic; struc/func and s/f=structure/functions as yet unnamed, currently under investigation; formop=formal operational thinking; conop=concrete operational thinking; complex neo=complex neocortex; neocortex=neocortex of triune brain; limbic sys=limbic system; early st/emp=early state/empires; nation/st=nation/states; plan=planetary; centa=centauric. The numbers 1-13 indicate increasing time periods extending out from a common beginning. Source: Wilber, Spirituality, 193. (adapted) Correlative Quadrants More particularly, the twenty tenets describe the exterior aspect of life, and have little to say about the interior. Wilber takes this into consideration and modifies The Big Three to include four quadrants covering the interior and exterior aspects of individual and collective holons. In Table 2 the I is located in the upper-left quadrant which deals with the interior development of the individual, (II). The We is found in the lower-left quadrant which maps the interior evolution of our collective life, understood in terms of cultural meanings, (IC). The It is divided between the outer or material aspects of the evolution of individual (upper-right, exterior-individual, EI) and societal (lower- right, exterior-collective, EC) structures. The arrangement of the table reflects tenets thirteen and fourteen, that holons co-evolve inseparably from their environments with which they are in continuous relational exchange. The table shows graphically the correlations at each stage or time period. For instance, connecting the aspects of epoch eleven suggests that individuals, whose average mode of consciousness reflected concrete operational thinking (II), which only became possible with the evolution of a complex neocortex in human beings (EI), shared a mythological world view with their culture (IC), which was embodied in the social structures of the early, state-like empires (EC). The tables distinctions between individual-collective and interior-exterior,  as well as the progression of the holarchies in strict adherence to the twenty tenets are all important and noteworthy. Other attempts often confuse and conflate categories which ends up yielding mistaken implications and conclusions. Typical holarchies presented by system theorists and ecologists, even sophisticated ones like Karl Popper, are arranged by increasing size and the concept of the web-of-life: For instance, subatomic particles, atoms, molecules, organells, cells, tissues, organ and nervous systems, humans, families, communities, societies, nations, and the ecosystem of the total biosphere. The laudable intention of such a presentation is to emphasize that the human life of mind and spirit depends on the biosphere, which in turn depends on the physiosphere. However, three troublesome issues immediately arise. 1) The hierarchy implies that families and nations are parts of the biosphere, when the truth is exactly the opposite. Human beings did not evolve first to become basic building blocks of Gaia. If all forms of humanity were destroyed, the biosphere would still be in sustainable shape, but not vice versa (tenet twelve). 2) Likewise, families and communities are not higher levels of individual persons, but their social environments. They are both on the same level, since if either were destroyed, they both would be. Erich Jantsch (Self-Organizing Universe) is the one contemporary theorist who maps out the co-evolution of individual holons (the micro) and collective holons (the macro) in which they are embedded. 3) Even Jantsh, however, correlates increasing evolution with size, which is only sometimes the case, and obscures the issue. Evolution is toward quality, not quantity. Bigger is not necessarily better. A deeper embrace of more levels of being and a wider identity is higher and more inclusive. In terms of size, fewer holons can evolve to embrace their larger number of component parts. While molecules are generally larger than atoms, and words larger than letters, a concept is not bigger than a symbol even though it envelopes it (tenet eight), and one value is not better than another because it takes up more space. These distinctions which tell us which way is up are important in avoiding category errors, such as reducing everything to the physical measures of the It domain. They save us from the Enlightenment error of thinking salvation comes from humans merely realizing their part in the larger interlocking span of life; a thought which results in the dehumanized humanism of having no real place for the subject which does the describing of the objective system it is a part of. The spiritual ideal of fitting into ones place supersedes that of realizing a greater depth which can embrace a wider compassion identified with more aspects of life. A Place of Their Own Wilber notes that it is because the quadrants are so intimately correlated, that aggressive reductionisms are attempted. This temptation must be resisted. A true, fair, and comprehensive analysis must attend to the four aspects of every holon, to its intentional (II), behavioral (EI), cultural (IC), and social (EC) manifestations. Each quadrant has its own methods, evidence, and validity claims appropriate to itself, even though it is permissible (though incomplete) to bring the methods of one quadrant to bear on subject matter of another. Habermas writes that: Correlative to the three fundamental functions of language [related to I, We, It], each elementary speech act can be contested under three different aspects of validity. The hearer can reject the utterance of a speaker by either disputing the truth of the proposition asserted in it (or of the existential presuppositions of its propositional content) [It], or the rightness of the speech act in view of the normative context of the utterance (or the legitimacy of the presupposed context itself) [We], or the truthfulness of the intention expressed by the speaker (that is, the agreement of what is meant with what is stated) [I]. . . . As soon as we conceive of knowledge as communicatively mediated, rationality is assessed in terms of the capacity of responsible participants in interaction to orient themselves in relation to validity claims geared to intersubjective recognition. Communicative reason finds its criteria in the argumentative procedures for directly or indirectly redeeming claims to propositional truth [It], normative rightness [We], subjective truthfulness and aesthetic harmony [I]. Exterior-Individual (EI) If I report an intuition of Spirit characterized by compassion for all, regardless of worldly status, that intuition will objectively register in neural activity, show up in blood chemistry, be reflected in bodily signs and posture, and influence my behavior in some manner. All these results manifest an exterior, and are observable in a monological way (a way that does not require dialogue with the other) through the senses or their extensions. The EI quadrant is the appropriate realm of behaviorism, neuralphysiology, biology, physics, etc. and empirical It language. Neutrality is appropriate. Exterior surfaces are not better or worse. They simple are. What does it do? How does it work? are the pertinent questions. The propositional truth of something can be investigated by anyone, regardless of their religious commitments. Just check the correspondence of a statement (map) with objective, consensual reality (the territory). Do other people intuit the Spirit as compassionately nondiscriminatory? Lets do a survey and count how many say so. Does an intuition of spiritual compassion lead to an observable difference in compassionate actions? Lets give an operational definition to compassionate actions and do a correlational study. Does the observable stimuli of sitting in worship lead to the observable response of intuiting and acting more compassionately? Lets check it out. Does ingesting pharmacological agents mimic the intuition of compassion? Lets experiment.  Interior-Individual (II) Every without (form) has its within, which can be characterized by consciousness in its widest meaning. Moving from the EI quadrant to the II is moving from the objective to the subjective, from what does it do? to what does it mean? While objective exteriors can be seen monologically, subjective, interior experience must be interpreted dialogically. You can literally see the surface of my brain and objectively record its neural activity during and after my intuition of compassionate Spirit. However, you do not know my interior mind. If you want to know the meaning of the intuition to me, I must tell you about it. Surfaces extend, but minds intend (Fichte). Obviously, notes Wilber, to say something is subjective is not to say it doesnt exist or cant be carefully studied. Psychodynamic psychotherapy, developmental psychology, consciousness studies, phenomenology, spiritual directors and more, have amassed a wealth of data and methods since at least Plato and Buddha on. There is definitely a subject who takes the givens of incoming stimuli from the material world and symbolically transforms them in unique ways to make them available to our consciousness, organizing our experience and expression in the process. Life is at least a co-creative act. However, if I share something of the internal meaning of my spiritual perception with you, it is possible that I am lying or am deceiving myself. Ricoeurs hermeneutics of suspicion and depth psychologys exploration of the unconscious might reveal a fuller story if I take myself, as my own text, under observation. The validity criterion here is not so much objective truth as subjective awareness and truthfulness. Is the map-maker trustworthy and sincere? The issue cannot be settled without remainder with objective It language and methods. It requires the tools of introspection and dialogical interpretation. Depth does not sit on the surface for all to see. Interior-Collective (IC) If we both report an intuition of Spirit, we do not necessarily know what the other means. We might transform the given of the Sacred differently, due to our different life-contexts. Here the issue is not so much the objective truth of our statements, or the subjective truthfulness of what we report, but whether we can come to mutual understanding with each other in an intersubjective manner. Theoretically, we should have a good chance of achieving a measure of mutual understanding because of the social-communal aspect of every mental-spiritual holon. Every individual holon (the micro) exists in relational exchange with its collective environment (the macro) at all levels of depth (tenet fourteen). Holons are always and everywhere characterized by agency (tenet two)-in-communion (tenet three). Psychology is always also social psychology. Sharing my insight into Spirit therefore might well have meaning to you because that meaning is itself sustained by a whole network of background practices and norms and linguistic structures existing in our shared culture. . . . [A] shared cultural worldspace [is] necessary for the communication of our meaning at all, and without [it] most (or even all) of my own private thoughts would be largely meaningless as well. The question here is not one of truth so much, nor even truthfulness but one of cultural fit, of the appropriateness or justness or fitness of my meanings and values with the culture that helps to produce them. My own individual meanings are not reducible to cultural fitness . . . but they do depend thoroughly on all the background contexts and cultural practices that allow me to form meaning in the first place. My thought-holon is inextricably situated in cultural contexts of relational exchange and intersubjective communications. . . . If my thought-holon does not culturally fit, I may be genius rising above conventions or I may be psychotic and totally out of touch with my fellows. . . . The [validity] criterion [for evaluating the issue] is not so much truth or truthfulness, but justness, [rightness], appropriateness: not whether my thought corresponds with a world of objects, nor whether I am being subjectively truthful, but whether I am intersubjectively in tune, appropriately meshed with the cultural worldspace that allows subjects and objects to arise in the first place. (Whether I agree or disagree with aspects of the culture, I have in all cases depended upon it to provide me with the capacity for intersubjective meaning in the first place.) As noted above, cultural worldspaces (each with its own sense of space-time, law and morality, cognitive style, self-identity, drives, motivation, pathology, and religious experience, etc.) evolve along with individual consciousness. Jean Gebser has been a noted pioneer in this area. Researchers in this quadrant seek to interpret, describe or reconstruct the meaning of a culture from within by entering into the shared depths, values, and worldviews. Shared worldviews are simply the inside feel of a social holon, the inside space of collective awareness. It is not just how I feel, it is how we feel. This is the realm of cultural or hermeneutical sociologists: The phenomenology of Peter Berger, the cultural anthropology of Mary Douglas, the structuralist program of Michael Foucault, the critical theory of Habermas, and the work of Charles Taylor, Clifford Geertz, Dilthey, Weber, Heidegger, Ricoeur, Gadamer; all those who seek to understand and identify intersubjective realities from the inside. As participant observers, the goal is to experience the culturally signified within the physical social signifiers, in the service of mutual understanding. To be able to say, I know what you mean, my lived experience (depth) must empathetically, intuitively feel into and resonate with that of the other. This is also the realm of philosophy and theology which reflect on issues of meaning, beliefs, and values in relation to particular communities. Exterior-Collective (EC) Individuals and communities are both embedded in concrete, material forms related to the tools, technology, production-distribution, and regulatory institutions of the political-economic world, the architectural styles and housing arrangements of our residential world, the educational structures of our learning world, and so forth. Our inner spiritual lives today are influenced and sustained by written, canonical scriptures, houses of worship, theological schools, ancient and contemporary religious texts, para-church organizations, and informal and/or underground networks of spiritual seekers. These are exterior realities that can be seen and studied empirically without any participatory source of information. They are the domain of the positivistic, structural-functional side of sociology (as opposed to the hermeneutical-cultural side of IC). Whatever I might be saying about the meaning of my spiritual intuitions, sociologists in the tradition of Parsons, Merton, Luhmann, Levi-Strauss, and the early Foucault (who go beyond the reductionistic, primitivization source theories of religion of Duerkheim, Weber, Marx, and Freud) are focused on reconstructing the function of my behavior in the general social system. Perhaps I am fostering social cohesion or solidarity. What is important is how I fit into the overall system and affect its self-organizing, autopoietic regime. The sociological analysis of what I do seeks to find explanatory principles based on naturalistic, empirical, observable variables. The validity criterion of the exterior-collective quadrant is not the truth of objects, the truthfulness of the subject, or the mesh of intersubjective understanding and meaning. It is the functional fit or the interobjective mesh of social systems. Decisions to ordain lay preachers as opposed to seminary graduates, or to build new churches as opposed to supporting house churches send physical, structural, economic ripples through the social system. However, this quadrant by itself is focused on the empirical question of How well would it work? not the value (IC) question of is it worthy to pursue in the first place? In terms of efficient integration within a collective system alone, fascism would recommend itself highly. Morals and meaning belong to the interior-collective realm. The exterior-collective realm provides necessary information concerning steering problems, and technical procedures required for system maintenance and expansion. Finding a cure for cancer, crime and the automobile tomorrow could be of spiritual value for many, but would have severe repercussions on the gross domestic product which would require massive restructuring of the economy. In pastoral care, the realization of the impact of social structures on human meaning, community, and behavior, and the need to restructure them, is moving the field to broaden from an emphasis on relational humanness in one-to-one encounters to include advocacy and support for relational justice in the political-economic arena. Table 3.--Emergent Geopolitical Systems Levels (Taylor) PLANETARY SYSTEM Federation of States Interstate Organizations Ecumenism, Internationalism, Automation, Electronic Transmission of Information, Einsteinian Science NATION-STATE SYSTEM Non-continuous Empire Federal State Unitary State Democracy Machine Technology, Transformation of Energy, Mechanical Transmission of Information, Newtonian Science. EMPIRE SYSTEM Continuous Empire Administrative Districts Special Purpose Town Theocracy Autocracy Metal Tools, Inorganic Energy, Integrated Economy, Writing VILLAGE SYSTEM Group of Villages Village Special-Purpose Tools, Animal Energy, Farming Economy, Ideograms KINSHIP SYSTEM Nomadic Hunting Territories Family-Clan-Tribe Multi-Purpose Stone Tools, Human Energy, Hunting Economy, Pictograms BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS ________________________________________________________________________ Source: Wilber, Spirituality, 202 (adapted) Wilber notes that evolutionary development holds in this quadrant as well as the others. The social holon of the family/group could have sustained the human triune brain indefinitely . . . but the human holon pushed beyond an environment of kinship ( or biospherically based) social holons such as the family and began also producing villages, towns, cities, states. . . . [There] was no compelling biological reason. But just as matter had pushed forth life, the self-transcendent drive within biology pushed forth something beyond biology, pushed forth symbols and tools that both created and depended upon new levels of social holons in which the users of symbols and tools could exist and reproduce themselves, but the reproduction was now the reproduction of culture through symbolic communication and not just the reproduction of bodies through sexuality. Kinship gave way to cultureship. . . . Once again, the lower had set the foundation and prepared the possibilities for (but did not determine) evolution in the higher. . . . Alastair Taylors sociocultural nonequilibrium systems model. . . maintains that each succeeding social holon builds upon the properties and societal experiences of the level(s) below and in turn contributes its own emergent qualities, which take the form of new technologies and societal structures, accompanied by new apperceptions of the human-environment relationship. We can discern progressive developments in complexity and heterogeneity)--all familiar concepts (all found in the twenty tenets). Interrelationships The thrust of allowing each quadrant a reality of its own is to emphasize that holons do not exist singly in particular quadrants. They manifest in four inseparable ways, in four quadrants, reflecting four different realms of validity. Honoring and attending to each realm enriches the contextual field of knowledge. As suggested above, going beyond affirming the correlation and dependence of all the realms on each other to reducing one to another, is a prescription for disaster. For instance, Wilber argues that a number of eco-holistic systems thinkers end up absolutizing the biosphere and the exterior-collective quadrant through their championing of functional fit for bringing harmony to our ecologically endangered situation. This move reduces the interior realms to the exterior, seals off the It from integration with the We and the I, and leaves itself cold, abstract and powerless. It forgets that collective mutual understanding and agreement (IC) must be reached on how to proceed. It ignores the truth that the desire to heal and cooperate emerges out of individual growth and transformation (II). Table 4.--Quadrants and Validity Claims QUADRANT GENERAL REALM VALIDITY CLAIM Exterior-Individual Behavioral Objective Truth/Propositional Representational Correspondence Interior-Individual Intentional Subjective Awareness/Truthfulness/Integrity Interior-Collective Cultural Intersubjective Understanding/Rightness/ Cultural Fit Exterior-Collective Social Interobjective Structural Functional Fit/ Social Systems Theory Web-Mesh ________________________________________________________________________ Source: Wilber, Integral Vision, 13-14 (adapted) When social reductionists hurl epithets such as escapist, opiate, illusory, false consciousness at therapists and spiritual directors, they miss the point that going within ones subjectivity aims at going beyond ones egocentric preoccupations to a wider, deeper, more inclusive perspective. This is the exact, opposite direction from narcissism as Piaget, Hartmann and others have noted. And, it is crucial. Todays nations must voluntarily surrender some of their sovereignty in order to foster world citizenship by entering into the global discourse and non-coercive action needed to protect the environment, regulate world finances, and maintain a semblance of peace. This will not happen easily if a nations citizenry can not develop beyond tribal, ethnocentric, or mythic-imperial consciousness. Likewise, when healers assume that supporting new cognitive-emotional potentials in individuals is all that needs to be done, they exile their efforts to pitiful isles of irrelevance. New worldviews (II) must be translated into viable cultural visions (IC), and then embodied in social institutions (EC) in order to have a chance of affecting collective changes in behavior (EI). Transformation, change, and revolution arise from within, but must always be embedded without. This issue is often reflected in the spirituality and pastoral literature within discussions of contemplation and social action, or pastoral care and society. The Higher Realms The stages of human consciousness most commonly acknowledged are well mapped by Piaget, and often taught in pastoral care courses. In sensorimotor awareness (0-2) the world appears archaic or fused with oneself. Preoperational awareness (2-7) views the world magically, more as other, but as still organized around our own lives, and influencable by our actions. The child with concrete operational awareness (7-11) senses the world mythologically, as influencable by others. For one who has developed formal operational awareness (11+) the world appears in a rational-scientific way as subject to impersonal laws. Transcending or developing through these stages happens in accordance with the twenty tenets and results in greater degrees of differentiation, autonomy, interiority, consciousness and embrace. The partialities of the previous stages are negated, but the basic structure preserved and added to. A new capacity to form rules and take roles, for instance, preserves previous capacities to form images, symbols, and concepts. The evolving child is not creating new worlds, but increasing its capacity to be aware of worlds already in place. Even though a preoperational child is awash in the realities of a concrete operational world, until it grows into it, it will consistently say that a tall thin glass holds more water than a short wide one, even though they are poured back and forth numerous times. Unlike many theorists, Wilber values the evolution of culture to the ascendancy of the rational, beginning in the 16th century, made possible through the new technologies which altered the relative importance of brawn and brain. Rationality allows for more possibilities, feelings, differences, and perspectives since it goes beyond (but does not leave behind) somatic dispositions and conventional rules. It stimulated the possibility of the womens rights and anti-slavery movements, for instance. However, rationality has its own problems. It can be co-opted in the service of unconscious desires and mythological structures. It has never fulfilled its promise of producing a global transformation organized by the rational recognition of what human beings have in common beyond their variant religious, national, and tribal identities. After happily explaining away the gods, reason finds itself in an existential malaise, with no tranquilizing consolations, facing the Void, questing for an undisclosed meaning. It is important for Wilber that we recognize with such thinkers as Gebser, Habermas, Fowler, Broughton, Selman, Maslow, Bruner, Flavell, Arieti, Cowan, Arlin, and Loevinger that there is a stage beyond Piagets formal operational reason. It has been variously termed dialectical, integrative, creative-synthetic, integral aperspectival, network logic, or vision-logic. Vision-logic goes beyond the ability of reason to see and name different perspectives. It is able to integrate perspectives in a larger vision, keep contradictions and paradoxes in play, unify opposites, and think non-linearly. It holds global consciousness or identity as a subjective, interior structure, not simply as a rational, debatable belief. Beyond vision-logic Wilber maps out further stages of growth recognized in both the West and the East: The psychic stage represented by Emersons nature mysticism, the subtle seen in Teresa of Avilas deity mysticism, and the causal reflected in Meister Eckharts formless mysticism. The importance of these stages for spiritual writers generally, and Wilber in particular, is the belief that positive growth toward such values as wholeness, compassion, harmony, justice, and peace necessitates growing the subject; not simply controlling the object. Attempting to control behavior through propaganda and/or force, even if that propaganda is for a well-intentioned, worldcentric consciousness, is a different order of intervention than providing the practices and supports which enable people to intuitively grasp the interconnectedness of global life themselves. Mystical or direct spiritual experience relates to the higher reaches of the interior-individual quadrant (II). Consistent with his view of evolutionary development in each quadrant, Wilber is quite concerned that spiritual experiences be critically evaluated in terms of which stage of development they reflect. Pre/Trans Fallacy In the Atman Project Wilber proposes the Pre/Trans Fallacy. While he can affirm the stage appropriateness of any experience, Wilber does not want to confuse or conflate a state of ignorant, pre-personal, infantile, material fusion with a trans-personal state of transcendent union and ecstatic oneness. He proposes the need for a critical-normative sociology of religion, which he terms Developmental Structuralism, capable of structurally analyzing various religious expressions according to degree of structuralization, differentiation-integration, organization, functional capacity, and so on through a dozen variables. He agrees with Habermas (Communication and the Evolution of Society) that this would provide a step beyond the absolutized cultural relativism of phenomenological-hermeneutics, one capable of specifying the larger inclusiveness, or partiality, of one stage in relation to another, while not judging phase-specific propriety. When Wilber considers Freud and Jung in relation to the Pre/Trans Fallacy, he sees them erring in opposite directions. Freud reduces all transpersonal phenomena to prepersonal regression, and thus preserves the rational worldspace against the black tide of the mud of occultism. Jung correctly notes the trans-rational character of transpersonal states of consciousness. However, he then elevates much prepersonal, indissociated, undifferentiated, regressive phenomena to a glorified, romanticized, spiritual status, simply because they are non-rational. Wilber embraces a type of Wesleyan third-way perspective in suggesting Freud and Jung are both half right and half wrong. Language Language as constitutive. Numerous contemporary thinkers are immediately alarmed at the suggestion of any type of hierarchical structure which would presume to make critical judgments. Objections are raised that claims to higher realms of awareness are merely subjective, private, and cannot be publicly validated. All experience is mediated through language and therefore its meaning is context-bound and relative. Theodore Jennings, for instance, argues the case for the linguisticality of all experience. Following Saussure, he notes that language does not just mirror or name experience, but structures, produces--is constitutive of it. Following Lacan, he includes the unconscious as also structured by language. Thus, even a felt sense, body posture, gesture, or pregnant, inarticulate silence is organized or mediated by language broadly conceived. Spiritual growth, therefore, cannot legitimate itself by reference to special experience available only to a minority, but must be possible by simple virtue of human participation in language. Faith has no native tongue other than the one natives speak. Words and referents. To say that a spiritual experience cannot be captured in words for everyone is a cheap shot according to Wilber. The same could be said of any experience. Saussure noted that all linguistic signs have two components. The material component is the signifier; the written symbol or spoken sound. The signified is what is evoked in our experience when the given of the signifier is symbolically transformed and made available to consciousness. Neither the signifier nor the signified composes the actual referent. The actual referent does not absolutely determine the signified. This is because the meaning of the relationship between the signifier and the signified holons is conferred by their context, which entails an infinite chain of associations of whole/parts which have left their memory traces in the system. A surplus of meaning. So, if my wifes friend tells her to relax since he can assure her that his barking dog will not bite, there are obviously different meanings in play, because she does not relax. Obviously words or signifiers can not convey without remainder the total experience of a dog. This is also true of making love, seeing sunsets, listening to Bach, being assaulted, riding a bike, drinking, or praying. If a picture of Central Park is worth a thousand descriptive words, how many is an actual walk through the park worth? An overlap of meaning. Even if what is evoked or signified by the signifier dog is highly unique and relative to their particular histories and memories (II), my wife and her friend still share common linguistic structures and cultural backgrounds (IC), so that they can indeed agree that they are talking about a common reality. For them to have a discussion about dogs would not be meaningless because there are overlaps or points of shared experience which allows them to call to mind similar-enough signifieds to be able to communicate. Disjunctions in meaning. However, if my wife had led a sheltered life on the Isle of Cats and never encountered a dog, the conversation would be much more limited. If an argument ensued about the reality or nature of dogs, the consensus of the greater community would enter the discussion. If she had been so traumatized by a dog at an early age that she went into a terror response at the first sight or mention of a dog, she would not be able to enter the give and take of a discussion which would have any chance of modifying her chain of associations and/or broadening her sense of meaning. Likewise, if she were a young child with preoperational awareness who was fearful because she had been attacked by a dog, she could hear the literal signifiers, but she would not have the developmental, cognitive ability to understand explanations like, Dogs dont always attack. When you got near the dogs food dish, it was as if the dog thought you had changed from someone friendly into somebody who wanted to steal his food. As if language is like a foreign language, which will not become meaningful until the child evolves to formal operational awareness. The communication of meaning. Signifiers like in Christ or in the Spirit share the same general predicament as dogs and cats. Knowledge is communicatively mediated, as Habermas suggests. To communicate valid meaning would simply require dialogue partners seeking intersubjective understanding. Both would offer their subjective awareness and truthfulness to ascertain if there was enough overlap in their experiences to say, Yes, I know what you mean. Perhaps mutual understanding of compassionate spirit cannot be reached because the cultural, religious backgrounds are too diverse. Still, it is theoretically possible for the non-understanding partner to chose to be immersed in the world of the other until understanding arises. Perhaps a Christian and a Buddhist agree that to talk of the compassion of Christ and the compassion of the Buddha are similar; but as they continue to talk, they realize there are also differences. Or there can be a developmental issue in play. Two Christians might agree too quickly that they know the meaning of living in Christ, but as they talk, it is clear that one means it in a magic-mythical sense and the other in a transpersonal sense. The transpersonal believer could understand the meaning of the magic-mythical, but not vice versa, (tenets 7 & 8). These senses can be objectively delineated and validated by intersubjective communities of the same depth. It is similar to mathematics. A thirteen year old grounded in formal operational thinking might say, I know how to use numbers to add and multiply, but I dont understand this talk of the square root of negative nine to the third power at all. Even though no one has ever seen the square root of negative nine to the third power (since it is in the II realm), there is a community of mathematicians who do know what it means, and who could invite him into their world so that he could know also. They could also confirm or dis-confirm what his fourteen year old brother tells him such things mean. However, if the boy is a nine year old still immersed in concrete operational thinking, the community of mathematicians has to say, we can tell you what it means, but it will take awhile longer, since you need to expand your capacity for thought, and we have to teach you some other basics first. The general point is that words function to communicate meaningfully if there is a common enough overlap of experience culturally and developmentally. Experience Experience as organized. Pastoral theologians are prone to jump quickly to an appeal to experience to adjudicate any and all communication problems. This jump is in line with modernitys attempt since Kant, Schliermacher, and Wittgenstein to find functional ways of referencing God-talk in everyday experience. Jennings warns against making this move in too fast and facile a manner. Experience is not prior to or more basic than linguisticality. Language is the structured or patterned character of this pervasive linguisticality that organizes our experience, including our subjectivity or interiority, thus putting inner experience in question as the other or opposite of objectifying, abstract language. Emotions or other experiences are not religious in themselves, although people, their worldviews, and interactions may be. We cannot separate the question of the experiential referent of god from the question of the linguisticality of experience or from the problem of the function and structure of particular discourse. Religious linguistic experience. However, the fallacy of misplaced concretion can be avoided by attending carefully to the character of experience itself as a linguistic experience, and then the god-language that arises from it. This means following the post-Kantian move of attending to the individual as the subject of experience. Attendant to this move, God is not considered an object of experience, but a presupposition or category constitutive of experience. The birth and death of meaning. The linguistic experience of God comes in relation to the ordering, organizing, or mediating function of language which structures or controls experience. On the one hand, these functions are good. They give birth to experiences of meaning. We know ourselves through symbols. Language is life. The problem with language is that it can lead us to know too much or too little. The creative structures of language can not only organize things into our world, they can rigidify, and organize things out. In Piagets terms, we can risk assimilating new realities into what we already know, whether it is a good fit or not, instead of accommodating what we know to new realities. Thinkers such as Heidegger, Bultmann, and Buri write of the danger of subjective existence becoming alienated from itself through objectifying language. Lacan warns that language is so tied to the unconscious and dynamics of desire that the disappearance of truth as parole vide is virtually guaranteed to be expressed in the self-deceit of parole pleine. Once the signifying chain has marked the subject, death has entered his life. Ricoeur argues that live metaphors which are invented in the moment to extend meaning, can become dead metaphors precisely through their acceptance and repetition. In his study of modern language and fiction, Allen Thiher offers the following summary statement of the power of language to bring about both the birth and death of meaning: Language is, as the German novelist Dieter Wellershoff puts it, split between an experienceless general speech and a dark, fragmentary murmuring of dream. Language can thus be experienced as a form of splitting, isolating from some authentic realm of essential concerns. But this view is hardly the only one. The belief in languages autonomy can also give rise to an often joyous affirmation of fictions power, as language, to define the world and hence reality. . . . Not the least interesting aspect of contemporary culture is that many believe simultaneously that language articulates the world and that language cannot reach the world. Irruptions of new meaning. It is in the context of experience organized in an overdetermined, unyielding, deadening way, that Jennings argues that spiritual experiences can be understood as a discontinuous event which ruptures the previous organization of experience, allowing for the accommodation of new realities, and requiring a reorganization of experience. The rupture represents the Other in the growth of language through encounter, because it goes over-against language, putting in question habitual, conventional ways of perceiving, patterning, and participating in reality. Theologically, in the tradition of Ebner, Buber, Barth, and Ebeling the irrupting experience-event can be understood in terms of God as Word-event. God is the Word reflected, but not captured, in the memory traces of the event in which someone knows themselves to be addressed in a new way. The address opens new arenas of experience and being through the response called for. The inbreaking Word. God-talk is a way of articulating the nature of the Word-event. Expletive-predicate uses of God correspond most closely to the character of the event as a wounding or tearing of the previous fabric of understanding, and concentrate on the acts of God. Compassion overcame me. I knew my neighbor was there for me in a way I never could before, even though he was Bosnian. Nominative uses of God tend to heal over the scarring, renew coherence and order, distance themselves from the immediacy and particularity of the event, and concentrate more on the general being of God. God is love. Word-events are elusive in that they stand both within and over against language. Jennings writes that the description of such experiences is necessarily indirect, pointing our attention in a certain direction using the memory traces left from the rupture. The two main categories of traces are radical affections and basic metaphors, a double lexicon generated by the experience-event which provides some terminology for pinpointing its location within language. The affections point to the subjective of my experience of, and the metaphors to the objective of my experience of. In general, a Word-event is a founding Word, or creative Word where God was present, when the existence of the one who experienced it is qualified, determined in a new way, resulting in new affections and new metaphors. Jennings maintains we need criteria for further distinguishing such events as religious. He suggests the three criteria of transcendence (a sense of being encountered from without in an astonishing, mysterious way that resists articulation), importance (a reorganization of the ordered world that habitually governs our perception and expression), and the generic (available to anyone who participates in language). Since there are an irreducible variety of experiences associated with God, Jennings argues we should not attempt to reduce them to one. It is better to group experiences according to family resemblance and apply the criteria to these regions of generic experience. Jennings examines three regions. In the ontological region he outlines experiences of unity, peace, and courage. The aesthetic region reveals experiences of adoration and light, wonder, awe, order, and joy. The historic region yields experiences of hope and love. Weaving in W. Paul Jones work in Theological Worlds at this point helps clarify that Jennings three criteria could just as well describe an experience resulting in an obsessio or lived problem, as it could an epiphania or lived answer. Being abandoned, raped, unjustly arrested, discriminated against, thrown in a concentration camp, or fired the day after you sign a mortgage could also qualify as transcendent, important, generic experiences. Jones chooses to group overlaps or family resemblances of religious experiences around the dialectic of common obsessios and epiphanias, which is the course followed in chapter seven below. Elizabeth Johnson agrees that our intuition of being arises from both negative and positive experiences. . . . Being is darkly surmised in contrast to the suffering, as what should be there but is lacking. Wilber would want to keep in view his multiple criteria for distinguishing developmental levels of experience when evaluating epiphanias. The nurturing Word. Others recognize that there are chronic affections and metaphors in addition to radical ones, and Spirit can work through them as well. Life cannot be lived in continual revolution, as Jennings himself notes. Jacob Firet, Stanley Hauerwas as well as numerous feminist thinkers underline the positive aspects of communal nurture, sustaining relationships, and stability. Ann Baranowski, for instance, maintains that ritual does not simply or always provide a setting for the inbreaking of new, transformative, experience-events. Ritual also provides temporal patterns, governed by formal constraints, which effortlessly and unconsciously build important cognitive structures that meet the criteria of transcendence, importance, and the generic. For instance, a mother faithfully tucking in a child every night builds basic trust over time. Reciting prayers of thanksgiving in every worship service induces a disposition to think of gratitude as an integral part of the religious life. William Hordern and Theodore Runyon help clarify further that for both Luther and Wesley the nature and importance of experience is never limited to feelings. Feelings are intimately bound with beliefs (II), which are developed in communal dialogue and encounter (IC), always in relation to institutionalized rituals and scriptures (EC), and known by their fruits in external behaviors (EI). Beyond words. One area of continued dispute in the language-experience dialogue is the status of mystical experience which perennial philosophers say is characterized by pure consciousness, and is the common core of cross-cultural expressions of mysticism. Steven T. Katz has strongly assailed this position arguing that there are no pure, unmediated experiences unshaped by language, culture, tradition, and other factors. Therefore, there can be no direct experience of absolute reality and no common core. Robert K. C. Forman has countered that there is communal confirmation of unmediated experiences, which are the exception to the general rule, and that experience should take precedent over theory. Larry Short provides a reconciling perspective that sees the disagreement as based on a false dilemma. Mystical experience can be mediated and still have a common core. . . . Both groups err in restricting their discussion of mediation to the sociolinguistic. Mediation in general is the process by which some set of factors stand between and constitute the medium which enables the movement of mind from a signifier to a signified. However, to argue that mediating factors necessarily distort our experience is to gloss over the point that they are the preconditions for experiencing anything at all. Also, there are mediating factors which are not the products of language, but underlie the very possibility of language. For instance, there is the pre-linguistic neurological equipment we come with that Wittgenstein noted, the inherent dispositions to exploratory behavior and human interaction, as well as the Kantian categories of time, space, and causality. When spiritual practices which involve dance, chant, meditation, paradox, ritual, or fasting function to break down linguistic structures which automatically connect signifiers and signified, the non-linguistic mediators still remain. Thus, there is a common core experience of being in the world without language, which is not extraordinary epistemologically, although it is experientially. Of course, when the memory-trace of this experience-beyond-words is reflected upon in order to attempt communication, the conventional symbols of a specific, relative cultural are immediately employed. Also, there is nothing in non-linguistic experience that makes it automatically religious. If the non-linguistic experience was reached through spiritual practices embedded in a particular spiritual tradition, that would help dispose its interpretation toward positive religious value. Finally, there is the phenomenon of levels of mystical experience, some mediated by traditions which give rise to specific visions of the Buddha or Jesus, and some which are later reported as an unmediated, non-dual realization of oneness or Suchness. Science Intelligibility and Meaning However the intricacies of the linguistic debate evolve, Arthur Peacocke argues that the form and intent of religious language should stay in dialogue with that of science. Western Christianity was the first religion to pick up the gauntlet thrown down by the Enlightenment to respond to the challenge of modern science within the canons of reason. To drop it by arguing for two different language games which forever separate the two would betray contemporary searchers who seek both intelligibility and meaning. It is also a repudiation of the classic tradition which always sought intelligibility within the thought forms of its time; for instance Augustine and the Cappadocian Fathers using Neo-Platonic categories, and Aquinas integrating Aristotelian ones. Jennings agrees that theology is a scientific discipline involved in the practical task of acquiring an understanding of our life and world . . . not unlike history, literary criticism, ontology, or ethics and shares these features at least also with the so-called natural sciences. Critical Realism More in particular, Peacocke envisions the dialogue between science and theology revolving around the common perspective of critical realism. Both disciplines need to affirm the reality of that to which they refer. Reality is that to which we cannot avoid relating in our experiments and experience. Causal theories of reference, of course, are always embedded in a specific history of reference, in a continuous, linguistic community stretching back to the initiating discoveries and discourse. Both disciplines use fundamentally metaphorical, revisable language while nevertheless referring. Both give knowledge of the world beyond its accessible, empirical manifestation. Both build models to explicate their respective experiences, and both seek the authority of intersubjective consensus. Mutual interaction Furthermore, Peacocke understands science and theology as mutually interactive approaches to different domains of the same reality. Theologically, it is consistent to assume that the Creator would be revealed in the creation (Romans 1). In his overall approach, Peacocke echoes many of Wilbers themes: Scientific knowledge of the natural world has more and more shown it to consist of a hierarchy of systems in levels of organization, each successive member of which is a whole constituted of parts. . . . The science pertinent to each level may well develop non-reducible concepts of its own appropriate and relevant to the specific behaviors, relations and properties that can be seen only at that level. . . . . . . When human beings are . . . experiencing the presence and activity of God . . . they are operating at a level in or vector of, the hierarchy of complexity that is more integrative than any of the levels or vectors studied by the individual natural, human and social sciences. . . . . . . This may indeed by the proper placement for theology when we consider ultimate ontological relationships, the relation of the Being of God to all other derived being. . . . . . . It may well be that theology should be regarded as an exploration of the ultimate meaning of all levels -- that is, as an attempt at interpreting the significance of the various levels of natural reality in the total scheme of things. . . . We encounter here that difficult requirement of a fusion of the concepts of transcendence and immanence. Scientific Method Regardless of the relative placement of theology and science, Wilber concurs that contemplative, spiritual teachings of higher realms of awareness, love, identity, reality, self, and truth must be non-dogmatic in relating to the claims of reason; reason which requires evidence based on experimental methods open to all. Much teaching from the spiritual traditions is scientific in any meaningful sense of the word. Thomas Kuhn notes that science proceeds by way of exemplary injunctions; agreed upon practices and methods for disclosing data which constitute a paradigm. A paradigm is not identified with shifting theories which conceptualize data, a point academics often miss. Rather, a paradigm makes real progress through generating knowledge from a sequence of practices which involve: 1) An injunction: If you want to know this, do this. 2) An awareness, illumination, or apprehension of the data thus disclosed, and 3) a verification of the data through checking with others who have also undertaken the first two stages, for purposes of communal confirmation or refutation. Contemplative Science Contemplative traditions have always come first and foremost with a set of injunctions in hand. A spiritual statement such as, We are in God and God is in us might be intended as a help for teaching or edification. However, it is not merely a rational statement meant for philosophical debate. It is an inadequate, somewhat poetic description of a direct apprehension or illumination of a datum. The datum was gained through the experimental method of employing the prescribed practices to develop the requisite cognitive tools for entering into the worldspace where an interior perception of the signified could emerge, and then checking it with others. Although the practices often take years to master, anyone is free to follow the injunctions, and check their own apprehensions with that of the community of the same depth, which means contemplative disclosures are open to the fallibilist criteria of all genuine knowledge. Theodore Jennings makes a similar case for verification through following experiential injunctions: To say that such experience is possible for us because we are human does not mean that we necessarily have such an experience. . . . To make our analysis of experience plausible, however, it will be necessary to show that we are capable of these experiences. . . . . . . Any phenomenology is experimental in character. It is an attempt to direct our attention to our experience. If the directions supplied are too vague or are imprecise, we will miss the experience. On the other hand if the instruments and directions are not employed . . . it is not to be expected that the description will be recognized. Religion Religious Definitions As suggested earlier, events which rupture our normal ways of organizing our experience and cause us to transform our language-experience structure are not necessarily religious. It is [best] to reserve the term religious for particular ways of valuing, articulating, and interpreting these events. The term religion is notoriously resistant to attempts to clearly and persuasively define it. . . . [Experiences that rupture and reorganize our language-experience] may be given religious meaning when they are valued and interpreted in accordance with such a communal set of narratives and rites which identify them as the presence of the Sacred in the world. Wilber notes that religion is notoriously resistant to definition because there are at least a dozen, different, major, legitimate definitions in use originating from the sciences of the different quadrants, which too often go unspecified, thereby leading to much troubling confusion. Wilber lists nine possibilities in Table 5 and refers to them by number when necessary. In terms of his developmental structuralism, he believes that RDs 8 and 9 can be used for horizontal and vertical scales of a graph which can evaluate the relative position of various religious expressions. Religious Imagination Although there can be many helpful definitions of religion, if they are clearly delineated and stated, Jennings offers an approach that integrates the above theses that experience is organized through the way the subject symbolically transforms raw input, and that religious holons manifest in all four quadrants. Following Langer and Cassirer, he bases his approach on a theory of the imagination. Table 5.--Wilbers Multiple Religious Definitions (RDs) RD 1. Religion as non-rational engagement: Here religion might or might not be considered meaningful, but is definitely not rational, scientific, empirical cognition. RD. 2. Religion as extremely meaningful or integrative engagement: This is a functional view that sees the seeking of meaning, integration, truth, etc. as religious. Here it is consistent to say Science was that researchers religion. Money was her religion. RD 3. Religion as an immortality project: This is the view of religion as a wishful, defensive compensating belief, created in order to assuage insecurity/anxiety. This view can extend beyond classical theological beliefs to say that science does for the rational ego exactly what myth does for the childish ego, and magic does for the infantile ego--helps to veil the apprehension of ultimate and inescapable mortality by providing a belief system to hang on to. RD 4. Religion as evolutionary growth: Sophisticated systems such as Hegels or Aurobindos use religion as a term for the general transformative drive that leads one to die to one level of being in order to find increasingly higher ones. RD 5. Religion as fixation/regression: This is the common derogatory view of religion as childish, pre-rational, illusional, magical, mythical wish fulfillment. RD 6. Exoteric religion: This view refers to the outward ritual, forms, and beliefs that surround a particular religious system. RD 7. Esoteric religion: This refers to the higher, inward, and/or advanced aspects of religious practice, with the proviso that such practices culminate in, or at least have as goal, mystical experience. RD 8. Legitimate religion: This is religion that primarily validates the providing of good mana and the avoidance of taboos; that is, providing units of meaning on the one hand and immortality symbols on the other. Degrees of legitimacy refer to a horizontal scale; more legitimate means more integrative-meaningful within that level. RD 9. Authentic religion: This is religion that primarily validates transformation to a particular dimension-level deemed to be most centrally religious. Degrees of authenticity refer to a vertical scale of the actual transformation delivered. More authentic means more capable of reaching a higher level (and not merely integrating the present level.) ____________________________________________________ Source: Johanson, Hierarchical Approach, 13 Imagination Imagination here designates that middle or mediating function that transforms the givens of existence and reality in such a way to make them available to awareness (awareness as the hallmark which distinguishes human-beingness from the mere thereness of a rock or the aliveness of a cat.) Reasoning is always a tertiary reflection on the images and symbols that the imagination produces. There is no direct or unmediated intercourse between reflection and reality. It is only by way of the imagination that existence is given both expression and representation. Humans are more fundamentally animal symbolicum than animal rationale according to Cassirer. For Ricoeur, the symbols gives rise to thought. Unlike objective reasons demand for separation between subject and object, the imagination tends to hold them together, and does not usually separate the emotional and passionate how of awareness from the what or object of awareness. The products of imaginative knowledge are more immediate and bodily based. The imagination is the transformer (not transmitter), map-maker, or active, creative filter which both organizes experience and gives it emotional meaning, import, and value through the affections and metaphors mentioned above. It normally operates below consciousness, organizing our thinking and feelings and actions before we think, feel, or move. Individual The most general, everyday, and miraculous imaginative act is that of seeing or perception. Bio-physical givens of force fields, photons, neurons, and chemical reactions are transformed into trees, children, and omelets, constructing a world of vision. The reality or otherness of the world is encountered, creatively organized, and represented to awareness through image formation. Likewise, Freud taught that a true understanding of humanity was possible, not simply through rational reflection, but through investigation of the products of the imagination, especially the dream which symbolically transforms hidden desires into awareness. Jung added that dream images can represent and express impulses to healing, the wisdom of the collective, and a teleological summoning. Both camps teach us again, that the imagination can conceal and distort reality, as well as mediate it. Reality remains an objective referent continually pressing against inadequate mediations, and toward greater connectedness to consciousness. A final, general, universal act of the imagination is that of speaking, which makes us truly human as selves-in-relation. As outlined above, language is not a passive naming of perceptions, but actively evokes, shapes, and conveys the interiority of the speaker to self and others. Language meshes with memory, anticipation, and schematic-gestalt structures to form core organizing beliefs which become the central symbolic transformers which organize our experience. Here language becomes synonymous with the symbolic transformation of the given and the linguisticality of experience, which is now being considered in terms of imaginative function. Perhaps the central task of imaginative transformation through language is to use the core organizing beliefs as the basis for what Andrew Lester calls a core narrative. Life cannot be lived or interpreted piecemeal and chaotically. There must be a story line, a central interpretive theme, a grand narrative to provide a human identity which can organize, make sense out of, bring coherence, pattern, connectedness, and meaning to the multiple mini-stories and contexts within contexts, and kaleidoscopic arrays of possible human experiences; what William James called a potential blooming, buzzing confusion. A human core narrative must be inherently historical. Intentions, motives, and passions must make sense in terms of temporality; the lived experience of past memories, present experience, and future anticipations, or what Kierkegaard termed necessity, freedom, and possibility. Researchers note that children indeed register, and begin this crucial process of organizing experiences prior to verbalization, and some say prior to birth. Who the child is will never be able to be quantified or intuited from lists of facts, roles, functions, or characteristics, but only from learning the story she constructs to weave these things, along with her memories, hopes, fears, sufferings, and enjoyments, into a meaning-full whole. Cultural Seeing, dreaming, and speaking are all learned and developed through interaction. There is a definite individual, subjective stamp to these imaginative acts (II), but image formation is a cultural-social accomplishment (IC & EC). The political and social imagination of a community (IC) orients people, structures, and sustains their life together (EC). The cohesion of the group (without which human life is impossible) derives from mutual participation in shared images, symbols, and in the narratives and principles which elaborate them. Life stories interpenetrate. . . . The story of a self cannot be told without the stories of other selves. The creations of individual artists evoke much more harmonic or dissonant resonance in others than theories of the autonomous self would predict. In science it is the imaginative leap to the non-empirical, creative paradigm with the greatest aesthetic qualities of simplicity, suggestiveness, and harmony that orders and delineates the field of scientific inquiry in a communal manner. Philosophers generally reflect systematically on all these regions of image formations. More particularly, under the influence of figures as diverse as Cassirer, Wittgenstein, Russell, Heidegger, and Ricouer, philosophy is increasingly hearing the summons to a reflection upon the linguistic and symbolic character of human experience. As with the individual imagination, it is clear that imaginative cultural representations of life, such as national narratives, can distort and conceal as well as make manifest. They can also function teleologically to heal or improve. Religious The sacred. Jennings follows Eliade and those who argue that it is the presence and power of the sacred in conjunction with the human world that is the given symbolically transformed by the religious imagination; the reality to which we cannot avoid relating. As with every other example of transformation, the only access to the sacred is through the products of the imagination in its images, symbols, myths, and narratives, which both mediate and transform the reality of the sacred, but are not that reality itself. Biblically speaking, no one can look directly at God. Divine proclamation always goes through a messenger: Thus sayeth the Lord. Thus viewed, religion manifests itself as the representation and response to the manifestation of the sacred in the midst of the profane. The representation of the manifestation of the sacred in myth and symbol is one which tends to gather together the various dimensions and regions of human experience and imagination and to knit them together by virtue of the common and binding thread of the sacred . . . in a fabric of interwoven significance and value. This is why it is tempting to locate the nature of religion in some one of these regions, individual, social, economic, natural, or cosmic. In the mythic universe of meaning each of them is so tied to the others that it may seem to be the key to the whole. That, however, to which the religious imagination points as the special source of this unity is not one of these regions but the holy or sacred itself constituting no independent region of experience alone but imbuing each and all with its sustaining power. The symbols. Religious symbols, along with the rest of language, are not arbitrary labels. When they function authentically, they mediate, convey, make present, and effective that to which they also point. They invoke the reality which brought them into being, while simultaneously evoking the reality of our existence in response (faith); always marrying the infinite represented with the finite through which the mediation comes. They relate the various regions of an otherwise fragmented experience to one another by virtue of the presence of that which is their ground. Now this means that religious expression cannot be other than symbolic. It is not reducible to language about the world, to language about existence, or to language about the being of God. . . . To replace this manifold of meaning with some one level of meaning is to utterly divest it of its capacity for mediation. There is, as Tillich rightly asserts, no substitute for the use of symbols and myths: they are the language of faith. C. S. Lewis underlines the capacity of religious symbols and metaphors to mediate. It would not be helpful if metaphoric language could be translated into the more objective, descriptive, abstract, propositional truth of exterior It language. The more intuitive, relational, participative knowledge by acquaintance of I-We language would be lost. As Emilio Betti suggests, equating personal understanding with scientific knowledge of a physical object would be like claiming to understand a Beethoven symphony by mapping its sound-waves on an oscilloscope. Notice which of the following language-uses most effectively conveys and makes present the truth of coldness. Scientific language: It was 1.5 degrees Celsius. Ordinary descriptive language: It was very cold. Poetic language: Ah, bitter chill it was! The owl for all his feathers was a-cold; The hare limped trembling through the frozen grass, And silent was the flock in wholly fold: Numbd were the Beadsmans fingers. While all language is ultimately metaphorical, poetic language obviously uses more signifiers which call into play more memory traces and contexts, and thus a richer signified connection to the referent reality. The metaphorical parables of Jesus, The Kingdom of Heaven is like a farmer who. . . are irreducible in their power to interpret or disclose the truth of the hearers situation in the world in relation to the Sacred. . . . .The moment we try to state the truth embodied in myth [including parable] in conceptual-verbal form, we get abstraction. It is only while receiving the myth as a story that you experience the principle concretely, Lewis says. The story of Job in the Bible, for example, though it may be based on historical fact, contains more universal truth as myth than can possibly be stated in any purely literal understanding. . . .The Reality embodied in myth . . . must be imagined or experienced. Sometimes poetic-religious language functions to describe something in such a surprising, different way that our old ways of seeing are ruptured, and thus opened to new possibilities. The poet Gerrit Kouwenaar says: "In a poem one is ultimately interested, not in naming things, but in invalidating the names which have taken the place of the things themselves--the abstract clichs which block the perception of the real." Likewise Ricoeur: Considered in terms of its referential bearing, poetic language has in common with scientific language that it only reaches reality through a detour that serves to deny our ordinary vision and the language we normally use to describe it. In doing this both poetic and scientific language aim at a reality more real than appearances. Imaginative literature for Lewis, however, should never be disguised theory. It is not trying to describe Reality, which can never be done without remainder. It is attempting through the modes and functions below to experientially invoke and evoke Reality within us. A baptized imagination for Lewis is the key to unlocking the reality of the Sacred. The modes. There are numerous modes through which the religious imagination expresses itself: 1) Visions, dreams, trances, ecstasies, auditions, voices, and such, including apocalyptic, which often have the quality of coming from the outside, independent of volition, and of communicating something of revelatory importance for the community. 2) Primarily non-verbal symbols, and fundamentally verbal, narrative myths which provide a paradigm structure for understanding and orienting the communitys life, as well as organizing human existence in light of the meaning imparted through the encounter with the sacred. Insofar as a myth is functioning religiously, it is not a code or allegory to be deciphered. It is its own interpretation and interprets those who are encountered by it. 3) Dramatized rituals and sacraments which can involve the expressive participation of the public through seeing, speaking, dancing, singing, moving, and responding, again, resists literal and intellectual reduction. Religious traditions assimilate all these kaleidoscopic elements in a unified symbol system which Jennings refers to as a mythos. The functions. A religious imagination or mythos functions to mediate the sacred in a number of ways. It represents the relation of the sacred to existence in a self-authenticating way in which individuals (II) are grasped and recognize the truth of their lives revealed in the meeting with the mythos. In Christian terms, one comes under conviction. The sacred representation then orients believers to the multiple dimensions of personal, interpersonal, and communal life through the values and patterns of significance and meaning it reveals (IC). In so doing the mythos communicates existence, establishing and sustaining a community (EC) of which it is simultaneously the product and creator. Finally, the mythos functions to transform behavior (EI), either gradually or more dramatically, as in Christian conversion experiences. Here a mythos is distinguished from a world view which might be acknowledged and serve to influence perception, but does not make an imperative claim through understanding truth as something we commit to and do. This is at the base of Karl Barths position that ethics and pastoral care can not be autonomous disciplines, separated from theology. As with the holonic connection to all four quadrants, the four functions are obviously intimately interrelated in such a way that one is invariably accompanied by the other three. And again, a mythos intimately interrelates symbols, modes, and functions through a core narrative based on core organizing beliefs. To summarize, religion can be understood as the representation and response of the conjunction of the Sacred in the world, through the mediation of the myths, narratives, rituals, and symbols of the religious imagination, which functions to represent, orient, communicate, and transform existence in the world for a community. Any of Wilbers other nine definitions (or anyone elses) can be specified and validly applied to sub-divisions of this overall-summary definition. Theology Christianity Following the same line, Christianity can be understood as the representation and response of the conjunction of the Sacred in the world, through the mediation of the myths, narratives, rituals, and symbols of the Christian imagination, which functions to represent, orient, communicate, and transform existence in the world for the Christian community. The community is officially founded in, and by, and through the mythos of the Biblical canon (EC). The scriptures are primary. Over time, counsel decisions, creeds, and the writings of key figures such as Augustine, Aquinas, Luther, Calvin, and Wesley found their unofficial way into the overall mythos as authoritative for significant segments of Christianity. Theological Divisions Theology within the church, however, always begins as a secondary reflection upon the Christian mythos. Biblical theology exams how the scriptural mythos represented, oriented, communicated, and transformed life in canonical times. Systematic theology seeks to interpret and apply the Christian mythos to the contemporary era; primarily within and for the sake of the community, and secondarily with an apologetic aim to be intelligible to those outside. Historical theology deals with how the reflection, interpretation, and application of the mythos was carried out over time as the mythos intersected and engaged with different times and cultures. The church, the community of faith, is always the judge of whether a particular theological reflection is helpful to its present narrative experience and practice, or not, even with the caveat that a task of theological reflection is to judge the community itself on how well it is being true to its own sources. Theological reflection should go beyond methodological concerns to the critical formulation and reformulation of doctrine, which serves the multiple functions of reforming the church, making Christianity credible to those outside the church, challenging structures of oppression, and furthering the general quest for truth. These have been the special concerns of ethical and/or practical theology which concentrate on contemporary, concrete acts and applications of dogma. Theological anthropology within the Academy is also a secondary reflection on the mythos, but with a focus on seeking a larger understanding of the truth of what it means to be human, and is therefore appropriate in public universities, as is the history of Christianity (including doctrine) which has affected the common life in all four quadrants. Grace There is a structure, form, and content to the Christian story and mythos which can be, and is, debated within the functional definition of theology and Christianity offered here. In general, Christianity is predicated on the assumption that the sacred is mediated through the given of what happened in and through the person of Jesus of Nazareth, who in turn is mediated and symbolically transformed through the reports, assertions, and interpretations of his life and the significance of that life which are left to us from that community of faith which arose in response to him. The historical character of the Christian mythos implies a structure organized around the concrete and definite as well as the celebration of time as grace. More generally: That the given of the religious imagination is the presence and power of the sacred in the midst of the profane leads us to suggest that the given for religious imagination is the giving of itself of the sacred. At the core of religion is grace--the transfiguration of the sheer givenness of reality into the granted, gifted, and in that sense truly given, character of reality . . . an excess of being, power, value, and significance. Within Christian theology grace is the most central and suitable short-hand designation for characterizing the nature and power of the Sacred that is mediated through the history of Israel and of Jesus of Nazareth. The old, old story is a story of grace. Grace is an overarching term for all of Gods gifts to humanity, all the blessings of salvation, all events through which are manifested Gods own self-giving. Grace is a divine attribute revealing the heart of the one God, the premise of all spiritual blessing. . . . It is the divine disposition to work in our hearts, wills, and actions, so as actively to communicate Gods self-giving love for humanity (Rom. 3:24; 6:1; Eph. 1:7; 2:5-8) Dialogue Paradoxically, the same postmodern ethos which calls into question grand, universal perspectives, is the same one which would support Thompsons contention that immediate, participative knowledge of Christian grace only comes from immersion in the particularity of the Christian narrative and mythos. Christianity is a classic in Gadamers sense of being able to engage, address, and encounter people of vastly different ages. James Fowler recommends allowing ourselves to be formed and shaped by the narrative tradition as we engage in deep conversation with it that leads back to the foundational events, and forward to the present day concerns with our common cosmological story, along with the suffering that grace is called to address in solidarity. He affirms Lindbecks cultural-linguistic alternative as opposed to the propositional understanding of conservatives, or the experiential-expressive perspectives of liberals. When we enter fully into the mythos we are shaped and formed by the Christian story. We learn a grammar of faith that affects our thoughts (II), values (IC), participation in community (EC), and behavior (EI) in a similar manner to learning a language as a child by living it, as opposed to learning rules about it. Walter Brueggemann cautions that the Lindbeck-Yale school must be more sufficiently text-specific, and not rest in generalities about the mythos. This experiential immersion need not be done uncritically. Selfhood, Anthony C. Thiselton reminds us, discovers its identity and personhood within a larger purposive narrative which allows room for agency, responsibility and hope. As Moltmann and Pannenberg emphasize, there is always a dialectic of self-identity and relation to the other, the now familiar holonic character of existence as agency-in-communion. Betti cautions that growth requires a constant hermeneutical respect for the otherness of the text and of other selves as Other. Thiselton writes: Only understanding texts and selfhood in their otherness and alienness can make it possible for them to address us in ways that avoid readings already domesticated and made bland by our construing them as products of our own world. . . . The initial preliminary understanding or pre-understanding (Vorverstandnis) with which we approach the text or person to be understood becomes modified, corrected, and refined as that which we seek to understand speaks back, in turn, to the interpreter. Historically, the biblical and traditional sources report evidence of people being enabled to transcend their self-interests to include others and to break down dividing walls of hostility between male and female, Greek and Jew, slave and free. Karl Rahner argues this happens when the Spirit grants the gift of self-awareness, which is based in the grace of reconciliation and acceptance, which obviates the needs for deception and power. The other perspective of history reveals both the boredom of habitual routine, and the holocausts of self-interest cloaked in religious rhetoric. Scientifically, the question of whether the empowering, transforming grace of the Christian mythos is able to rupture the linguistic structures of our pre-understanding and move the organization of our experience toward a more compassionate, inclusive identity can remain an empirical question. Biblically speaking, the Johannine writings maintain this same criterion of the congruence of speaking and doing the truth. If we say we have fellowship with Christ and walk in darkness, we lie and are not doing the truth. (I John 1:6) Pannenberg writes, The truth of God must prove itself anew. Exploring selfhood within the Christian story as an experiment that has never really been tried could be worth the effort. The alternative postmodern self is criticized as de-privileged and caught in despair, swallowed up in a social construct of signs and roles without hope, at the mercy of its own conscious and unconscious power interests, with no center as every meaning is deferred and erased in an ever-shifting flux of contexts. As such, according to Cornell West, it provides no basis or criteria for social reform. Spirituality At this point in the inquiry a number of threads can be woven together to approximate a definition of spirituality. In general, spirituality involves a many-leveled quest for self-transcendence and greater meaning through increased connection or communion with ever-larger contexts. Spirituality is, as suggested by Wilber and Tillich, a measure of depth in terms of how much of the Kosmos one can gracefully and compassionately embrace in ones own identity. The quest may manifest with no thought or use of the word spirituality at all, as in our wanting to be more in tune with our body, our mind, our lover, our neighbors, our nation, or world. It is inherent in all holons that they display a capacity for self-transcendence or emergent transformation into new wholes with new forms of agency and communion, (tenets 4 & 19). The quest can, of course, become consciously focused on some conception of the Sacred. In any case, the quest must be embedded in a narrative tradition. Steven Crites argues that re-collecting the past is foundational to self-identity and pro-jecting into the future is necessary for self-transcendence. Persons must have the psychic strength, which includes both a strong sense of self-identity, rooted in the past, and an equally strong power of self-transcendence, directed toward the future. This strength must be concentrated in the present, which is the point of tension between self-identity [solidified agency] and self-transcendence [increased communion]. This position is close to the conclusion Michael Downey reached in his exploration of the various meanings of spirituality. In moving toward a clear definition, it may be helpful to note that in the various spiritual movements today there appears to be two strands which run throughout. First, and most importantly, there is an awareness that there are levels of reality not immediately apparent; there is more than meets the eye [possibilities of increased communion]. Second, there is a quest for personal integration in the face of forces of fragmentation and depersonalization [increased agency]. . . . . . . The term spirituality is used by some to describe the depth dimensions of all human existence. Here the emphasis is on spirituality as a constitutive element of human nature and experience. Joann Wolski Conn speaks of spirituality in terms of the capacity for self-transcendence. . . . For Schneiders, spirituality in the broadest sense refers to the experience of consciously striving to integrate ones life in terms not of isolation and self-absorption but of self-transcendence toward the ultimate value one perceives . . . of consciously striving to integrate ones life through self-transcending knowledge, freedom and love in light of the highest values perceived and pursued. In a specifically Christian context, the quest is presumably directed toward the grace of God as known through Jesus and the Christian mythos where spirituality and grace are closely interwoven. So intimately connected are the terms grace and Spirit that they flow together as if virtually interchangeable (Acts 6:5, 8). Gods Spirit is called the Spirit of grace (Heb. 10:29) since it is through the Spirit that the Father confers the grace of the Son upon the celebrating community. From the fullness of this saving event we continue to receive grace upon grace in a persevering series of divine gifts to humanity (John 1:15,16). While it is the focus of the second chapter to analyze some of the historical factors at play, it can be said here that William Thompson and others believe the current self-conscious turn to spirituality is a turn toward the fullness of concrete Christian experience and language, however naive or misguided the results can be. The turn is away from the distancing of meta-theories. It expresses a desire to be able to talk of God in more intimate, predicate language, not just the abstract nominative. It is part of the contemporary demand that a mythos have self-authenticating authority as opposed to secondary sanction from a hierarchical priesthood. People push for the transformation that comes from feeling and knowing how Gods story participates in their individual and communal stories. Thus, in the preface to his book Experiencing God: Theology as Spirituality, Kenneth Leech writes: I write as a pastor who has been concerned throughout his ministry both with the inner needs of the soul, and with the pursuit of Christian discipleship in an unjust world. Linked with this concern has been the desire to unite theological work with the spiritual quest. It is therefore an exploration in spiritual theology, that is, in the search for a transforming knowledge of God, a knowledge in which the seeker is deeply changed. All true theology is about transformation, about changing human beings and changing the world, in and through the encounter with the true God. Also writing from a pastoral care perspective, A. J. van den Blink agrees that although spirituality is being talked of everywhere, that there are a paucity of useful definitions of spirituality which is striking and frustrating. On one level, it is good to live with the frustration, since any definition offered will inevitably define someones spirituality out, and thereby restrict an open phenomenological approach. On another level, what has been said to this point implies a number of criteria for evaluating the fullness of spiritualities. Van den Blinks own working definition is recorded here as an exemplary Protestant/Christian example of struggling to include the I, We, and It dimensions of the four quadrants. When I began thinking about how I would define spirituality, I began to understand that the word spirituality is used to connote at least three experiences. The first has to do with the personal and communal experience of the Holy in our midst. From the Christian perspective on spirituality, the personal and communal always go together. The second has to do with the intentional devotional and meditational practice of being open to, and trying to discern, the presence and movement of the Spirit in the here and now. And the third has to do with the application of what is discovered and learned in that manner to ones own life, to the life of the community of believers, and to the society of which one is a part. Through the history of the Church, then, spirituality has embodied these three foci: seeking God, experiencing God (not just with the mind but with the whole body), and doing Gods work in the world. . . . . . . Whatever the definition of spirituality, its goal remains the same, namely the recovery, in our journey toward God, of wholeness within ourselves, between ourselves and others, and between ourselves and the world. To work toward this goal is to do the work of the Kingdom of God. This goal embraces and authenticates all ministry, including the work of pastoral psychotherapists. For this reason alone, reconnecting with spirituality is important to our profession. This principal goal of spirituality gives us our reason for being and gives us our marching orders. Pastoral Theology Within Theology Pastoral theology is harder to delineate than the other aspects of theology. One reason is exemplary, namely the unity of theology. Pastors are the effective, on-site theologians of the church. As such, the presumption is that they are committed to the Judeo-Christian mythos, and to how the various elements of its tradition color our imaginations and make life available to us. In their practice then, all ministers, generalists and specialists alike, are about the same basic task of theology, that of interpreting and applying the various canonical images, symbols, parables, narratives, etc., to their particular, historical day and time, attempting to make them available to contemporary consciousness. This is true whether the pastor is counseling somebody one-to-one or preaching on Sunday morning. The methods may differ, but the task is the same--that of cultivating, eliciting, reminding, or healing the imagination of persons whose fundamental way of experiencing and expressing themselves is either underdeveloped or has become distorted. This process of mediating grace concerns both the hermeneutic moment of understanding and the agogic moment of transformation that Firet outlines in his Dynamics In Pastoring. Specificity Because of its emphasis on praxis, concern for the concrete human situation (Howe), attention to the work of the church (Jannasch), openness to what is real (Ebeling), and realization in the present (Haendler, Birnbaum), many writers understand pastoral theology as a special form of practical theology. A contrast is often made between the concrete praxis of pastoral theology and the abstract speculation of systematic theology. However, as suggested above, all of theology seeks to represent and mediate the Sacred, and thereby open, orient, and transform concrete, historical life. No theology wishes to be theoretical and irrelevant, or will allow a specialty the sole domain of making the implications of the Gospel existentially relevant through real-life connections and service. Traditionally, pastoral theology does have a particular area of expertise in that it is a branch of Christian theology that deals with the office and functions of the pastor. Beyond this, there is some truth that pastoral care practitioners function at a higher degree of specificity than other theologians. They do not write, teach, or preach to the church, but to St. Johns by the gas station in rural Kentucky, or downtown Manhattan, in the year of our Lord 1999. They do not counsel people, but Mary Edwards the single mother, or Manuel Alfredo the donut entrepreneur. This suggests in part a critical role for pastoral theology as it lives closer to the predicate than the nominative uses of God-language. Pastoral theology may provide a counterpoint to systematic theologys necessarily (for normal coherence and order) higher level of abstraction by staying closer to actual cases (communal and individual), keeping the rough edges of reality exposed, noting when something does not fit neatly into a theological scheme, and providing case studies that illustrate the sometimes bare-boned propositions of systematic work. Universal Specifics In the history of pastoral care there has been an ongoing tension between the particular and the universal. Greer W. Boyce has cautioned against using a theological anthropology that views all people in the same predicament. He doesnt want to think of pastoral work as simply making scriptural symbols more available to contemporary consciousness. The consequence of this for pastoral care might be the applying of a universal specific, a common diagnosis and common remedy in any and all cases. People are individual and unique. There are real, concrete, historical differences in their personalities and circumstances. Even children from a common home report a different story-line when reflecting on their lives in the same family. Joachim Scharfenberg raises the opposite concern. He is worried by an over emphasis on the analysis of the contemporary situation. We can easily become lost in the maze of someones particular thoughts, feelings, memories, history, and present situation. He argues that pastoral theology should not allow itself to be criticized with secular doctrines of humanness. A mass of contemporary experiential data is useless, unless it is meaningfully organized by a wisdom informed from the tradition. The thesis outlined to this point requires a middle position. Scharfenberg is correct. Pastoral care practitioners cannot function in an authentic way without universal specifics. There is an identifiable Christian story and mythos. The Gospels reveal that Jesus had a universal specific which he used as a common diagnosis and remedy, namely Repent! The Reign of God is at hand! Here we have already denoted the universal specific for the Christian mythos as grace. But Jesus was impressive in adapting the story of grace in Gods reign to offer particular formulations to people that addressed their specific stories. To one it was, Arise, take up your bed and go home. (Luke 5:22), and to another, Sell all that you have and distribute it to the poor. (Luke 18:22) Boyce is also correct. Pronouncing a non-specific diagnosis can be worse than useless, or as Gregory the Great noted, genuinely harmful. Assuming that pastoral care givers are grounded in the fundamentals of the Christian mythos, the next question becomes, what might grace possibly mean to this person, at this time? Ministry is, and must be, highly creative since all persons transform the givens of their lives through a unique constellation of factors to create their core narrative experience and expression in life. To every person grace must be communicated in a particular and concrete way that addresses his or her specific historical circumstance. Making Grace Specific The general theme for pastoral care that is emerging here is that of making grace specific. In the Western church, this was at the heart of Gregory the Greats influential Pastoral Care (Regula Pastoralis) which also referenced earlier writers such as Gregory of Nazianzus: It seems to me that to rule men is the art of arts, and the sciences of sciences, for man is a being of diverse and manifold character. This same theme is echoed in Gregory Palamas synthesis of the spiritual wealth of the Eastern church in his The Triads. Palamas argues God comes to people in a way that makes grace specific to their particular condition: . . . wisdom comes to [one] man through effort and study; not that it is only effort and study, but that it is the result of these. The Lord dwells in men in different and varied ways according to the worthiness and way of life of those who seek Him. He appears in one way to an active man, in another to a contemplative, in another again to the man of vision, and yet different ways to the zealous or to those already divinised. There are numerous differences. Odens overview of grace yields these perspectives: The purpose of caregiving is to make the truth of grace plausible and appropriable in the inner life of the individual. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grace offers care for souls by descending to the level of awareness fit for ministry to a particular soul at a particular moment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . It is the task of biblical study to ensure that the story is accurately told. It is the task of preaching to seek out the meaning of the story for today. It is the task of pastoral care to mediate grace interpersonally. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preaching attests grace to the worshipping community; pastoral care seeks to make it real for the individual; sacramental life embodies it. Grace is also present in the preparation leading to readiness to respond to each of these ministries. Grace at the Barriers The last line of the quote suggests the language difficulty that pastors cannot really make grace specific. Life can only be received; it is offered as sheer gift. When grace is enabled and appropriated, it is the work of God the Spirit. Pastoral care relentlessly searches for some responsive circumstantial opening up of the soul to Gods gracious presence. The caregiver does not elicit grace but seeks to discover and name the grace already there. Since the grace of God is constantly in play, like the sun bathing the earth with constant energy, much of pastoral care involves ministry at the barriers. When the Gospel is proclaimed or enacted, the pastor tracks and studies how a congregation or individual is organizing their experience in such a way that they do not take in the transformative knowledge offered them. Barriers to grace should be no surprise. Biblically speaking, when grace has done its job, Christ hands over the kingdom to God (I Cor. 15:28) and there is no church (Rev. 21:22). Until then, barriers are the order of the day. The old aeon is in a struggle with the new. Exploring and seeking the grace specific to each barrier revealed should be the normal, expected pastoral response. Grace is Gods way of empowering the bound will and healing the suffering spirit. Assuring Grace As Frank Lake suggested in his therapy of applied theodicy, grace functions not only to reconcile those who have sinned, but to identify with and heal those who have unjustly suffered. The cross represents the assurance that Gods life can be trusted and Gods love can embrace the worst conceivable forms of betrayal and murder. Through its portrayal of Jesus as controlling model for interpreting both God and human selfhood, the Epistle to the Hebrews accepts the diagnosis offered by many postmodern writers about the vulnerability of the self as a victim to competing power-interests. Jesus chose to accept exposure to hostile forces and manipulation (Heb. 2:8b-17; 12:3). Like his brother and sisters in every respect (2:17), Jesus accepted a role that required even trust (2:13), and prayed with loud cries and tears (5:17). Betrayal, arrest, torture and crucifixion carried this role of self-as-victim to the ultimate. But while this resonates with postmodern perceptions of selfhood, it is not the whole story. Being on the receiving end of hostile power-interests (12:3), constituted for Jesus an episode within the larger narrative which only in its wholeness defined his selfhood. As perfect bearer of the image of God (1:3) and therefore a definitive interpretation of true humanness as it was meant to be, Jesus recapitulated human experience in order that human selfhood may approach God and find grace (4:16; cf. 2:10; 6:20; 12:2). Grace means love without strings. It signals the end of manipulation; God does not compete. Distinctions Up to this point pastoral care has been used as a catch-all term for a number of functions. The following schema brings more specificity and order. We are still under the general umbrella of pastoral theology, of interpreting and applying the Christian mythos, of making grace specific in a particular time and place with a singular people. Pastoral Care Within Protestant American practice, pastoral care can be understood to be concerned with right being. The first level of intervention when someone needs care is for a pastor to simple be there. Being there implies incarnating congruence with the grace of Christ, a state of being woven through pastoral activities of all kinds. It is a trustful state of being, able to be with someone in the midst of their suffering; listening, acknowledging whatever thoughts, feelings, memories, or meaning that arises, while supporting the other in being open to the reality of their lived experience. It mediates the sense that the Spirit is gracefully present, precisely at the point of their truth, both through presence and the imaginative language of the Christian faith. This level of care can also involve the pastor mobilizing the church community to show up and be there, often with concrete offers of whatever help is needful--baby sitting, rides, food, companionship, etc.--as well as grace-full presence, and words of Christian solace. Pastoral Counseling It could well be that the non-doing of simply being present through pastoral care of the lived moment is the only intervention called for, since the Judeo-Christian mythos implies that being present and open to Gods creation is good and healing in itself. However, it might be appropriate to intervene at the level of pastoral counsel which concerns right action. Pastoral counseling happens in ordinary consciousness, using whatever awareness a person presently has available. It centers on helping persons bring their being and doing together into congruence for specific actions. It can involve sorting through options, sharing information and resources on specific issues (substance abuse, eating disorders, bereavement, AIDs, etc.), offering advice or experience, problem solving, recounting Biblical and ethical perspectives--all those things which some older standard texts on counseling say are not appropriate. Pastoral Psychotherapy Again, it could well be that pastoral care and counseling on the part of the pastor herself and/or the community is all that is necessary for growing in grace, or healing through grace. However, if the pastor or the seekers notice that they are not able to follow through with needful action, they get in their own way somehow, they cannot be present to their own experience or the possibilities of grace, or they cannot comprehend certain alternatives at all, pastoral psychotherapy which concerns right belief can be appropriate. Belief refers to core organizing belief outlined above. The persons imagination is organizing their experience in some way which is not congruent with a Christian imagination. Perhaps a woman who has a long history of getting into abusive relationships has a core, normally unconscious, belief that My only worth to men is my sexuality. I deserve to be abused. Getting at this level of belief normally requires working in an altered (contemplative, witnessing, mindful, prayerful, meditative, open, receptive, curious, compassionate) state of consciousness. The altered state allows persons to not be at the mercy of the way they are unconsciously organized; either talking about their lives from a distance or acting out the impulses that arise. It allows them to be present to their experience, but one step back, able to study how they are organizing their experience in the present. It facilitates the discovery of what grace-full experience is needed to attend to inner barriers which are preventing them from reorganizing around healthier, more inclusive beliefs that support the self-transcendent quest for increased levels of agency-in-communion. Spiritual Formation Encouraging communion & compassion. Spiritual direction or formation has to do with right relatedness. It is the largest umbrella which includes all the pastoral functions just considered, and more.  It concerns the encouraging of communion and compassion between all the parts of the whole. It is based on the faith that when we are wholly connected to the creation and Creator, that the life God has given us is good, and evokes a sense of worshipful thanksgiving and mutual caring. We identify with the whole of life, the one body with many members with Christ as the head, in which we both suffer and rejoice together. Love (or Eros) is the pervading force that drives us to be in communion with ever greater contexts of life until we rest in the unity of God. Out of communion with the Divine, compassion (or Agape) is the force that drives us to embrace and care for all the diversified manifestations of the Spirit, especially the stranger, the poor and the outcast. Healing connections. Healing comes from the connectedness mediated through the interpretation and application of the Christian mythos in Word, Sacrament and Service (Leitourgia). Jesus is the paradigmatic healer who helps bring about the reconciliation and reinstitution of trust when fear and sin have caused separations. It is the story of Jesus that forms and informs the stories of those who follow him. Spiritual direction or formation happens both through the straightforward proclamation of the mythos in worship, study, prayer, fellowship, and through the work at the barriers in pastoral care, counseling, and therapy. The Spirit also works outside the church through movies, books, jobs, relationships, other religions, nature, or any other aspect of life. The sign of the Spirit is the fruit of increased communion and compassion, often understood as the healing of splits. Whenever one part of the mind connects with another, when the mind connects with the body, when the whole self connects more with nature and history, when people of different sexual, racial, ethnic backgrounds realize more of their commonness, the Spirit has effected a measure of healing. The Kosmos moves closer toward that day when all creation can offer thanksgiving together. Again, spiritual caregivers are not making connections that were never there. They are inviting the willingness for the grace of the Spirit to minister to whatever blocks to communion are present, which will then reveal the incomparable grace of relationships already existent, though previously unknown and unappreciated by the quester. Heart and Image of God. In congruence with the holonic character of life, spiritual direction does not simply encourage larger spheres of communion, but also greater connection with the decider sub-system within us that underlies the agency to both grow in grace and virtue, and to follow grace compassionately into ministry with others. In the Eastern Orthodox tradition it is the heart that is the center of the imaginative function which organizes a persons experience and expression. The heart is the center of the human being, the root of the active faculties of the intellect and the will, and the point from which the whole of the spiritual life proceeds. (According to Macarius) Where grace fills the pastures of the heart, it reigns over all the parts and the thoughts for these inhabit the intelligence (nous) and all the thoughts of the soul. In this way grace passes by way of the heart into the whole of mans nature. The process of grace passing into the whole of our nature through the heart is termed theosis in the Orthodox tradition, and sanctification in the Wesleyan. It is a process of restoring the image of God within humans and growing in Gods likeness. In our very formation as human beings, Ireneaus wrote, we have received Gods image, and in that image resides our capacities for rational thought, for making decisions freely, and for fellowship with our Creator. In addition to having been created in the image of God, we are also created like God. Our likeness to God, however, expresses our future development and not our present nature. We receive this divine likeness through the Holy Spirit, as the Holy Spirit works in and with us to make us perfect. We bear the divine image already, insofar as we are rational beings responsible for our decisions and capable of sustaining communion with God. But our likeness to God remains a destiny to be realized, and can be realized only as our spirit, longing, and striving for God, is received and transformed by Gods own spirit. To become more and more like God and in communion with God, our Creator, is our purpose for being. The Christian story and pilgrimage can be characterized as growing in grace. In classic Wesleyan terms, it is going on to perfection, understood as a perfection in love, characterized by eros and agape as outlined above. From the side of the pilgrim or quester, the process of self-transcendence happens through synergistic cooperation with the prevenient grace offered. Grace is effective as it elicits willing cooperation and sufficient insofar as it does what is necessary to lead the will to cooperate. . . . The divine goodness first effects something in us without our cooperation, wrote Gregory the Great, and then as the will freely consents, cooperates with us in performing the good which we desire. God thus operates in the hearts of men and in the free will itself, so that a holy thought, a pious plan, and every motion of good will is from God. One implication of this emphasis on being made in the image of God is that a lot of pastoral theory built around object-relations theory and the necessity of introjecting a more functional self, primarily through transmuting internalizations of archaic, validating, self-object ties, by way of a long-term relationship with the pastor-therapist, must be revised. In those schools the object is nearly absolutized and the subject minimized, implying pathology, a lack of responsibility, and a possibly interminable process. To repeat, spiritual direction/formation understood in terms of fostering right-relatedness is the appropriate overall umbrella in pastoral theology because it best incorporates the three main pastoral functions of the priest who proclaims the Good News of grace, the pastor who helps make it specific, and the prophet who speaks the truth in love, naming wrong-relatedness. Certainly in the Christian mythos, the revelation of the Sacred is of One who not only wishes peace, grace, and just relations on the earth, but who is angered in the face of unjust relations and bondage (Exodus story), whose wrath gives sinners over to the frightening consequences of their own unholy actions (Romans 1), and whose heart is compassionately moved to intervene in various forms of active self-giving (the law, prophets, Christ) to liberate and make things right. In terms of the more generic encouragement of greater levels of agency-in-communion, Thomas Merton once said that compassion flows from the profound sense of the interdependence of all things which are all part of one another and all involved in one another. Thus, the line from contemplation to communion to compassion eventuates in prophetic actions which flow from suffering and rejoicing together with others through experiential knowledge and identity with the larger unity of human personhood. In the Christian mythos it is part of the divine telos in history which is bringing about a New Creation in terms of both individual growth from the image to the likeness of God (II-EI), and communal growth toward that day when peace and justice embrace world-wide (IC-EC). As it has been outlined to this point, pastoral theology could be said to incorporate, or be first cousins with, Simon Chans proposal for a spiritual theology. In a broad sense, Chan agrees that theology in general, as suggested here, promotes Christian spirituality as a lived reality. In the early church and Eastern orthodoxy it was assumed that theology was doxology, or faith in search of understanding. Similarly, the Puritan theologian William Ames defines theology as the doctrine of living unto God. However, in a narrower sense, in the modern-post-modern situation, he argues it is good to have a spiritual theology that specifically attends to the process, practices, or injunctions which grow the subject in community to an experiential appropriation of the developmental signifieds which correspond to the signifiers of the biblical, historical, systematic, and practical theologies. Spiritual theology seeks to understand spiritual growth from beginning to end, making use of biblical and experiential data. It seeks to heal the overly wordy rationalism and empty activism for which Protestantism has been rightly criticized. Summary The Pastoral Task The inquiry to now can be summarized by naming what is emerging as the pastoral task in terms of spiritual formation and the general care of souls. The task is to interpret, in the context of the Christian mythos, the vision of (hermeneutical task), and to encourage experiential appropriation of (agogic task), the spiritual quest of heart and soul for right-relatedness with all Gods creation. The task is to facilitate the goal of the overall quest for identity with greater levels of agency-in-communion (growth in likeness of, and communion with Gods Spirit) in Gods Realm which results in a compassionate heart and compassionate service. All this is manifested in the four quadrants of intention-al, behavioral, cultural, and social life. The task is to put all this in narrative form which is true to the tradition, and alive to the experience of contemporary questers. The Work of Charles Gerkin While a number of supporting references to this overall position are indicated in the text and footnotes, a special word should be said in relation to the work of Charles Gerkin. Much of what is said here is congruent with his general perspectives. In his Widening the Horizons, Prophetic Pastoral Practice, and most recent Introduction to Pastoral Care he develops a narrative/hermeneutical or cultural/linguistic approach to the field which takes seriously the synergistic effect of a communitys values (IC) on the structure (EC) of its life together and its effects on its members beliefs (II) and behavior (EI). He specifically places ministry in a quadrilateral schema which could easily be transposed into the four-quadrant approach adopted here. Part of his prophetic concern is that pastors recognize the contexts within contexts of the four quadrants. This means addressing the beliefs, behaviors, values, and structures of an individuals life, his or her family, the community of faith they participate in, as well as the society in which they all are embedded. Some of the differences between reading Gerkin and this manuscript relate to language and hierarchy. Where Gerkin puts ministry, or more often, pastoral care at the center of the quadrilateral, or as the mediator between the story of the Christian community and its tradition, and the particularity of life stories, this reading puts ministry, pastoral task or the closely associated spiritual direction/formation. This reflects the judgment, outlined above with reference to a variety of authors, that spiritual direction is necessary in our time as the overall, more inclusive umbrella, which subsumes pastoral care, a reverse of the judgment made in Gerkins work. One of the reasons for making pastoral care a subset of spiritual direction/formation follows from Gerkins own historical analysis which notes that from the beginning of the twentieth century pastoral care has been almost hopelessly identified with ministering to individuals in crisis. This has evolved into a connotation that the most real form of pastoral care is that of pastoral psychotherapy, the form best equipped to deal with the innermost aspects of individuals in crises. This reduction, of course, has affected the quality of pastoral attention paid to the Christian tradition (IC), the church community itself and its social context (EC), and even the behavior of individuals (EI). More about this will follow in the history chapters. For now, it can be noted that the present discussion of pastoral care as right being corresponds most closely to Gerkins discussion of pastoral presence. Pastoral task corresponds to his treatment of pastoral work as vocation. It should also be noted that Gerkins terminology is still closest to common usage among mainline pastoral caregivers today. Summary Overview At this point in the opening dialogue on method and definitions a number of basic terms have been defined and discussed in relation to scientific method, the sociology and psychology of religion, theology, pastoral care and spirituality. Certainly, what has been outlined is only one way of conceptualizing the field, and does not absolutely determine the rest of the inquiry. It is still true that the word spirituality is used in many and varied ways in the literature, and will require open, phenomenological attention in the following sections. However, considering spirituality as a drive toward self-transcendence which manifests within the four quadrants provides a reference point to orient from, and allows for continuity of theme and method in the forthcoming chapters. To summarize the line of argument so far: 1) The overall thesis of this work is that beginning about 1970 white, mainline, Protestant pastoral care in the United States shifted from a more psychologically informed concern for self-realization toward a more spiritual emphasis on self-transcendence. 2) From the academic side of pastoral theology, a conversation with contemporary philosophy of science and linguistics started the exploration of the thesis which resulted in a broad definition of the self-transcendent spiritual quest understood in terms of its evolving toward greater levels of agency-in-community, a definition which can meet the verifiability criterion of the modern-post-modern world. 3) Within this discussion Wilbers four-quadrant-full-spectrum model of holonic existence was adopted as the one best suited for guiding an investigation of the subject, because it affirms the multiple sciences of the intentional, behavioral, cultural, and social realms on their own terms, and arranges them in a non-reductionistic relationship to one another. Certainly, a legitimate investigation of spirituality and pastoral care could be done from the perspective of any one discipline, as long as the limitations were understood. A more general overview and orientation to the subject such as this essay, however, requires at least the acknowledgment of factors in all four realms to insure comprehensiveness. 4) The academic, public discussion of linguistics and the symbolic nature of the human imagination, with special reference to the work of Theodore Jennings, also yielded a definition of religion as the representation and response of the conjunction of the Sacred in the world, through the mediation of the myths, narratives, rituals, and symbols of the religious imagination, which functions to represent, orient, communicate, and transform existence in the world for a community. Similarly, Christianity came to be understood as the representation and response of the conjunction of the Sacred in the world, through the mediation of the myths, narratives, rituals, and symbols of the Christian imagination, which functions to represent, orient, communicate, and transform existence in the world for the Christian community. 5) This led in turn to understanding the identity of a Christian parish pastor and/or pastoral care specialist, however their methods may differ, as about the same basic task of theology, that of interpreting and applying the various canonical images, symbols, parables, narratives, etc., to their distinct day and time, attempting to make them available to contemporary consciousness. 6) The universal specific of the Christian revelation, or the most central and suitable short-hand designation for characterizing the nature and power of the Sacred that is mediated through the history of Israel and of Jesus of Nazareth was then identified as grace. 7) While all Christian theology seeks to mediate this grace, pastoral theology was identified as having a special concern for this grace being made specific in particular, concrete individuals and communities. 8) It was then argued that for pastoral practice, the most overarching category of pastoral theology should be spiritual direction/formation understood as dealing with the central biblical/theological problematic of right-relatedness. This umbrella subsumes pastoral care understood in terms of right-being, pastoral counseling understood in terms of right-action, and pastoral psychotherapy understood in terms of right-belief. 9) It was then possible to translate the more general, human, spiritual quest for self-transcendence for greater levels of agency-in-communion into its Christian embodiment as spiritual direction/formation understood in terms of encouraging increased communion, connection, and compassion with all of Gods life, and the developing of greater heart (agency) in terms of the dynamic of theosis or sanctification, the movement from being made in the image of God toward bearing the likeness of God. 10) The entire process was given short hand expression through understanding the overall pastoral task in terms of facilitating right-relatedness and the goal of the overall quest for identity with greater levels of agency-in-communion (growth in likeness of, and communion with Gods Spirit) in Gods Realm, as manifested in the four quadrants of intentional, behavioral, cultural, and social life. We are now in a position to move on to a historical analysis of how this spiritual quest played out in history leading up to 1970, followed by a typological analysis of how the manifold manifestations of the quest that arose from 1970 on can be understood, with specific implications for pastoral praxis. Historical Analysis John Muir once said that if we pick up anything, we will find it is connected to everything else in the universe. The inference of the overall methodology outlined to this point would be to do a history of the universe and its implications for spirituality and pastoral care, something slightly out of reach, even for ardent integrators. The approach to this work must necessarily be limited and arbitrary, as it is when entering the circle of any hermeneutical enterprise. For any exploration, it is crucial to acknowledge the validity and importance of the four quadrants including the holarchy of life and consciousness for the subject. The next three chapters provide an effort at historical perspective of the western, American, and pastoral contexts which inform the spirituality and pastoral care materials. It traces the vicissitudes of this spiritual impulse for self-transcendence through various times and places, even when the word is not explicitly used. A basic methodological device employed is to name historical spirals where appropriate which tie together the mutual interactions between the four quadrants, without advocating the primacy of any one. In terms of the overall scheme of the chapters, the historical ones concentrate relatively more on the influence of political-economic, exterior-collective (EC) variables. The overall discussion of the three main historical contexts leading up to 1970 helps provide a four-quadrant sense of the major factors and splits in play at that time. This serves to help understand the critiques of late sixties pastoral care, and how the new literature on spirituality and pastor care arose in part as a reaction to it. 1970-1990 is such a recent period that historians have yet to deal with it extensively. They leave it for now in the hands of the sociologists. A number of sociological resources are drawn from to provide the appropriate historical characterizations. To help flesh out the characterization of late sixties pastoral care and counseling, a number of oral histories were done with people knowledgeable about the field from 1970 to the present. Appendix B contains the questionnaire used and a listing of those who agreed to be interviewed. The history ends with documenting the unanticipated rise of interest and activity in relating spirituality to pastoral functions. This development is related to the mounting interest in spirituality within the general American culture of the same period, and especially to its newfound inclusion in academic discourse. Together, the various historical perspectives describe a number of issues relevant to the pastoral task of encouraging spirituality in terms of the self-transcendent quest for greater levels of agency-in-communion. However, the history ends with a clear judgment that spirituality is considered and approached in many different ways in the new pastoral care literature. This yields the twin issues of how the different ways can be understood in general, and how they might or might not be related to the working definition of the self-transcendent quest. Typological Analysis In terms of how the different schools of spirituality and pastoral care can be understood in general, a significant focus of this works critical analysis involves applying the typology found in the "Theological Worlds Inventory" developed by W. Paul Jones to the literature. This application brings a beneficial ordering to a diverse, unorganized, relatively ignored, and rapidly growing body of material. The typology provides five different ways of viewing the world theologically, according to varying approaches to the human predicament and its healing. These approaches represent the overlaps of experience of many spiritual seekers and thus fleshes out interior-collective (IC) issues as they relate to attracting people to various schools of thought. These views inform specific approaches to spirituality, which makes them important for the specificity and praxis of pastoral theology. The five theological worlds are examined for their views on grace and self-transcendence, as well as brought into dialogue with the four-quadrant analysis of ministrys context around 1970. To make the typological assessment manageable, influential writers and key books were isolated. This was accomplished through the oral interviews with teachers in the field, checking the bibliographies of relevant seminary courses, and researching the sales of various books where possible. Representative texts of key figures are analyzed to assess their affinity with Jones outline of theological worlds. The relative effectiveness of the typology for bringing order to the literature is discussed. One of the thrusts of some of the spirituality and pastoral care literature is to make strong distinctions between spiritual direction and psychotherapy for the sake of preserving the former from psychological reductionism--a worthy objective. Sometimes the distinctions are drawn so boldly as to imply a disjunction between ones spiritual and psychological participation in the world. Overdrawn distinctions contradict the unity of personality in Hebrew anthropology expressed in terms such as nepesh, as well as the overall methodological point that the Sacred is only known through its mediation in concrete individual-collective, psycho-social holons, not religious-cultural forms alone. Another typology is offered of characterological ways of being, drawn from developmental psychology theory. This concentrates on interior-individual (II) variables and their implications for making grace specific in the individuals with whom pastors are in daily contact. This typology helps to characterize the personality dispositions that congregants embody, which is a factor in how they participate in a churchs life in general, and how their spiritual quest is colored by individual lenses. A World View Inventory is developed, based on the characterology outlined, to offer a concrete tool for assessing characterological dispositions. Comparative Analysis A correlational study is then referenced that explores the Theological Worlds, and World View Inventories ability to predict results on the other. A correlation of (II) and (IC) variables would be expected of course, if the holonic theory of manifesting in four quadrants is correct, assuming the testing instruments have the requisite validity and reliability, and that the variables they measure are the most relevant factors in play. However, even the most relevant factors in play in the (II) and (IC) realms do not acknowledge the factors from the (EI-EC) quadrants, which themselves would derive from contexts within contexts (individual, family, community, national, global.) A four-quadrant correlation would need to factor in more inventories. The scoring sheet for the inventories does include data in relation to age, education, and ethnicity. Again, there would never be a presumption that a positive correlation implied any basis for reductionism. Theories of the imagination outlined by Suzanne Langer, Theodore Jennings, and Robert Stolorow provide a helpful way of understanding the interface of religious and psychological perspectives. The literature on spirituality in general, and spirituality and pastoral care in particular, has an emphasis on praxis, as well as the above named concern for specificity. In terms of constructive appropriation, it is beneficial for writers, congregants, spiritual questers, and pastoral care-givers to be aware of how they view the world theologically and characterologically, as well as how the people they are ministering with do. This is valuable information which builds on the sensitivity gained from knowing the influences of the historical contexts one operates in. The interfaced typologies offer teachers and practitioners of pastoral care at least two complimentary ways of assessing, and of relating specifically to the inner and cultural worlds of unique individuals and congregations, and of understanding how those worlds manifest in many realms. Transition Together, the tracing of Western, American, and pastoral care histories to cull out cultural-social dispositions impinging on the present, along with the typological examination of how historical forces have shaped our personal and religious way of viewing life, combine in an exercise to enhance the consciousness of selfhood, or as discussed above, how we creatively organize our experience and expression in life. This is no small thing in a culture that is in so many ways ahistorical, and diverted by so many other activities from those which might encourage the wisdom of self-awareness and self-knowledge (agency) so essential for being in relationship with others (communion). E. Brooks Holifield notes how this is reflected in the teaching of ministers and pastoral care specialists. He remarks that students are generally quite confused and perplexed when asked, What historical traditions, movements, and figures have impinged on you and informed your selfhood, . . . have helped to shape you intellectually, culturally, or spiritually? He comments further: The persistent bafflement . . . mean[s] that most students are so thoroughly encased within their own culture and history that they are only vaguely aware of its relativity, that is, of its relatedness to alternative histories and traditions. And that defines the problem: How can we help students acquire sufficient distance from their own history in order to reach some understanding of it and thus to make some relatively free decision about it? . . . . . . Part of the answer is that distance and acceptance are intertwined. We cannot facilitate constructive distance unless we also help students to value and appreciate their past unashamedly, even if critically. At the base of my claim is a specific presupposition . . . that the self, whatever else it may be, is a process in which the present interprets the past to the future. In other words, temporality is an essential characteristic of selfhood. The self does not create itself anew in successive moments of pure freedom. Selfhood is rather a process of mediation among past, present, and future. Holifields thoughts echo those of Steven Crites referenced earlier (page 83) that re-collecting the past is essential to self-identity, which in turn is essential to the pro-jecting into the future necessary for self-transcendence. And the strength to do either or both is concentrated in the present, which is the point of tension between self-identity [solidified agency] and self-transcendence [increased communion]. What follows is an attempt to intertwine both distance and acceptance in an exploration of how the spiritual quest for self-transcendence has come to manifest itself in our day and time, and what the implications are for how pastors might mediate the specific grace to encourage and strengthen it on intentional, behavioral, cultural, and social levels. A summary chapter reflects on the significance of the twenty year-plus dialogue with spirituality for the teaching and practice of pastoral care in America on the threshold of a new millennium. Ken Wilber, Jack Engler, and Daniel P. Brown, Transformations of Consciousness: Conventional and Contemplative Perspectives on Development (Boston: Shambhala, 1986), 159. Ralph L. Underwood, Pastoral Care and the Means of Grace (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1993), 6. Although the word pastoral care is used in reference to a wide range of phenomena throughout this work, the basic thesis of this volume applies to white, mainline, Protestant pastoral care. Mainline refers generally to churches like the Episcopal, Presbyterian, Lutheran, American Baptist, and United Methodist. A number of observers make the point that there is as much or more theological disparity within denominations as without. However, the theses apply to generalizations about the mainline denominations which can be defended. Likewise, there are individuals within the Southern Baptist Convention or the Church of God Anderson, IN who function in what is being described as mainline ways, but on the whole these churches would be considered more evangelical than mainline. Robert M. Torrence, The Spiritual Quest: Transcendence in Myth, Religion, and Science (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994). A History of Pastoral Care in America: From Salvation to Self-Realization (Nashville: Abingdon, 1983). In The Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. Mircea Eliade, Vol. 3 (New York: Macmillian, 1987): 57-66. Eliade, Encyclopedia 3, 66-75.  Eliade, Encyclopedia 3, 75-81. In Encyclopedia of the American Religious Experience, ed. Charles Lippy and Peter Williams, Vol I, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988): 51-70. Lippy, Encyclopedia Vol III, 1583-1594. Wicks, Clinical Handbook, 26-36. In Psychiatry, Ministry, and Pastoral Counseling, ed., A. W. Richard Sipe, and Clarence J. Rowe, (Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1984), 40-51. Albert E. Hurd, Psychology and Religion: A Bibliography from the ATLA Religion Database (American Theological Library Association, 1986). Alastair V. Campbell, ed., A Dictionary of Pastoral Care (New York: Crossroad, 1987). Rodney J. Hunter, gen. ed., Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counseling (Nashville: Abingdon, 1990). Wesley D. Tracy, E. Dee Freeborn, Janine Tartaglia, and Morris A. Weigelt, The Upward Call: Spiritual Formation and the Holy Life (Kansas City: Beacon Hill Press, 1994). A wellspring for their book was Richard J. Fosters Celebration of Discipline: The Path to Spiritual Growth (New York: Harper & Row, 1978) and his subsequent works. Lawrence LeShan, The Dilemma of Psychology: A Psychologist Looks at His Troubled Profession (New York: A Dutton Book, 1990), 14-15. Johanson, The How, 307. Hans W. Frei, Types of Christian Theology (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1992), 119. Frei, Types, 118. Schleirmacher clearly held the view that church training and Wissenschaft were autonomous equals, while Harnack asserted the priority of scholarly learning over practical theology. Torrance, Quest, 3. Torrance, Quest, 18. See Nelson S. T. Thayer, The Place of Religion in Erik H. Eriksons Theory of Human Development, (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Chicago, 1973), 1-17 for an overview of developments in the psychoanalytic theory of religion since Freud. Daniel Yankelovich and William Barrett, Ego and Instinct: The Psychoanalytic View of Human Nature--Revised (New York: Vintage Books, 1971), 43, observe: Does it seem at all plausible that the extraordinary process of organic evolution that developed the more complex and higher nervous systems took place merely to find a more elaborate means of escaping stimuli? If Freud had pursued the evolutionary point of view that he had borrowed from Darwin, Haeckel, and others, and explored in connection with the instincts, he would certainly have questioned this Nirvana-like view of the nervous system. Does it not seem that the more complex and higher nervous system of man may even be involved in a restless search for stimuli? It is by means of this complex nervous system that man, unlike the other animals, breaks out of his biological habitat, creates new environments for himself, and now soars restlessly into space. It would seem that Pascal spoke more acutely of human nervousness, when he described mans condition as one of perpetual inconstancy and restlessness. Human mobility and restlessness are blazoned on the pages of history, and it is hard to see how they could be the product of a nervous system whose essential function is to diminish stimuli, and if possible to eliminate them altogether. See also Gregory J. Johanson, A Curious Form of Therapy: Hakomi, Hakomi Forum Vol. 6 (1988): 18-31 for an overview of the results of curiosity research, which demonstrate it to be a primary, independent, self-motivating, self-reinforcing search for stimuli, and how those results can be applied to counseling. Edward Farley, Good and Evil: Interpreting the Human Condition (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1990), Karl Popper, Objective Knowledge (Oxford: Clarendon, 1974), Juergen Habermas, The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1987), 313-14. Ervin Laszlo, Evolution: The Grand Synthesis (Boston: Shambhala, 1987); Erich Jantsch, The Self-Organizing Universe (New York: Pergamon, 1980); Michael Murphy, The Future of the Body (Los Angeles: Tarcher, 1992). This section on methodological issues follows closely the argument of Ken Wilber in his Sex, Ecology, Spirituality: The Spirit of Evolution (Boston: Shambhala, 1995). General Systems Theory--Ludwig von Bertalanffy, General System Theory (New York: Braziller, 1968); and Paul Weiss, et al. Hierarchically Organized Systems in Theory and Practice (New York: Hafner, 1971); Cybernetics--N. Wiener, Cybernetics: Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine (Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1948); Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics--Ilya Prigogine and Isabelle Stengers, Order Out of Chaos: Mans New Dialogue with Nature (New York: Bantam Books, 1984); Cellular Automata Theory--John von Neumann, Collected Works, ed. A. H. Taub (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1963); Catastrophe Theory--Renee Thom, Structural Stability and Morphogenesis (Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1975); Autopoietic System Theory--H Maturana and F. Varela, The Tree of Knowledge: The Biological Roots of Human Understanding, Rev. ed. (Boston: Shambhala, 1992); Dynamic Systems Theory--R. Abraham and C. Shaw, Dynamics, 3 Vols. (Santa Cruz: Aerial, 1985); Chaos Theory--see James Gleick, Chaos: Making a New Science (New York: Viking, 1987), and M. Mitchell Waldrop, Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992). Arthur Koestler, The Ghost in the Machine (New York: Random House, 1976). Wilber, Spirituality, 16. A genuine holarchy should reveal Poppers qualitative emergence, Jantsch and Prigogines symmetry breaks or asymmetry, Aristotles inclusionary principle (higher includes lower, but not vice versa), Hegels developmental logic (higher negates and preserves lower, but not vice versa) , St. Gregorys chronological indicator (higher comes after lower, but all that is latter is not higher.) Wilber, Spirituality, 54-55. The Chalice & the Blade (San Francisco, Harper & Row, 1987), 105-106. Broken Web. Psychoanalysis works with shadow holons which refuse integration, critical social theory addresses ideological holons which distort open communication, democratic revolutions confront monarchical or fascist holons that oppress the body politic, medical science intervenes when cancerous holons invade a benign system, feminists critique and challenge patriarchal holons that dominate the public system, etc. Wilber, Spirituality, 22. For two articulate, forceful presentations of this romantic option see Paul Shepard, Nature and Madness (San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1982) and Wes Jackson, Altars of Unhewn Stone: Science and the Earth (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1987). Personal communication from German therapist/trainer/theoretician/writer Halko Weiss. Philosophical Discourse, Chapter X, 266ff. Charles Taylor, Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989), 27, 78. Wilber, Spirituality, 27-31, 61-63. See also Herman E. Daly and John B. Cobb, Jr., For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy Toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future (Boston; Beacon Press, 1989), 378. We do not share this view [the assertion of biocentric equality by deep ecologists]. We believe there is more intrinsic value in a human being than in a mosquito or a virus. We also believe that there is more intrinsic value in a chimpanzee or a porpoise than in an earthworm or a bacterium. This judgment of intrinsic value is quite different from the judgment of the importance of a species to the interrelated whole. The interrelated whole would probably survive the extinction of chimpanzees with little damage, but it would be seriously disturbed by the extinction of some species of bacteria. We believe that distinctions of this sort are important as guides to practical life and economic policy and that the insistence that a deep ecologist refuse to make them is an invitation to deep irrelevance. Claudio Naranjo, The One Quest (New York: Ballantine Books, 1972). Jacques Derrida, Positions (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1981); Michael Foucault, Power/Knowledge (New York: Pantheon, 1980); Jean-Francois Lyotard, The Postmodern Condition (Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1984); George Bataille, Visions of Excess, Ed. A. Stoekl, (Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1985) who build on the structuralist thought of Ferdinand de Saussure, Course in General Linguistics (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966). However, they usually stop short of Shelling, Hegel, and Kierkegaard who would argue that social practices (Marx, Habermas), worldviews (Gebser), linguistic structures (de Saussure), whole persons (Freud) only exist in the larger context of Spirit. In J. Sturrock, Structuralism and Since (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1979), 164. Jonathon Culler, On Deconstruction (Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1982), 215. Wilber, Spirituality, 39-40, 55, 73. In his Words in Reflection: Modern Language Theory and Postmodern Fiction (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1984), Allen Thiher puts it this way: I have used the word system, but this concept should now be placed under the appropriate rature. Derridas views of difference and the play of meanings it generates will not really be accommodated by the notion of a system. No system can contain the play of differance--note the graphic change that neither French nor English will differentiate orally. Differance is the neologism that Derrida coins in order to name how signs function differentially in opposition to other signs at the same time that they depend on deferring and referring to other signs for their meaning. In Saussurean terms, signs mean insofar as they function diacritically, through their differences; but meaning is also engaged in movement toward other signs, and hence signs perpetually defer. The sign is not a full presence in itself, but always sends us toward something other than itself, those other signs whose traces it bears. Insofar as one can speak of foundations in Derridas a-metaphysical world, differance is the foundation of conceptuality: Every concept is . . . inscribed in a chain or within a system within which it refers to the other, to other concepts by a systematic play of differences. Such a play, that of difference, is no longer simply a concept, but is the possibility of conceptuality, of conceptual process and systems in general. pp. 87-88. Fritjof Capra and David Steindl-Rast, Belonging to the Universe (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1991), xii. Other names for patterns: Aristotle = entelchy, Sheldrake = morphic unit/field, Koestler = regime, code, or canon, Wilber = deep structure. Wilber, Spirituality, 40, 79-80. Laszlo maintains that the principal features of dynamic systems are the attractors; they characterize the long-run behavior of the systems. Static attractors govern evolution when system states are relatively at rest; periodic attractors govern those systems which go through periodic repetitions of the same cycle; and chaotic attractors influence the organization of seemingly irregular, random, unpredictable systems (chaos theory). Laszlo, Evolution, 70. Lawrence LeShan, Cancer As A Turning Point (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1989); Viktor E. Frankl, The Unconscious God: Psychotherapy and Theology (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1975); This arche-trace contains within itself all the possibilities of manifestation as the primordial difference. This difference is the inherent teleological force within us that leads to self-manifestation. Harold Coward in his Derrida and Indian Philosophy (Albany: SUNY Press, 1990): 92; Habermas, Philosophical Discourse, 347; Charles Taylor, Hegel (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1975): 533; Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, The Divine Milieu (New York: Harper & Row, 1960), The Future of Man (New York: Harper & Row, 1964), Activation of Energy (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970); Wilber, Spirituality, 77. Ervin Laszlo, The Choice: Evolution or Extinction? (Los Angeles: Tarcher, 1994), 93. Jean Danielou, From Glory to Glory: Texts from Gregory of Nyssas Mystical Writings (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1961): 52. Gregory of Nyssa, The Life of Moses, A. Halherb and E. Ferguson, Trs. (New York: Paulist, 1978): 31. Wilber, Spirituality, 78. In contemporary theology see Juergen Moltmanns Theology of Hope: On the Ground and the Implications of a Christian Eschatology (New York: Harper & Row, 1967) and The Future of Creation (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1979). Laszlo, Evolution, 36. Ernst Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1982), 63. Wilber, Spirituality, 48. Wilber takes the word Kosmos from the Pythagoreans, and uses it in the most comprehensive sense to include all manifestations of life. It is contrasted with cosmos which includes only the external, physical aspects of life. Ken Wilber, A Sociable God: Toward A New Understanding of Religion (Boulder: Shambhala, 1983), 36. Wilber, Spirituality, 116. In Spirituality Wilber languaged the four quadrants in terms of the interior and exterior dimensions of individual and social holons yielding the four main aspects of intentional (II), behavioral (EI), cultural (IS), and social (ES) existence. In his more recent The Eye of Spirit: An Integral Vision for a World Gone Slightly Mad (Boston: Shambhala, 1997) Wilber contrasts the individual to the collective which allows the social quadrant to be more clearly exterior-collective (EC), and not have to do double duty for the cultural quadrant (interior-social), which is now interior-collective (IC). Cultural (IC) and social (EC) more clearly refer to interior values and exterior structures respectively. Wilber makes the case that the Enlightenment is guilty of fostering a subtle, as opposed to gross reductionism. The subtlety is that many thinkers call themselves holistic or ecological, and purposely set themselves in opposition to materialist atomists who would reduce all life ultimately to atoms in motion (Epicureans, Holbach, Le Mettrie, and more recently Gilbert Ryles student Daniel C. Dennett in his 1991 book Consciousness Explained by Little, Brown & Co., Boston). However, in proposing a model of nature as a harmonious whole where all the parts have a place in the system, humans are still reduced to the exterior aspects of their lives whose only value is as an instrumental means in the great interlocking web. And the question is left begging of what principle or power organizes all these parts into a greater whole. The Kosmos which is both vertically (interiorly) and horizontally (exteriorly) holarchic is reduced to a flatland cosmos that is only horizontally holarchic. The II and IC quadrants are reduced, not to the EI alone, but the EI and EC together, which is flatland holism as opposed to flatland atomism. Depth is flattened into span. See Wilber, Spirituality, 125-133. Foucault (Age of Man) sees this system-based instrumental mentality as the chief form of coercive power in the modern world. Habermas attacks systems theory as the great modern enemy of the lifeworld and develops his philosophy of the subject in opposition to it, and Taylor calls into question the disengaged subject of instrumentally interlocking orders. See Habermas, Philosophical Discourse, Chapter XII The Normative Content of Modernity, pp 336-367, and Taylor, Sources of the Self, 230-233 for a discussion of how religion and Baconian science conspired to make the instrumental stance central which could not but transform the understanding of the cosmos from an order of signs or Forms, whose unity lies in their relation to a meaningful whole, into an order of things producing reciprocal effects in each other, whose unity in Gods plan must be that of interlocking purposes. For a complimentary discussion of this reductionism issue see Lawrence LeShan and Henry Magenau, Einsteins Space & Van Goghs Sky (New York: Collier Books, 1982). Habermas, Philosophical Discourse, 313-314. (Bolding mine.) See Kevin J. Vanhoozer, Is There a Meaning in This Text: The Bible, The Reader, and the Morality of Literary Knowledge (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1998) who applies Habermas to Biblical hermeneutics. See also Robert Wuthnow, Meaning and Moral Order: Explorations in Cultural Analysis (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1987) for a nuanced discussion of social science research that honors the four quadrants. Wuthnow clarifies that Habermas also covers the four quadrants when he specifies four types of conditions under which a symbolic act is likely to be meaningful . . . each marked by a relation between the symbolic act and a relevant aspect of its environment: a relation with the speaker or actor, marked by sincerity or truth [II]; a relation with the external or factual world, marked by truth [EI]; a relation with language, marked by comprehensibility [IC]; and a relation with the social milieu, marked by legitimacy [EC]. (p. 344) See Wulffs Psychology of Religion for an excellent review of quadrant EI research. The person in pastoral care most associated with correlating the results of brain research is James B. Ashbrook. See his The Brain & Belief: Faith in the Light of Brain Research (Bristol: Wyndham Hall Press, 1988) and Minding the Soul: Pastoral Counseling as Remembering (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996). Some of the bodily aspects of being human that are faithful to Hebrew anthropology are considered in Zack Thomas, Healing Touch: The Churchs Forgotten Language (Louisville: Westminister/John Knox, 1994). An introduction to experimental design is offered in Larry VandeCreek, A Research Primer for Pastoral Care and Counseling (Journal of Pastoral Care Publications, Inc., 1988). Wilber follows Teilhard in arguing that greater depth and complexity reveals greater interiority or consciousness. His evolutionary progression in quadrant II follows the lead of Whitehead, Mahanyana Buddhism and others that affirms even atoms have a degree of consciousness which can be called prehension. He realizes that some biologists want to limit consciousness to the cellular level, and many more push it forward to primates or humans exclusively. This is an argument over details, since wherever the line of consciousness is drawn, it involves a distinction between interior and exterior. Wilber, Spirituality, 109-113. Charles Birch and John B. Cobb, Jr., The Liberation of Life (Denten: Environmental Ethics Books, 1990) concur with this general position. Anton T. Boisen should be acknowledged here as the twentieth century pioneer in pastoral care who suggested reading ourselves as living human documents. See his The Exploration of the Inner World (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1936). Even if there were the technology available to precisely reproduce the neural activity associated with my spiritual intuition, there are still interior-collective variables in play. For instance, William B. Plotkin of the University of Colorado discovered that if he suggested to biofeedback subjects that they were not yet in an alpha state, they would not experience the pleasant relaxation associated with it, even though they literally were in alpha. Conversely, suggesting to subjects they had arrived at the alpha state induced the relaxation response, even though they had not arrived. See my The Use of Biofeedback by Hakomi Therapists, Hakomi Forum No. 2 (Winter 1985): 33. Wilber, Spirituality, 124, 133-137. The symbolic transformation of the given is a concept from Suzanne Langer, Philosophy in a New Key, 2nd ed. (New York: Mentor, 1962). On Paul Ricoeur, see his Figuring the Sacred: Religion, Narrative, & Imagination (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995) and Walter James Lowe, Mystery & the Unconscious: A Study in the Thought of Paul Ricoeur (Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1972). Ken Wilber, Sociable God; 35. The issue is expressed biblically through the theme of covenant. See Walter Brueggemann, The Psalms & the Life of Faith, ed. Patrick D. Miller (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995), especially chapter eight, Covenanting as Human Vocation: The Relation of the Bible and Pastoral Care. Again, this is where feminist psychology of the self-in-relation has been helpful. See Jordan et al., Womens Growth. Wilber, Spirituality, 137-138. See also Mary Frohlich, The Intersubjectivity of the Mystic: A Study of Teresa of Avilas Interior Castle (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1993) for an important, non-reductionistic treatment of the intersubjective nature of life and spirituality which integrates resources from Bernard Lonergans theory of mediation, and Heinz Kohuts self psychology. The need for common values and identifiable boundaries for communal identity is taken up in pastoral care by Thomas C. Oden, Corrective Love: The Power of Communion Discipline (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1995). See also Charles V. Gerkin, Prophetic Pastoral Practice (Nashville: Abingdon, 1991); John Patton, Pastoral Care in Context (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1993); and the various works by Don S. Browning which are emphasizing the ethical nature of pastoral care practice including his The Moral Context of Pastoral Care (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1976), Religious Ethics and Pastoral Care (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983), and Religious Thought and the Modern Psychologies: A Critical Conversation in the Theology of Culture (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987). Jean Gebser, The Ever-Present Origin (Athens: Ohio Univ. Press, 1985). Wilber, Spirituality, 121. Wilbers earlier work in this area, Up From Eden: A Transpersonal View of Human Evolution (Garden City: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1981) integrated the work of Gebser on eras, Erich Neumann, The Origins and History of Consciousness (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1954) on psychological evolution, L. L. Whyte, The Next Development in Man (New York: Mentor, 1950), and Accent on Form (New York: Harpers, 1954) on biological evolution, and Joseph Campbell, The Masks of God, 4 vols. (New York: Viking, 1959-1968) on the development of mythology. Both Wilber and Habermas relate the eras of social evolution to Piagets stages of individual development. See Jean Piaget and Barbel Inhelder, The Psychology of the Child (New York: Basic Books, 1969). Habermas, whose work Wilber integrates in Spirituality, came to similar views independently and from a different perspective. In his Communication and the Evolution of Society (Boston: Beacon Press, 1979) Habermas writes, The structures of linguistically established intersubjectivity . . . are conditions of both social and personality systems. . . . If one examines social institutions and the action competencies of socialized individuals for general characteristics, one encounters the same structures of consciousness. . . . The reproduction of society and the socialization of its members are two aspects of the same process; they are dependent on the same structures. (pp. 98-99) In The Theory of Communicative Action: Vol 2 Lifeworld and System: A Critique of Functionalist Reason (Boston: Beacon Press, 1987) he adds, Society [can be] conceived from the perspective of acting subjects in the lifeworld [his term for worldspace] of a social group. In contrast, from the observers perspective of someone not involved, society can be conceived only as a system of actions such that each action has functional significance according to its contribution to the maintenance of the system. One can join the system concept of society with the lifeworld concept. . . . I would like to therefore propose (1) that we conceive of societies simultaneously as systems and lifeworlds. This concept proves itself in (2) a theory of social evolution that separates the rationalization of the lifeworld from the growing complexity of societal systems so as to make the connection Duerkheim envisaged between forms of social integration and stages of system differentiation tangible, that is, susceptible to empirical analysis. In pursuing these aims, I shall develop a concept of forms of mutual understanding [Verstandigungsform] in analogy to Lukacss concept of forms of objectivity [Gegenstandlichkeitsform]. (pp. 118-119) It should be noted that neither Wilber nor Habermas are simply rehashing the phylogenetic and ontogenetic parallels of Ernst von Haeckel (1834-1919) which have been criticized as old and outmoded. They are both pursuing a reconstructive science, using data already given, and noticing the homologous patterns and structures of micro and macro evolution in line with Asimov, Arieti, Sheldrake, and the others listed above. See Wilber, Spirituality, 148-152, and D. Rothberg, Contemporary Epistemology and the Study of Mysticism, in R. Forman (ed.), The Problem of Pure Consciousness (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1990). In the realm of psychoanalysis, which has traditionally majored in intrapsychic phenomenon, there is an increasing effort to integrate sensitivity to cultural issues. In addition to the works of Erik Erickson see Joan Berzoff, Laura Flanagan, and Patricia Herz, Inside Out and Outside In: Psychodynamic Clinical Theory and Practice in Contemporary Multicultural Contexts (Northvale: Jason Aronson, 1996); Rose Marie Foster, Michael Moskowitz, and Rafael Javier, eds., Reaching Across Boundaries of Culture and Class: Widening the Scope of Psychotherapy (Northvale: Jason Aronson, 1996); Jefferson Fish, Culture and Therapy: An Integrative Approach (Northvale: Jason Aronson, 1996), as well as the broader based Derald Sue and David Sue, Counseling the Culturally Different: Theory & Practice (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990). Wilber, Spirituality, 126-129, 138-139, 146-147. Wilber, Sociable God, 8-11. See Clifford Cobb, Ted Halstead, and Jonathan Rowe, If the GDP is Up, Why is America Down? The Atlantic Monthly (October 1995): 59-78. In pastoral care see A. J. vanden Blink, Pastoral Counseling and Pastoral Psychotherapy: The Impact of Social Change and Social Difference, and Larry Kent Graham, From Relational Humanness to Relational Justice: Reconceiving Pastoral Care and Counseling, both in Couture and Hunters Pastoral Care and Social Conflict. For classic perspectives see Thomas C. Oden, Ministry Through Word & Sacrament (New York: Crossroad, 1989) Chap. 7 Care of Community, and his Crisis Ministries (New York: Crossroad, 1986) Chap. 5 Care of the Poor. Wilber, Spirituality, 99-101. Enclosed quote from Taylor in E. Jantsch and C. Waddinton, eds., Evolution and Consciousness (Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1976), 173. In her Stages of Grace (San Francisco: Harper, 1991), Charlene Spretnak summarizes Morris Bermans position as saying the contemporary quest for holism is just as formal, abstract, value-free, and disembodied as the mechanistic paradigm it seeks to replace. Quoted in Wilber, Spirituality, 141. See also page 143. For a model anthropological study which takes seriously many aspects of the four quadrants in its analysis see Karen McCarthy Brown, Mama Lola: A Vodou Priestess in Brooklyn (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1991). For instance, the example of Albert Schweitzer, Reverence For Life: Sermons 1900-1919 (New York: Irvington, 1993). And, the report of psychotherapists in Howard Clinebell, Ecotherapy: Healing Ourselves, Healing the Earth (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996), 92: People with more universalized value/meaning systems tend to be more sensitive to the environment. The more narcissistic clients use the environment and value it as something to serve them. Also Williams, Spiritually Aware Pastoral Care (New York: Paulist, 1992), 7: The suspicion that true contemplation is an escape into pietism, that it is an ivory tower defense against the world is unfounded. The great spiritual guides insist that recovering a contemplative attitude clears blocks and releases the energy needed for our effective involvement in the world; furthermore, that our involvement is a test of a valid spirituality. The social service record of the Society of Friends (Quakers) is an outstanding example. Also Downey, Understanding: The spiritual dimension of the person describes the ability that human beings possess which enables them to transcend or break out beyond themselves and the limits of self-isolation, self-preoccupation, and self-absorption. (p. 33) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contemplative prayer understood as nonpragmatic regard for created reality reaches its fullest expression in mystical experience which alone stands to eradicate narcissism, pragmatism, and unrelenting restlessness, which block full participation in the divine life. Authentic social and cultural transformation require spiritual transformation in and through contemplation of the unfathomable mystery immutably disclosed in Christ through the Spirit of God, Spirit of Christ. (p. 150) Wilber, Spirituality, 192-95, 199-201, 254-257. See Williams, Spiritually Aware, 7, and Clinebell, Ecotherapy, 89-124. In the classic tradition the qualitative difference between actions inspired through contemplations of the Spirit were contrasted with inferior ones done out of social role consciousness. In particular, St. Maximus wrote that contemplation without action . . . differs in no way from imagination, from fantasy. . . . Similarly, action, if it is not inspired by contemplation, is as sterile and rigid as a statue. Quoted in Vladamir Lossky, The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church (New York: St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1974), 202-03. In Good & Evil Farley agrees with the interdependence of the personal, cultural, and social realms, but then argues for the primacy of the cultural, interhuman process. See Theodore Wesley Jennings, Jr., Man As the Subject of Existence: A Study of Post-Hegelian Anthropologies in Continental Theology (Ph.D. diss, Emory University, 1971), 149-154, for a critique of overemphasizing dyadic, interpersonal models. When discussing modes of consciousness in various time periods, Wilber is referring to the average mode of consciousness. This is different than extraordinary individuals who might have displayed the mode much earlier. See his The Atman Project. Marxism was a rational attempt to build on the commonality of social labor, but ended up reducing all cultural endeavors to the economic-material realm. The resistance this induced forced Marxism into a mythological, imperialistically defended stance. Likewise the Green Movement does not simply recognize a common dependence on Gaia, it reduces the noosphere to biospheric ecological exchange and short circuits the possibilities of a deeper awareness and higher embrace of a wider vision. Wilber, Spirituality, 174-183, 192-195. Wilber, Spirituality, 184-192, 513-514, 278, and Chapter 8 The Depths of the Divine. See also his Transformations for detailed accounts of stages. Infantile pre-personal fusion is a unity structure, prior to subject-object differentiation, a form of paradise. To move beyond it into the dualistic realm of subject-object ego states however, is not to lose a metaphysically higher state or become alienated from ones true self. It is good that individuals move through magic and mythical stages of thinking into rationality, as the necessary foundation for further transcendence into realms that are rational-plus. For Wilber, it is erroneous and odious to compare pre-personal ignorance, which is at one with the material-biological realms, with trans-personal awakening which is at one with the entire spectrum of consciousness, though he is aware that such thinkers as Jung, Neumann, Norman O. Brown, Watts, Campbell and others have tended to do just that. Likewise, Wilber considers the id to be precisely what Freud says it was, the domain of primary process, instinctual, emotional drivenness. The timelessness of the id through pre-temporal ignorance is not be confused with the transcendent timelessness of transpersonal states which are aware of linear time and the immediate present, but not anchored in either. The attempts of contemporary psychoanalysts such as Brown, Loewald, and Blanko to redefine the id in such a way that legitimates timeless, unity consciousness is not helpful. See Ken Wilber, The Spectrum of Consciousness (Wheaton: Theosophical Publishing House, 1977) and The Atman Project: A Transpersonal View of Human Development (Wheaton: Theosophical Publishing House, 1980). Wilber, Sociable God, 16. Wilber, Spirituality, 206-207. Theodore W. Jennings, Jr., Beyond Theism: A Grammar of God-Language (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 69, 226. On Jacques Lacan, see his The Language of the Self: The Function of Language in Psychoanalysis, Anthony Wilden, trans. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1968), and Bice Benvenuto and Roger Kennedy, The Works of Jacques Lacan: An Introduction (New York: St. Martins Press, 1986). Of related interest is Rom Harre, Ed., The Social Construction of Emotions (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986) which deals with the kindred constructionist position in philosophy. Bebe Speed challenges those radical constructivists who absolutize the subject and reduce all reality to interior perceptions in his arguments for co-constructionism which acknowledges both the interior knower and the exterior known. See his How Really Real is Real? Family Process 23: 511-20 and his Reality Exists, OK? An Argument against Constructivism and Social Construction, Journal of Family Therapy Vol. 13, No. 4 (1991): 395-410, as cited in Andrew D. Lester, Hope in Pastoral Care and Counseling (Louisville: Westminister John Know Press, 1995), 156. See Wilber, Spirituality, 268-272 for references to the following discussion of language. The delineation of levels of understanding goes back in the tradition of the church to Origen and his method of allegorical interpretation (with roots in Philo). The following is Origin in his De Principiic quoted in Allan Menzies, The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. X (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1986), 292. As man consists of body, soul, and spirit, so in the same way does Scripture, which has been arranged to be given by God for the salvation of man. Scripture, therefore, has three senses, the bodily (somatic) or the obvious matter-of-fact sense, the psychical or moral sense, which serves for edification of the pious, and, highest of all, the spiritual sense. In contemporary literature see James W. Fowler, Faith Development and Pastoral Care (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987). See also William E. Baldridge and John J. Gleason, Jr., A Theological Framework for Pastoral Care, Journal of Pastoral Care Vol. 32 No. 4 (December, 1978): 232-238, who in contemporary times use Paul Tillichs system of three spiritual worlds which relate to the symbols of the faith in three different ways, paralleling Origen, in the practice of pastoral care. See Tillichs chapter on Symbols of Faith, in his Dynamics. For instance Quentin L. Hand, Pastoral Counseling as Theological Practice, Journal of Pastoral Care Vol. 32 No. 2 (June 1978): 100-110, as simply one example. Experience is the source of all awareness of others, of world, of God. . . . Theology as a reasoned statement and doing theology as reflection upon ones faith commitment, must always see the human experience as its basis. (p. 101). Kant = God connected with moral language; Braithwaite and Paul Van Buren = God-talk promoting a way of life; Schleiermacher = faith and a sense of absolute dependence; Otto = faith and the apprehension of the holy through the mysterium tremendum; William Hocking = God and the sense of a single, absolute person; Tillich = theology and the unconditional awareness of the absolute; Gordon Kaufman = sense of limit; Schubert Ogden = an underlying confidence in being; John Cobb = a sense of being lured into the future and greater awareness of life; Peter Berger = desire for order, character of joyful play, sense of hope, sense of moral outrage, and the character of humor; Langdon Gilkey = a multiplicity of indicators found negatively in an absence of meaning and positively in the senses of joy, creativity, and courage, as well as the freedom, guilt, and acceptance found in relationships; Thomas Oden = theology and the burden of the past, the threat of the future, the void of the now, and the issue of authentic living.  See Jennings, Beyond, 9-12, 50, 69, 135-36, 214, 217. This concentrates on the talk or acts of God, what Eastern Orthodox theologians would call the uncreated energies of God. See George A. Maloney, A Theology of Uncreated Energies (Milwaukee: Marquette Univ. Press, 1978). It brackets the question of the being of God as the referent or antecedent cause of the experience. Speculating on the interferences of a supernatural being or the dynamics of unconscious desire deflects attention away from the experience and reifies a theoretical construct about the experience. Jennings, Beyond, 44-46, 65-66, 214 See Paul Ricoeur, On Interpretation, in The Transformation of Philosophy: Hermeneutics, Rhetoric, Narrative, 374-75. There is no self-understanding that is not mediated by signs, symbols, and texts; in the last resort understanding coincides with the interpretation given to these mediating terms. . . . That is to say that it is language that is the primary condition of all human experience. Perception is articulated, desire is articulated. . . . Psychoanalysis, as a talk-cure is based on . . . the primary proximity between desire and speech. See Althea J. Horner, Object Relations and the Developing Ego in Therapy (New York: Jason Aronson, 1979), 9-10. See Martin Heidegger, Discourse On Thinking (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1966): 58-68; Rudolf Bultmann, Jesus and the Word (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1958), 10ff.; Fritz Buri, How Can We Still Speak Responsibly of God? (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1968). Benvenuto and Kennedy, Lacan, 172. Paul Ricoeur, Interpretation Theory: Discourse and the Surplus of Meaning (Fort Worth: Texas Christian Univ. Press, 1976), 52, 63-64. Thiher, Words, 93. See also my The Birth and Death of Meaning: Selective Implications of Linguistics for Psychotherapy, Hakomi Forum No. 12 (Summer 1996). See the chapters on Fichte, Hegel, and Kierkegaard in Schmidts Development of Self for an excellent discussion of growth through encounter with otherness. In terms of philosophical theology, Louis Dupre argues in his Religious Mystery and Rational Reflection: Excursions in the Phenomenology and Philosophy of Religion (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1998), 116, Cultural elements may prepare humans for expressing a new experience of the transcendent in preexisting models and concepts, but nothing prepares or disposes us for the experience itself. Jennings, Beyond, 58-74 passim for last three paragraphs. Elizabeth A. Johnson, She Who is: The Mystery of God in Feminist Theological Discourse (New York: Crossroad, 1994), 237. Jennings, Man As the Subject, 159. Jacob Firet, Dynamics In Pastoring (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1986), 135-191. Stanley Hauerwas, Character and the Christian Life: A Study in Theological Ethics (San Antonio: Trinity Univ. Press, 1985). Ann Baranowski, Ritual Alone: Cognition and Meaning of Patterns In Time (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Toronto, 1994). William Hordern, Experience and Faith: The Significance of Luther for Understanding Todays Experiential Religion (Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1983). Runyon, The Importance. Larry Short, Mysticism, Mediation, and the Non-Linguistic, Journal of the American Academy of Religion LXIII, No. 4 (Winter 1995): 661. Short, Mysticism, 663. See Gerald G. May, Will and Spirit: A Contemplative Psychology (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1982) for a discussion of the commonness of unitive experiences as well as the fear of ego dissolution which seldom allows them into consciousness. Steven T. Katz, ed., Mysticism and Philosophical Analysis (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1978); Robert K. Forman, ed., The Problem of Pure Consciousness (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1990). Another source which discusses the issue of pure consciousness, its mediation, and its implication for ethics is Newman Robert Glass, Working Emptiness: Toward a Third Reading of Emptiness In Buddhism and Postmodern Thought (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1995). Personal communication from Halko Weiss. Arthur Peacocke, Theology for a Scientific Age: Being and Becoming--Natural, Divine, and Human (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1993). Theodore W. Jennings, Jr., Introduction to Theology: An Invitation to Reflection upon the Christian Mythos (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1976), 6-7. In calling theology a science I have no intention, however, of trading on the prestige of physics, chemistry, or biology. I only wish to draw the attention of my fellow students of theology to the presence of a certain methodological rigor in this field of inquiry which makes us responsible to one another in the rendering of clear, cogent, and one might even say, correct theological judgments. Theology is not or ought not to be a haven for all inarticulate sputterings about human life or Christian faith nor the sort of lunatic asylum where everyone does his or her own thing without facing the responsibility of giving an account for such speaking, writing, or gesticulating which is, or purports to be, of theological significance. . . . If theology is in some ways like a science, it is in others far more like poetry. It is really this latter--the relation of theology to the imagination--which is at the heart of the perspective which we seek to elaborate. (p.7) For a collection of other views on the relation of theology to science see Robert Russell, William Stoeger, and George Coyne, eds, Physics, Philosophy, and Theology: A Common Quest for Understanding (Vatican City State: Vatican Observatory, 1988), Holmes Rolston, Science and Religion: A Critical Survey (New York: Random House, 1987), Ken Wilber, ed., The Holographic Paradigm and Other Paradoxes (Boulder: Shambhala, 1982), Nancy Murphy, Theology in the Age of Scientific Reasoning (Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1990), Ian Barbour, Religion in An Age of Science (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1990), and Stephen Hawking, A Brief History of Time (Toronto: Bantam, 1988). Peacocke, Scientific Age, 22-23. In reference to the preceding paragraphs see Peacockes introductory chapter, The Theological and Scientific Enterprises, pp. 1-23. See also Wolfhart Pannenberg, Theology and the Philosophy of Science, trans. F. McDonagh (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1976). Wilber, Spirituality, 274-75. [Even though it is true that a] paradigm is a matter of consensus, not correspondence about what type of data should be disclosed, . . . in the academic world of the two cultures, many theorists in the under-funded humanities (and virtually everybody in the New Age movement) seized upon the notion of paradigm as a way to undercut the authority of normal science, bolster their own departments, reduce empirical facts to arbitrary social conventions -- and then propose their own, new and improved paradigm. In all of these, paradigm was mistaken as some sort of overall theory or concept or notion, the idea being that if you came up with a new and better theory, the factual evidence could be ignored because that was just old paradigm. Among other things, this meant that empirical science didnt really show any progress, but was merely a shifting of opinions (paradigms) that had no referent except in the arbitrary conventions of scientists (and these conventions were always charged with some sort of ism that the new paradigm would overcome.) By collapsing paradigm into a mere theory, the scientific enterprise could be collapsed into various forms of literary chitchat and the new masters of the universe were therefore the literary critics and New Ageers who could offer a new paradigm that redressed the ugliness of the old. . . . What was ignored is that paradigms are first and foremost injunctions, actual practices, methods for disclosing new data in an addressed domain. They work because they are true in any meaningful sense of the word. They make real progress. Neither New Ageers nor new paradigmers had anything resembling a new paradigm because all they offered was more talk-talk. No new techniques, no new methodologies, no new examplars or injunctions. . . . [This was] a misreading of Kuhn and a pseudo-attempt to trump normal science with a favored ideological reading of the Kosmos. Wilber, Spirituality, 266, 273-74, See also Wilbers, Eye to Eye: The Quest for the New Paradigm (New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1983) for more on his theory of knowledge which integrates St. Bonaventures three eyes of the soul (flesh, reason, and contemplation). See Bonaventure, Ewert Cousins, trans. (Ramsey: Paulist, 1978), esp. The Souls Journey Into God 51-116. In his book C. S. Lewis on Scripture (Nashville: Abingdon, 1979), Michael Christensen notes that Like Plato and Aristotle, Lewis distinguishes between two kinds of knowledge. Savoir is descriptive knowledge about Reality, subject to the laws of logic and reason. . . . Connaitre, in contrast, is knowledge of Reality, apprehended by acquaintance with and participation in what has often been called the Divine Logos. A person in touch with Ultimate Reality in the intimate, intuitive, imaginative sense of connaitre has access to divine revelation, though his rational interpretation of his experience is subject to distortion and his communication to error. While science and philosophy are concerned with abstract, descriptive knowledge of the cosmos, religion is concerned with who man is in relation to who God is, with what is Beautiful, Just and Good. Knowledge of these universals requires divine acquaintance, some tasting of Love Himself. 49-50. For a discussion of mystic knowledge through love and Aquinas theory of connaturality see William Johnston, Mystical Theology: The Science of Love (London: HarperCollins Publishers, 1995). Rowan Williams, Christian Spirituality: A Theological History from the New Testament to Luther and St. John of the Cross (Atlanta: John Knox, 1979) and Diogenes Allen, Spiritual Theology: The Theology of Yesterday for Spiritual Help Today (Cambridge: Cowley, 1997) also contain discussions of spiritual approaches to knowledge. Wilber, Spirituality, 268-276. In reference to the reconstruction of contemplative knowledge, Wilber affirms that the fallibilist criteria does not prevent contemplative traditions from possessing culture-bound trappings, contexts, and interpretations. But to the extent that the contemplative endeavor discloses universal aspects of the Kosmos, the deep structures of the contemplative traditions would be expected to show cross-cultural similarities at the various levels of depth created/disclosed by the meditative injunctions and paradigms. Deep structures are cross culturally similar, surface structures quite different. Just as the human mind universally grows images and symbols and concepts (though the contents vary), so the human spirit universally grows intuitions of the Divine, and those developmental signifieds unfold in an evolutionary and reconstructable fashion, just like any other holon in the Kosmos (and their referents are just as real as any other similarly disclosed data.) (p. 276) Jennings, Beyond, 69, 73. Jennings, Beyond, 124-25. For instance, a horizontal scale of one to ten can be devised that assesses legitimacy (RD-8) in terms of translative power. A similar vertical scale can measure authenticity (RD-9) in terms of transformative power. Then, Maoism in its hey-day might be said to have a fairly high degree of legitimacy (8 or 9) but a mediocre degree of authenticity (5 or 6, because it offered adaptation only on the mythic-rational levels.) Wilber would rate the Soviet Marxism/Leninism of past years at the same level of authenticity as Maoism, but score it lower on the legitimacy scale (4 or 5) because its mana and immortality symbols had to be backed by rather large sticks; which did in the end lead to a breakdown in legitimacy. Mahayana Buddhism in India is an example of a highly authentic religion with no legitimacy. It died in India. Venanta Hinduism in India from the time of Gaudapado and Shankara to the British intensified occupation exemplified both high legitimacy and authenticity. Wilber gives the American Civil Religion (a combination of Protestant piety and American nationalism) that Robert Bellah talks about, the same general grades in its hey-day as he does Maoism (8-9, 5-6). He disagrees strongly with Bellahs statement that civil religion at its best was a genuine apprehension of universal and transcendental reality. Now, say what you will, civil religion per se, even at its best, did not produce anything resembling real satori, maksha, or genuine apprehension of very Spirit. (Wilber, Psychology/Sociology, 82). Bellahs problem for Wilber is that he uses an RD-2, RD-8 view of religion as a holistic, meaningful integrator of subject and object, but lacks any vertical (RD-9) dimension. Bellahs good work in maintaining that religion should be treated as religious is clouded by a questionable use of non-reductionism. Reductionism for Wilber should refer to deplorable attempts to explain higher domains by lower ones. Bellahs use of reductionism can degenerate into not saying anything about a domain other than what it wished to say about itself. As he outlined above and in Eye to Eye, Wilber does not agree with Bellah that religion, unlike science, has no verifiable (testable) cognitive truth-claim. (Psychology/Sociology, 83.) Wilber takes offense that symbolic realism can accord eminent status to what might simply be childish fixations. (p. 81) Likewise, he says that what Bellah terms postreligious is really postmythic and postconventional, but pre-authentic religious. Again, Wilber thinks humanity has to go through rationality and not around it to get to authentic spirituality. Rationalitys major purpose in the overall scheme of evolution might be to strip spirit of its infantile and childish associations, parental fixations, wish fulfillments, dependency yearnings, and symbolic gratifications. When Spirit is thus de-mythologized, it can be approached as Spirit, in its Absolute Suchness (tathata), and not as Cosmic Parent. (p. 79) Wilber applauds the efforts of Anthony and Robbins (See The Anthony Typology: A Framework for Assessing Spiritual and Consciousness Groups, by Dick Anthony and Bruce Ecker in Dick Anthony, Bruce Ecker, and Ken Wilber, eds., Spiritual Choices: The Problem of Recognizing Authentic Paths to Inner Transformation (New York: Paragon House, 1987)) to supplement Bellahs work by introducing Chomskys distinction between deep structures and surface structures. They make a place for universal mysticism as the deep structure for which particular religions are surface structure manifestations. In itself, however, this suggestion leads in Wilbers mind to the untenable conclusion that universal mysticism is the deep structure for Maoism, American Civil Religion, Vendanta, Zen, and the Rhineland mystics. For Wilber, the prior distinction between legitimate and authentic religions in the full spectrum is being missed. If this is taken into account, then it would be realized that each level has its own deep structures which manifest various surface structures. The deep structure of the mythic to rational level gives rise to Maoism and Civil Religion. Mysticism per se (panentheistic, theistic, or monistic) is the deep structure of which only the authentic religions (yogic, saintly, or sagely) are surface structures. (p. 87) Instead of assuming that there was one basic, mystical deep structure of religion present at the first religious expression, so that religious history is the mere shuffling of various surface structures, Wilber argues that deep structures (though they are a-historical in themselves) emerge and evolve with their attendant surface manifestations. There is not only evolution of surface structures, but revolution of deep structures. Ernst Cassirer, An Essay on Man (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1944) and The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms, 3 vols. (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1955). Jennings also recommends Ray Hart, Unfinished Man and the Imagination (New York: Herder and Herder, 1968) and Karl Rahner, Spirit in the World, trans. William Dych (New York: Herder and Herder, 1968). See Kevin Fauteux, The Recovery of Self: Regression and Redemption in Religious Experience (Mahwah: Paulist, 1994) for a more positive view of regression. Jennings, Introduction, 17; Cassirer, An Essay, 26; Jennings, 13. Ricoeur, The Symbolism of Evil (Boston: Beacon Press, 1969), 348. On bodily aspects of knowing see Mark Johnson, The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and Reason (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1987) and Margaret R. Miles, Practicing Christianity: Critical Perspectives for an Embodied Spirituality (New York: Crossroads, 1990). For more on the organization of experience see Kurtz, Body-Centered and Robert D. Stolorow, Bernard Brandchaft, and George E. Atwood, Psychoanalytic Treatment: An Intersubjective Approach (Hillsdale: The Analytic Press, 1987). It is sometimes said, though I think incorrectly, that the symbol abolishes the subject-object distinction. That would not be mediation or participation but confusion. Instead, the symbol brings to awareness simultaneously interior and exterior, subjective and objective, by establishing between them a mutuality of meaning. (Jennings, 46.) Sallie McFague has also provided an influential discussion of language, symbols, and experience in her Methaphorical Theology: Models of God in Religious Language (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1982). Jennings, Introduction, 22-29. See Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams, trans James Strachey (New York: Avon, 1965) and Carl Jung, Two Essays on Analytical Psychology, trans. R.F.C. Hull (Cleveland: Meridian Books, 1956), and Man and His Symbols (New York: Dell, 1968). In the psychoanalytic literature Anton O. Kris in his book Free Association: Methods and Process (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1982), 10, has suggested possible organizers of experience could be frustrated desires, forgotten fears, rekindled injuries, internal conflicts, memories of relationships, enduring character traits. The concept of core organizing belief suggests that any significant desire, fear, injury, conflict, or memory becomes part of a larger pattern of meaning that organizes life in the present. Organisms cannot tolerate not making sense out of individual events. For more detail see Kurtz, Body-Centered and Stolorow, Psychoanalytic Treatment. In his Hope, Lester provides a helpful overview of narrative function which integrates the work of Stephen D. Crites, The Narrative Quality of Experience, Journal of the American Academy of Religion 39 (September 1971). See Soren Kierkegaard, Fear and Trembling/The Sickness unto Death, trans. Walter Lowrie (Garden City: Doubleday, 1954), Don P. McAdams, The Stories We Live By: Personal Myths and The Making of the Self (New York: Wm. Morrow, 1993), Stanley Hauerwas, Story and Theology, Religion and Life (Autumn 1976), Kenneth J. Gergen and Mary M. Gergen, eds., Historical Social Psychology (Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1984), Jerome Bruner, Acts of Meaning (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1990), Paul Ricoeur, Time and Narrative, vol. 1, trans. Kathleen McLaughlin and David Pellauer (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1984), and more. Lester concentrates especially on the power and importance of the narrative future for pastoral care. Here, Juergen Moltmanns Theology of Hope (New York: Harper & Row, 1967) is an important theological resource. Another powerful resource from psychology that Lester does not deal with is LeShans, Cancer where LeShans research reveals that immune system function is only improved when a patient is enabled to walk into the future with hope. Likewise Crites suggests that despair is the failure to pro-ject myself hopefully into the future. (p. 172). Edward P. Wimberly, Recalling Our Own Stories: Spiritual Renewal for Religious Caregivers (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997) applies narrative approaches to burnout among religious workers. See Daniel Beaumont, The Modality of Narrative: A Critique of Some Recent Views of Narrative in Theology, Journal of the American Academy of Religion Vol. LXV No. 1 (Spring 1997): 125-139, who calls into question some of the overly enthusiastic equations of experience and narrative by Crites, Hauerwas, Burrell, and others. Why confuse language with life? (p. 38). Also: What is--or what ought to be--at stake here is not the narrative form in which experience is somehow already found but rather the preconditions of narrative, the way in which the narratable arises for the subject--those conditions that seem to call for narrativization. For discussion of this one may look to three places: to structuralism where Greimass square of signification attempts to generate syntactic relations from paradigmatic ones; to Ricoeurs phenomenology and his circle of narrative; or, as is my inclination, to psychoanalytic theories of narrative in the work of such people as Peter Brooks, Robert Con Davis, Shoshana Felman, Jeffrey Mehlman, and Ronald Schleifer, to name only a few. To my mind, the notion of narrative as reenacting the movement of human desire goes farther than any other theory in explaining the satisfactions narrative has for us. What is more, the Lacanian concept of refente, the splitting of the subject, as an inaugural event, similarly helps to explain the condition in the subject that calls for narrativization. (p. 138) See Haim Omer and Nahi Alon, Constructing Therapeutic Narratives (Northvale: Jason Aronson, 1997) which picks up the discussion of splitting. For previous two paragraphs see Jennings, Introduction, 30-36. John Navone, Toward a Theology of Story (Slough, England: St. Paul Publications, 1977), 78 quoted in Lester, Hope, 37. See Barbours section, The Social Construction of Science in his Religion In An Age, 73-81. See Riet Bons-Storms Incredible Women for an account of how self-narratives, sociocultural narratives, and dominant psychological narratives all come to bear in the pastoral care of women. See also Herbert Anderson and Edward Foley, Mighty Stories: Dangerous Rituals Weaving Together the Human and the Divine (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998) for how stories and rituals work together to provide meaning, along with their potential to conceal and organize out the fullness of meaning. Jennings, Introduction, 38, 42. This approach is congruent with Feuerbachs statement that God does not exist in sense perception or in reason but only in faith, that is, imagination, but does not entail any reductionism or inherent atheism. Theology is not equated with anthropology, but it is maintained that religion . . . springs from human beings and is expressive of their greatest aspiration and of their own essential nature. (p.39) Humans are indeed animal quaerens. No judgment is made on the objective reality of God, but only the now commonplace is asserted that God is present to reflection only as mediated and represented. See Ludwig Feuerbach, Lectures on the Essence of Religion, trans Ralph Manheim (New York: Harper and Row, 1967), 180. For additional theological reflections on the implications of Christian humanism see R. William Franklin and Joseph M. Shaw, The Case for Christian Humanism (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1991). For additional, psychologically informed, positive valuations of imaginative function see Paul Pruyser, The Play of the Imagination (International Universities Press, 1983) and D. W. Winnicott, Playing and Reality (London: Tavistock Publications, 1982). Note also the agreement of Mircea Eliade, Patterns in Comparative Religion, trans. Rosemary Sheed (New York: Sheed and War, 1958), 29, quoted in Jennings, 42. In fact, this paradoxical coming-together of sacred and profane, being and non-being, absolute and relative, the eternal and the becoming, is what every hierophany (manifestation of the sacred), even the most elementary, reveals. Jennings, Introduction, 42-43. See also Wolfhart Pannenbergs discussion of God as the unifying unity of totality of the system in his chapter Theology and the Categories Part and Whole in his Metaphysics & the Idea of God (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1990), 130-152. Jennings, Introduction, 46-47. Paul Tillich, Dynamics of Faith (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1958), 51, and also 41-43 for characteristics of symbols. See Owen Barfield, Saving the Appearances: A Study in Idolatry (New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World, 1965) for a discussion of the modern error of thinking of language as a literal transcription than ends up substituting the image for the real and results in the heresies of fundamentalism and biblical literalism. Jennings, 44. Bultmanns demythologizing program, while exemplary in expositing the existential issues of the kerygma, missed the necessity of religious language being symbolic and mythical. Ricoeur has subsequently outlined a distinction between the explanatory and exploratory character of mythic language, Evil, 5. Explanation assumes the status of scientific description. Exploration is the symbolic mediation which relates human life to the sacred in a non-reducible, non-replaceable way, and provokes unending reflection. Jennings, 48-49. Emilio Betti, Die Hermeneutik als allgemine Methodik der Geisteswissenschaften, 2nd edn. (Tubingen: Mohr, 1972), 7, cited in Thiselton, Interpreting, 42. Christensen, Lewis, 52. Christensen, Lewis, 63. On the function of parables see Hendrikus Boers, Theology Out of the Ghetto: A New Testament Exegetical Study Concerning Religious Exclusiveness (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1971), 22-25. All language, of course, is an experience. But, as Gerald May outlines, there is a progression in the transmutation of energy through physiological response, emotion formation, memory association, image formation, behavioral evaluation, and more. The products of the imagination remain closer to the energetic base of reality and are therefore better able to mediate it than meta-theories about the imaginative products. Gerald May, Will & Spirit, 178-189. Christensen, Lewis, 43-80. Kouwenaar quoted in Jacob Firet, Dynamics, 8. Ricoeur, Interpretation Theory, 67-68. Notice Ricoeur's reference to scientific language in the quote. See his discussion of scientific models page 66ff. Jennings, Introduction, 49-54. For previous two paragraphs Jennings, Introduction, 54-57. In his article On being religious, in Contact: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Pastoral Studies 121 (1996): 9-14, Roger Grainer also underscores the importance of transformation in terms of the rupture of normal experience when defining religiousness. As Tim Gorringe points out [Discerning Spirit (London, 1990), 1, 25], A non-engaging God is no God: all theology starts from this premise. The effect of Gods initiative is to transform our experience, for Revelation happens in the context of dissonance between our experience and the interpretation tradition offers. (p. 12) In Hope, 39, Lester offers that since all human life is storied, we must give shape to our religious experience through narrative structuring. As we encounter the numinous in what James Loder calls the transforming moment and convictional experience, we form stories to make sense of these experiences. It can also be true that God is experienced as absent, and Gods future appears as unseen, unknown, and unfinished. This can be integrated in a sacred story, such as the Christian, which has a core narrative based on a core belief that God is with us, whether absent or present. However, Gerkins point is that when our personal story has no overlap of experience with that of our faith community, there is a crisis of overall meaning. Thus, the rationale for Thomas C. Odens trilogy on the classic consensus in systematic theology: The Living God (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1987), The Word of Life (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1989), and Life in the Spirit (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1992). The object of study in theology must be carefully stated. It is God as known in the faith of a living community. This study seeks to know an investigatable reality and thus is not merely speculation. For there actually exists in history a community of persons who hold steadfastly to Christian faith in God. Yet since God is not an object, it is inexact to assert that God is directly, flatly, or empirically viewable as an object of theology. God does not, for our convenience, become a direct object of scientific investigation, since God by definition is not finite and thus not subject to the measurements required by empirical sciences. . . . God is Spirit is the only direct definition of God Jesus ever gave (John 4:24). . . . God as Spirit cannot be objectified in the same way that bodily and physical matter may be viewed as objects. . . . Pneuma (spirit), like the wind, is known only by its effects. (Living God, 3, 88.) In terms of philosophical theology, Louis Dupre argues in his Religious Mystery: The experience of those who lived at a time when the original impact of Jesus appearance was still alive was in a unique way privileged. Yet that original experience reaches us exclusively through Scripture. Scriptural expression, then, must remain the final authoritative basis of our own experience. . . . Since it is the expressed experience of the early communities that lies at the origin our own, and since this expression indissolubly combines experience and interpretation, the entire New Testament text retains a unique authority. (p. 113) In terms of dialogue with the broader tradition, Dupre writes: Instead of a single, privileged Jesus experience at the beginning, I would rather posit a continuing process of interpreted experience, of which with respect to later generations the first stage was not completed until it was codified, long after most eyewitnesses had died, in what later became the canonical text. The process would constantly pass through new experiences and interpretations, all of which, however, remain both subjectively and objectively dependent upon the original, interpreted experience. (p. 117) See Jennings, Introduction, 79-82 for a discussion of why theology is said to reflect on the Christian mythos as opposed to the being of God (Aquinas), faith (Buri-Schleiermacher), communal beliefs and attitudes (Ritschl), or the Word of God (Barth). In brief, mythos is more inclusive than these other options which do not cover the four quadrants and therefore risk theology being reduced to psychology, sociology, or ontology. The mythos which creates and sustains beliefs, values, and a community must also be able to stand over against it as a prod to transformation or reformation. Jennings acknowledges that the situation of the hearer serves as the point of contact with the gospel, and that the questionableness of god-language has become too significant a point of controversy to be simply dismissed as impertinent. However, he is Barthian in wanting the church to be the church. Engaging in reverse apologetics where one first has to be converted to secularity (Bonhoeffer), process thought (Cobb), or the philosophy of Being (Macquarrie) to then be reconverted to Christianity through translating obscure traditional language into presumably less obscure modern language is not recommended. See his Beyond, 31-34. In Miracles: A Preliminary Study (New York: Macmillan, 1963),75-76, quoted in Christensen, Lewis , 58. C. S. Lewis notes the difficulty of trying to avoid metaphoric images of God: I dont believe in a personal God, says one, but I do believe in a great spiritual force. What he has not noticed is that the word force has let in all sorts of images about winds and tides and electricity and gravitation. I dont believe in a personal God, says another, but I do believe we are all parts of one great Being which moves and works through us all--not noticing that he has merely exchanged the image of a fatherly and royal-looking man for the image of some widely extended gas or fluid. A girl I knew was brought up by higher thinking parents to regard God as a perfect substance; in later life she realized that this had actually led her to think of Him as something like vast tapioca pudding. (To make matters worse, she disliked tapioca.) We may feel ourselves quite safe from this degree of absurdity, but we are mistaken. If a man watches his own mind, I believe he will find that what profess to be specially advanced or philosophic conceptions of God are, in his thinking, always accompanied by vague images which, if inspected, would turn out to be even more absurd than the man-like images aroused by Christian theology. Jennings, Theology as the Construction of Doctrine, in Theodore W. Jennings, Jr. ed., The Vocation of the Theologian (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985), 67-86. For examples of Jennings own attempts to work with doctrine see his Loyalty to God: The Apostles Creed in Life and Liturgy (Nashville: Abingdon, 1992), Life as Worship: Prayer & Praise in Jesus Name (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1982), The Liturgy of Liberation: The Confession & Forgiveness of Sins (Nashville: Abingdon, 1988), and the more historical study Good News to the Poor: John Wesleys Evangelical Economics (Nashville: Abingdon, 1990). See Jennings, Introduction, 60-63 for an extended discussion of objections to considering the religious character of Christianity such as 1) the kerygma is not a myth; 2) Christianity is not a religion (Barth); 3) if Christianity is a religion it can be of no concern for secular experience (Bonhoeffer). Jennings, Introduction, 63 and also 66-82. See Herbert Braun, The Meaning of New Testament Christology, trans. Paul J. Actemeier in the Journal for Theology and Church, Vol. V (New York: Harper & Row, 1968), 89-127 for a discussion of the diversity of opinions regarding Jesus significance within the New Testament itself. Past as faithful memory and promise, future as hope and expectation, present as time of love manifested through rituals of relationships, ethics of recognition, and a politics of compassion. Jennings, Introduction, 73-78. Time itself takes on intrinsic meaning only if the future is greater than and different from the past, for it is only in terms of difference that time can be experienced, and in terms of a difference which is grace that it can take on religious meaning. (p. 77-78) Jennings, Introduction, 43. Thomas C. Oden, The Transforming Power of Grace (Nashville: Abingdon, 1993), 33. For a systematic treatment of a Wesleyan perspective on grace see Randy L. Maddox, Responsible Grace: John Wesleys Practical Theology (Nashville: Kingswood Books, 1994), and also John B. Cobb, Jr., Grace and Responsibility: A Wesleyan Theology for Today (Nashville: Abingdon, 1995). William M. Thompson, Christology and Spirituality (New York: Crossroad, 1991). See James W. Fowler, Faithful Change: The Personal & Public Challenges of Postmodern Life (Nashville: Abingdon, 1996). On Gadamers use of classic see David Tracy, The Analogical Imagination: Christian Theology and the Culture of Pluralism (New York: Crossroad, 1981). For more on narrative see Thompson above and George Stroup, The Promise of Narrative Theology (Atlanta: John Knox, 1982), James W. McClendon, Jr., Biography as Theology (Nashville: Abingdon, 1974), Michael Goldberg, Theology and Narrative: A Critical Introduction (Nashville: Abingdon, 1982), Stanley Hauerwas and L. Gregory Jones, eds., Why Narrative? Readings in Narrative Theology (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1989), Theodore R. Sarbin, ed., Narrative Psychology: The Storied Nature of Human Conduct (New York: Praeger, 1986), McAdams, Stories, David Feinstein and Stanley Krippner, Personal Mythology: The Psychology of Your Evolving Self (Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher, 1988), and Terrence W. Tilley, Story Theology (Wilmington: Michael Glazier, 1985). In pastoral care see Gordon Lynch and David Willows, Telling Tales: The narrative dimension of pastoral care and counseling (Edinburgh: Contact Pastoral Monographs No. 8, 1998) and Donald Capps Living Stories: Pastoral Counseling in Congregational Context (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998). On the new common story see Thomas Berry, The Dream of the Earth (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1988). On suffering and solidarity see Rebecca S. Chopp, The Praxis of Suffering: An Interpretation of Liberation and Political Theologies (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1986). See George Lindbeck, The Nature of Doctrine: Religion and Theology in a Postliberal Age (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1984). Publicly offering this story, this classic, this liberating and redeeming narrative and helping to shape the communities of faith that it keeps re-forming constitute what the work of Christian practical theologians in postmodernity is all about. (Fowler, 201) Immersing ourselves in the Christian mythos in no way interferes with cross-cultural sensitivities or the possibility John Dunne speaks of, of crossing over into another mythos and returning enriched to our own. It does imply that it takes two to relate, and that relationships are richer the more secure participants are in their own self-identities, which paradoxically leads to more openness to being encountered by the Other. See Augsburger, Across Cultures, and Conflict Mediation Across Cultures: Pathways and Patterns (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1992); Aart M. Van Beek, Cross-Cultural Counseling (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996); John S. Dunne, The Way of All the Earth (New York: Macmillan, 1972); Hans Kung, Christianity and the World Religions (Garden City: Doubleday, 1986); and John Sanders, No Other Name: An Investigation into the Destiny of the Unevangelized (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1992). Walter Brueggemann, Texts Under Negotiation: The Bible and Postmodern Imagination (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1993), ix. This book doesnt celebrate postmodernism for its own sake, but sees in the emergence of the contextual, local, and pluralistic emphases of postmodernity and New Key theories of the imagination, the possibility of a productive counterworld of evangelical imagination, which goes beyond the modern traps of historical objectivism. What is yearned for among us is not new doctrine or new morality, but new world, new self, new future. The new world is not given whole, any more than the new self is given abruptly in psychotherapy. It is given only a little at a time, one text at a time, one miracle at a time, one poem, one healing, one pronouncement, one promise, one commandment. Over time, these pieces are stitched together into a sensible collage, stitched together, all of us in concert, but each of us idiosyncratically, stitched together into a new whole--all things new! The crisis of modernity and postmodernity, the shift from hegemony to perspective, poses questions for the ministry of the church: Have we ourselves enough nerve, freedom, and energy to move beyond the matrix of modernity and its confident, uncritical wholeness to trust the concreteness of this text? Have we enough confidence in the biblical text to let it be our fund for counterimagination? A no to these questions, in my judgment, consigns the church to disappear with the rest of modernity. A yes can be liberating for the church as a transformational body, liberating even for its ministers who must stand up and imagine. (25) See also Brian K. Blount, Cultural Interpretation: Reorienting New Testament Criticism (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995) who takes a sociolinguistic view that a text has more than one meaning potential depending on the context one is invariably viewing it from, and how this is a positive value for the fullest understanding of a texts potential. A more comprehensive discovery of a texts meaning potential can only come about as interpreters from a vast array of interpretative backgrounds are invited into and accepted within the investigative process. (p. viii) See Justo L. Gonzalez, Santa Biblia: The Bible Through Hispanic Eyes (Nashville: Abingdon, 1996) who exposits the meaning potential of the specifically Hispanic perspective, and also argues that this perspective is relevant in a positive way to all Christians since it unpacks a significant aspect of Biblical reality. In his Christian Thought Revisited: Three Types of Theology (Nashville: Abingdon, 1989) Gonzalez provides a historical perspective on how various meaning potentials emerged in early Christianity through the different social locations of the main centers of Christian thought in Carthage, Alexandria, and Antioch, and evolved through the centuries to today. See also Sandra M. Schneiders, The Revelatory Text: Interpreting the New Testament As Sacred Scripture (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1991) Thiselton, Interpreting, 42 writes: It is therefore possible to formulate a theology in terms which go beyond the merely intellectual or abstract to include the inter-personal and relational, without sacrificing rational critical testing. In our own century Karl Barth, who in a number of specific respects vigorously attacked Schleiermacher, also shared the latters conviction that theology can remain rigorously self-critical while insisting that God is more than an object or a construct of abstract rational thought. Understanding of God remains relational. To the question: Who is God? Barth replies: It is He who gives Himself to humanity as Trinity. . . . He makes himself over as Spiritus sanctus. See Walter Brueggemann, Theology of the Old Testament: Testimony, Dispute, Advocacy (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1997) for a critical approach to the biblical necessity of dialogue. Here he emphasizes the crucial role of rhetorical criticism which includes attention to narrative framework, imagination, dramatic mode and metaphor. This approach acknowledges the postmodern context of no consensus and no interest-free interpretations. Brueggemann argues (p. 83) that the Old Testament in its theological articulation is characteristically dialectical and dialogical, and not transcendentalist. Staying open to the ongoing dialogue that is preserved in the multiplicity of texts is actually the best protection from falling into transcendentalist or essentialist positions which mask the invested positions from which we seek to control the Divine Spirit embedded in the texts instead of being encountered and controlled by it. Juergen Moltmann, The Crucified God (New York: Harper & Row, 1974); Wolfhart Pannenberg, Metaphysics; Betti, Allgemeine, 21. In the pastoral care literature see Charles V. Gerkin, The Living Human Document: Revisioning Pastoral Counseling in a Hermeneutical Mode (Nashville: Abingdon, 1984) and Donald Capps, Pastoral Care and Hermeneutics (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984). Thiselton, Interpreting, 56-57. However, this process is more severely limited than most hermeneuts acknowledge by the power of the imagination to assimilate as opposed to accommodate that which it encounters. For more on the intersubjective aspects of encounter and growth see Stolorow, Psychoanalytic Treatment, esp. the chapter on Transference: The Organization of Experience. See John Milbank, Theology and Social Theory: Beyond Secular Reason (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990) for an indictment of the violence of modern social theory and an affirmation of the necessity of pursuing and proclaiming canonical narratives in the context of the society of believers. The claim is that all theology has to reconceive itself as a kind of Christian sociology: that is to say, as the explication of a socio-linguistic practice, or as the constant re-narration of this practice as it has historically developed. The task of such a theology is not apologetic, nor even argument. Rather it is to tell again the Christian mythos, pronounce again the Christian logos, and call again for Christian praxis in a manner that restores their freshness and originality. It must articulate Christian difference in such a fashion as to make it strange. (p. 381) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The logic of Christianity involves the claim that the interruption of history by Christ and his bride, the Church, is the most fundamental of events, interpreting all other events. And it is most especially a social event, able to interpret other social formations, because it compares them with its own new social practice. (p. 388) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How does it help though (one might protest) to imagine a state of total peace, when we are locked in a world of deep-seated conflict which it would be folly to deny or evade? It helps, because it allows us to unthink the necessity of violence, and exposes the manner in which the assumption of an inhibition of an always prior violence helps to preserve violence in motion. But it helps more, because it indicates that there is a way to act in a violent world which assumes the ontological priority of non-violence, and this way is called forgiveness of sins. (p. 411) Karl Rahner, On Truthfulness, in Theological Investigations, vol. 7 Eng. (London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1971), 229-59. In the face of so much evil destructiveness, even and especially within supposedly Christian countries, a number of writers maintain that suffering and theodicy must be central to all theological work. Some examples are: Dorothy Soelle, Suffering (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1975); Arthur C. McGill, Suffering: A Test of Theological Method (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1982); Douglas J. Hall, God & Human Suffering: An Exercise in the Theology of the Cross (Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1986); William H. Willimon, Sighing for Eden: Sin, Evil, & the Christian Faith (Nashville: Abingdon, 1985); Hans Schwarz, Evil: A Historical and Theological Perspective (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995). In the more specifically pastoral literature see also Thomas W. Klinks chapter Pain and Suffering: Paradigm for Situations which Demand Integration of Experiences in his Depth Perspectives in Pastoral Work (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1965); Odens chapter The Enigma of Suffering in Crisis; Walter Lowe, Evil and the Unconscious (Chico: Scholars Press, 1983); and John L. Maes, Suffering: A Care Givers Guide (Nashville: Abingdon, 1990). Thiselton writes in, Interpreting, 160-61: If this hypothesis is considered with sufficient seriousness to constitute a working hypothesis, then as the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and Luther, among others, point out, acting in the present on the basis of that which is yet to be proven or seen constitutes a faith that has world-transforming and self-transforming effects. It transforms the self because, like the experience of resurrection, it reconstitutes self-identity as no longer the passive victim of forces of the past which situated it within a network of pre-given roles and performances, but opens out a new future in which new purpose brings a point to its life. The self perceives its call and its value as one-who-is-loved within the larger narrative plot of Gods loving purposes for the world, for society, and for the self. . . . . . . Yet the suspicion may persist: is it not mere wishful thinking to act on the basis of a hypothesis which may prove to be without foundation? Three comments may be offered. First, we noted Kungs rejoinder to the claims of Freud that the mere wish for something to be the case makes neither its truth nor its falsity more probable. Fears about what might or might not be the case invite the same comment. Second, an initial venture on the basis of a hypothesis coheres closely with what is termed preliminary or provisional understanding (pre-understanding) in hermeneutics. It awaits subsequent confirmation, disconfirmation, or modification and correction in the light of further advances in the process. . . . Third, in Pannenbergs view initial or provisional acts of trust may lead to a discovery of patterns of promise and fulfillment which seldom exhaustively match expectations, but instantiate both continuity and room for novelty. It is injudicious to foreclose the possibility of discovering the new beyond ones prior horizons. Neither the creative action of God nor new human experience remains entirely predictable on the basis of the past alone. [tenets 4 & 6]. Thiselton (36) recommends D. Neufeld, Reconceiving Texts as Speech Acts: An Analysis of I John (Leiden: Brill, 1994), esp. 37-60 as an excellent discussion of the this issue of the pragmatic verification of truth claims. Wolfhart Pannenberg, What is Truth? in Basic Questions in Theology, vol. 2 (London: SCM, 1971), 8. Cornel West, Afterword, in J. Rajchman and C. West, eds., Post-Analytic Philosophy (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1985), esp. 267, and Cornel West, Prophetic Fragments (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988) cited in Thiselton, Interpreting, 114. See also David Harveys The Condition of Postmodernity: An Inquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change (Oxford: Blackwell, 2nd edn., 1989) with his analysis of the postmodern self as indeterminate, fragmented, disposed toward distrust of all truth claims, hopelessly organized around defensive conflict, and continually preoccupied with self-protection, self-interest, and an often hidden desire for power and control; Thistelton writes: The postmodern self lives within a labyrinth of diversified networks, and suspects order and ordered structures as disguising power-interests on behalf of the privileged. . . . If with Lyotard, no meta-narrative or larger picture can be trusted as constituting more than the disguised power-interests of some tradition or sub-culture, what is the point of trying ceaselessly to become or to remain a winner? In pragmatic power-play there are only winners and losers; we cannot ask about the point of seeking to win, other than to secure the self-protection which keeps us from losing. But is this all that human life consists in? Is every utterance to be erased before its sound has died away, every written word to move on before the ink is dry? Is every act of sacrifice for the company, for the family, for the profession, for the nation, merely a competitive power-bid at the expense of other families, other businesses, other nations, or the public? (Interpreting, 160-61) Along the same lines, Lawrence LeShan addresses the field of postmodern psychology which so readily reduces any spiritual impulse to the hermeneutics of repressed, infantile desires: With our overconcentration on pathology, with the tendency to explain everything on the basis of childhood distortions of reality and poor parental understanding, we have left large parts of what we are outside the [consultation room] door. If, for example, you ask the average psychotherapist why it is that with a human history in which people have repeatedly, and in large numbers, sacrificed psychological ease and physical comfort, and sometimes even survival itself, for spiritual ends; why it is that with this knowledge he or she pays no attention to spiritual factors in their therapy--you will probably get a confused look, some mutterings about this being all superstition and primitive activity we should wipe out as therapists. Further, you will probably get some suggestions about how you yourself obviously have not worked through your conflicts in this area and they will be glad to see you on a regular basis (perhaps at a professional discount for the fee) in order to help you work through them. (Dilemma, 125) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anyone who works in this field without a keen and continual appreciation of the fact that mans spiritual needs are as urgent and their fulfillment as necessary for health as are his physical and emotional needs is doing his or her patients a vast disservice. The therapist is pretending, and teaching his patients to pretend, that a major part of them does not exist. Psychotherapy is a spiritual as well as psychological discipline. (Dilemma, 87) See James Harvey Miller, Theological Anthropology & Pastoral Practice: A Theological & Psychological Critique, (Ph.D. diss., Vanderbilt, 1992). This essay deals with self-transcendence in pastoral care and counseling also. However, it explores self-transcendence in Reinhold Niebuhrs more limited sense of the capacity to stand outside ones self, to make ones self their own object. (p. 294) Steven Crites, Storytime: Recollecting the Past and Projecting the Future, in Sarbin, Narrative Psychology, 171 quoted in Lester, Hope, 77. Downey, Understanding, 14-15, quoting Joann Wolski Conn, ed., Womens Spirituality: Resources for Christian Development (Mahwah: Paulist, 1986), 3, and Sandra M. Schneiders, Theology and Spirituality: Strangers, Rivals, or Partners, Horizons Vol. 13 No. (1986): 266. Throughout his book, Downey affirms that he drawing heavily on Karl Rahner. Rahner envisioned the gift and task of personal integration in terms of self-transcendence: giving oneself and finding oneself in the experience of knowledge, freedom, and love. Rahner recognized human experience as a locus of Gods revealing self-disclosure. . . . In Rahners view, human beings are spirit in the world. . . . For Rahner, human life and activity, events and history, are capable of disclosing the presence and action of God, that is, Gods grace. Indeed all these can communicate the very life of God, whose nature is to express and communicate love in and through creation, and above all through human beings. On this basis, Rahner is able to spell out a view of spirituality rooted in everyday life rather than in rare and extraordinary occurrences. The ordinary, the humdrum, the day-in-and-day-out, is shot through with occasions for encountering the unfathomable gracious mystery. Grace, Gods revealing self-communication, is loose in the world. (pp. 32-34) For more on Rahner see, Karl Rahner, Theological Investigations: Volume XVI Experience of the Spirit: Source of Theology, David Morland, trans., (New York: Crossroad, 1983); Spirit in the World, William Dych, trans., (Montreal: Palm Publishers, 1968); Gerald A. McCool, ed., A Rahner Reader (New York: Crossroad, 1981). Oden, Grace, 35-36. Thompson, Christology, 13. Leech, Experiencing God: Theology as Spirituality (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985), 1. A. J. van den Blink, Seeking God: The Way of the Spirit: Some Reflections on Spirituality and Pastoral Psychotherapy Journal of Pastoral Theology Vol. IV, (Summer 1995): 19-20. See also Howard Clinebell, Toward Envisioning the Future of Pastoral Counseling and A. A. P. C. Journal of Pastoral Care Vol. 37 (September, 1983): 183: The response of the pastoral counseling movement to our societys spiritual crisis should be a more explicit, robust, and imaginative theological thrust in all that we do. We must recover our largely neglected heritage of spiritual direction, and integrate it fully with insights from the human sciences and with psychotherapeutic methods from traditional and contemporary psychotherapies. For a review of the difficulties, along with the common criticisms of pastoral theology, see Firet, Dynamics, 1-12. Richard Lischer notes that pastors are the preachers, the exegetes, the systematicians, the dogmaticians, and the historians. See his A Theology of Preaching: The Dynamics of the Gospel (Nashville: Abingdon, 1981), 28. This position is reminiscent of the modeling of the early, classic writers in the Christian tradition who maintained the integrity and unity of theology through their persons and positions. The were immersed in the work of the church, Biblical and systematic theologians in dialogue with the Christian tradition as well as the thought of their own day, and keen psychological and sociological observers as well. They mirror to us a form of generalist ministry that questions the increasing specialization and compartmentalization of our own time. See Johanson, Editors Introduction Feed My Sheep, 3-10. The field of pastoral theology, as noted earlier, obviously has been affected by the dialogue between psychology and theology in this century as a principal initiator and participant of the dialogue. This is discussed in innumerable places and will be outlined more fully in chapters two-four. The emphasis here on pastoral theology as primarily a theological endeavor takes nothing away from the ongoing dialogue. It does perhaps favor Theodore Jennings viewpoint in his Pastoral Theological Methodology in Hunter, gen. ed., Dictionary, 864. A useful test of the seriousness and fruitfulness of such a dialogue is whether the conceptuality and vocabulary of both sides is altered and enriched through the process. The reduction of different discourses to a table of equivalencies (neurosis = sin, wholeness = salvation, acceptance = justification, etc.) is certainly not an enrichment of insight but the reduction of one discourse to another or both to a lowest common denominator. The sign of a mature, responsible, and fruitful dialogue is that both sides come to require revision in the light of the discussion. David Tracys concept of mutual critical correlation is often invoked in discussions of integrating theology and psychology. See his Analogical Imagination. Deborah van Deusen Hungsinger takes a more Barthian approach in her book Theology & Pastoral Counseling: A New Interdisciplinary Approach (Grand Rapids: Wm B. Eerdmans, 1995). She argues that these two distinct disciplines in which pastoral counselors should have bilingual competencies should be related according to the terms of the Chalcedonian pattern: without separation or division, without confusion or change, and with the conceptual precedence assigned to theology (asymmetrical order.) (p. 213) See again Firet, Dynamics, 1-12 for a more sustained discussion. See Donald E. Messers discussion of the overall contemporary emphasis on practical theology in his Contemporary Images of Christian Ministry (Nashville: Abingdon, 1989), 153ff. Also Jennings, Introduction, 66: To note that the Christian mythos functions teleologically to transform existence is to be reminded that there is no severance of theoria and praxis, of theology and ethics, of faith and obedience, of hearing and doing, of indicative and imperative. It always has implications for action in the world, which is considered the domain of the Sacred. Oden, Pastoral Theology, x. See the following works for perspectives on pastoral theology as it reflects on the specificity of concrete pastoral experience: John Patton, From Ministry to Theology: Pastoral Action and Reflection (Nashville: Abingdon, 1990); James D. Whitehead and Evelyn Eaton Whitehead, Method in Ministry (New York: Seabury Press, 1981); Robert L. Kinast, How Pastoral Theology Functions, Theology Today Vol. 37 (1981): 425-38, and A Process Model of Theological Reflection, Sixties Vol. 37 (1983): 144-145. Greer W. Boyce, Pastoral Theology Today, Canadian Journal of Theology, Vol VI, No. 1 (1960): 31-41.  Joachim Scharfenberg, The Babylonian captivity of Pastoral Theology, Journal of Pastoral Care, Vol. 8, No. 3 (Fall, 1954): 125-134. See Hans Conzelmann, An Outline of the Theology of the New Testament (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), 106ff; Gunther Bornkamm, Jesus of Nazareth (New York: Harper & Row, 1960), 64ff; Gustaf Aulen, Jesus in Contemporary Historical Research (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1976), 99ff, and N. T. Wright, Jesus and the Victory of God (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996), 198-476. Faith concerns itself with great universals. It is a task of pastoral work to make such universals relevant to individuals. Klink, Depth, 100. St. Gregory the Great, Pastoral Care (New York: Newman Press, 1978), 242. See also Thomas C. Oden, Care of Souls in the Classic Tradition (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984). Gregory Palamas, The Triads (New York: Paulist, 1983), 84. Oden, Grace, 16, 41, 23, 38. Oden, Grace, 37, 36. Oden, Grace, 38. Oden, Grace, 14. More about the specifics of how grace works at the barriers is the subject of another volume. For now, Oden offers: God moves in the will in ways consonant with willing, not coercively against the will. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neurotic anxiety, self-deception, overdependency, and compulsive behaviors require the grace that first uncovers the depths of the bondage of the will. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grace penetrates consciousness so as to illumine the intellect, strengthen the will, and discipline the senses. Illumination is the act of God the Spirit by which the power to apprehend truth is communicated to the petitioner. The Spirit must render human consciousness receptive to the gospel before it can have any effect. By illumination the Spirit challenges our prejudices, disarms our resistances, reveals our egocentricity for what it is, and enables us to hear the Word. . . . In this way the Spirit not only rids of ignorance, but invests with knowledge. . . . Normally the discernment which results from illuminating grace takes time, requiring an unfolding process of discovery by which deception and idolatries are gradually identified and weeded out. (Grace, 43, 39, 42) One other brief word about working with barriers is that it often involves gracefully befriending, as opposed to exorcising, what congregants might experience as negative emotions to discern how the Spirit might be working through them. For instance, see Carroll Saussy, The Gift of Anger: A Call to Faithful Action (Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1995); James D. Whitehead and Evelyn E. Whitehead, Shadows of the Heart: A Spirituality of Negative Emotions (New York: Crossroad, 1995); Johanson, Be Angry But Do Not Sin, in Feed, 49-56; Flora Slosson Wuellner, Prayer, Stress, & Our Inner Wounds (Nashville: The Upper Room, 1985), Release: Healing from Wounds of Family, Church, and Community (Nashville: Upper Room Books, 1996); Richard J. Foster, Money, Sex, & Power: The Challenge of the Disciplined Life (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985); Charles Davis, A Spirituality for the Vulnerable (Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1990); John C. Haughey, Converting Nine to Five: A Spirituality of Daily Work (New York: Crossroad, 1989); Dale C. Allison, Jr., The Silence of Angels (Valley Forge: Trinity Press International, 1995); Joan H. Timmerman, Sexuality and Spiritual Growth (New York: Crossroad, 1992); and Kathleen R. Fischer, Winter Grace: Spirituality for the Later Years (Mahwah: Paulist, 1985). In addition to Lakes Clinical Theology (London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1966), Carol Christian, ed., In the Spirit of Truth: A Reader in the Work of Frank Lake (London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1991), and John Peters, Frank Lake: The Man and His Work (London: Darton, Longman, & Todd, 1989) see Stephen M. Maret, Frank Lakes Maternal-Fetal Distress Syndrome: An Analysis (Ph.D. diss, Drew Graduate School, 1992). See also Johanson, Assurance Doctrine, 8. Thiselton, Interpreting, 163. Nelson S. T. Thayer, Spirituality and Pastoral Care (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985), 57. [Spiritual] disciplines carry the person into, not away from, lived experience. So much is this the case that awareness of transcendence may in fact be indistinguishable from the awareness of immanence. . . . Lived experience is the center of spirituality. Disciplines of prayer, worship, and engagement with the world are vehicles for the awareness of God present in, permeating, emerging from our lived experience. In terms of the long-standing debate around whether the Gospel needs to be made explicit in pastoral care and counseling or may remain implicit, the position here is that while it is always a matter of pastoral sensitivity, ideally it should embrace both. See Lake, Clinical Theology; Underwood, Means of Grace; Thomas C. Oden, Kerygma and Counseling: Toward A Covenant Ontology for Secular Psychotherapy (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1978); Eduard Thurneysen, A Theology of Pastoral Care (Atlanta: John Knox, 1962), and van Deusen Hungsinger, Theology and Pastoral Counseling. Thayer, Spirituality, 116. Elucidating the work of Gregory Palamas, George Maloney paraphrases him: Man must open himself to Gods uncreated energies that are always gracing man at every moment in each event. But this is not a grace added to or contravening nature. Rather, the experience of grace is the heightened responsiveness to all processes of life as expressive of the immanence of God, present through Gods energies. Even in experiences of tragedy and grief, there is faith that being present to the horror, shock, loss, and all that goes with such experiences, and allowing these realities to flow through us, is where God is present, both in suffering with us and in healing. On one level, for Gregory of Nyssa in classic times and Stanley Hauerwas in ours, the need for counsel in making choices is a reflection of a persons separation from that initial state of perfection into which the mythos says persons are born. A perfect nature has no need of choice, for it knows naturally what is good. Its freedom is based on this knowledge. Our free choice indicates the imperfection of fallen human nature, the loss of divine likeness. . . . This hesitation in our ascent towards the good we call free will. --Lossky, Mystical, 125. On the other hand, Carol Gilligan is correct that moral problems arise from conflicting responsibilities, more so than from conflicting rights, and require for their resolution a mode of thinking and/or counsel that is contextual and narrative, and not just formal, abstract, or instantaneous. A right heart can be pulled in more than one direction at once. For instance, the infamous Sophies Choice. See Gilligans Different Voice. See Paul Pruyser, The Minister As Diagnostician (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1976), William B. Oglesby, Jr., Biblical Themes for Pastoral Care (Nashville: Abingdon, 1992), and Edward P. Wimberly, Using Scriptures in Pastoral Counseling (Nashville: Abingdon, 1994). Much of the emphasis in using scripture in counseling has come from the more evangelical wings of the church: Competent to Counsel: Introduction to Nouthetic Counseling (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1970) and the many other books by Jay E. Adams; Gary R. Collins, The Biblical Basis of Christian Counseling for People Helpers (Colorado Springs: NavPress, 1993); and Mark R. McMinn, Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling (Wheaton: Tyndale House, 1996) for example. This proposal shares commonalties with Edward P. Wimberlys discernment model as outlined in his Prayer in Pastoral Counseling: Suffering, Healing, and Discernment (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1990). Right-relatedness is considered here the fundamental problematic of the Judeo-Christian scriptures. How can people live righteously? The Jewish scriptures suggest it is through loving and living the law which is a gift from, and an expression of, Gods revealed will which leads to liberated life. The Christian scriptures suggest it is through a living relationship with Jesus as Gods Christ. See Donald Hagner, The Law of Moses in Matthew and Paul, Interpretation 51 (January 1997): 20-30 for an essay that emphasizes the concern with righteousness or right-relatedness that is continuous through both testaments. Downey, Understanding, also emphasizes this: The presence of the sacred is mediated through persons, preeminently the person of Jesus Christ. As a consequence the spiritual quest has everything to do with being in right relationship with God and living out the sense of the sacred in relationship with others in the believing community and the wider human community. (p. 30) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Because the mystery of God grounds the communion of all persons, the spirituality to which it gives rise is singularly attentive to the quality of relationship between and among human persons, as well as to their relationships with various other creatures and goods of the earth. Everything that exists originates from a relational God [Trinitarian], and exists in relation to the whole and its various parts, so that relational interdependence is a keynote of this spirituality. . . . Christian spirituality is one of solidarity between and among persons. It is a way of living the gospel attentive to the requirements of justice, understood as rightly ordered relationships between and among persons. This entails working to overcome obstacles to full human flourishing posed by evil and sin. Sin may be understood as the failure to discern and build a community of rightly ordered relationships, the inability or unwillingness to respect the interdependence of all human and non-human life, and as the divisiveness that ruptures the harmony between God and human beings. A Christian spirituality entails a commitment to live in rightly ordered relationship with self, others, and God. The restoration of such rightly ordered relationships is the meaning of salvation, and involves not only the individual but has wide-ranging implications for social forms of life. (pp. 148-49) In the pastoral care literature, Rodney J. Hunter, Law and Gospel in Pastoral Care, Journal of Pastoral Care Vol. 30 No. 3 (September 1976): 146-158 sounds the same note. He writes that pastoral care should remember and re-appropriate the theological area which concerns the meaning and the implications of the Pauline and Reformed assertion--if not indeed the assertion of the entire Bible--that the fundamental human problem is that of righteousness--and sin. This emphasis stands in clear contrast to many nonbiblical religions, particularly Greek religion, in which the human predicament is fundamentally a matter of cosmic bondage, of entrapment in a finite, transitory, changing and dying world order. For the Bible, and supremely for the gospels and for Paul, the suffering, conflict, and destruction related to the cosmic order and its finiteness are entirely secondary and subsumed under the overriding and comprehensive concern for righteousness, justice, right relationship, peace, love, and reconciliation. . . . The fundamental human problem is not finitude but unrighteousness, the misuse of freedom in the interrelationship of moral agents, human and divine. . . . Our problem . . . is not basically that we are sick, victimized, weak, or immature--all of these being derived from the cosmic or natural order--but rather that we are morally unjust, unrighteous, and unloving. Our basic predicament is moral more than natural or cosmic. . . . It concerns the rightness and ultimately the lovingness of relationships. (p. 149) Downey, Understanding, expresses the idea of spirituality as the large umbrella by saying, Christian spirituality involves attention to the many dimensions of the human person and of the God-world relation, not just the interior dimension, or the inner life of the human person. A contemporary spirituality entails greater attention to a wide range of factors that together constitute the human beings relationship with self, others, and God. It is inclusive of the social, political, and economic realms; in a word, every dimension of personal and communal life is involved in a Christian spirituality. (pp. 147-148) Howard W. Stone, Theological Context for Pastoral Caregiving: Word in Deed (New York: Haworth Pastoral Press, 1996) has also argued for spiritual direction as the largest context for pastoral care and counseling. If the correlation of theology and pastoral care is our purpose, then spiritual direction must be our concern. It is an important bridge between theology and care. . . . Spirituality is not a matter of detached reflection, as some may think; it involves a relationship, a gift of grace. . . . Spiritual direction reminds us that a relationship with God is the overarching concern that focuses all others (while not negating or replacing them), that helps us rise beyond our basic human needs and wants to follow the Spirits leading. (pp. 79-80) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To quote William A. Barry and William J. Connolly [The Practice of Spiritual Direction (Minneapolis: Seabury Press, 1982)]: Spiritual direction may be considered the core form from which all forms of pastoral care radiate, since ultimately, all forms of pastoral care and counseling aim, or should aim, at helping people to center their lives in the mystery we call God. (p. 84) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . For pastoral care, the ideal would seem to be a pastor trained in pastoral counseling who has learned from psychotherapy and has developed skill in spiritual direction. . . . Spiritual direction can constitute an excellent environment for the correlating of pastoral care and theology, for unhurried reflection on the experience--and source--of our own faith. By reincorporating spiritual direction into its practice, pastoral care and counseling can significantly realign itself with its religious heritage. (p. 86) There are a number of works related to the cultivation of a compassion that gracefully extends itself beyond itself in ministry, for instance: Andrew Purves, The Search for Compassion (Louisville: Westminster/John Know, 1989); Matthew Fox, A Spirituality Named Compassion (Minneapolis: Winston Press, 1979); Charles Birch, Regaining Compassion: For Humanity and Nature (St. Louis: Chalice Press, 1993). In the science and theology literature see Nancy Murphy and George F. R. Ellis, On the Moral Nature of the Universe: Theology, Cosmology, and Ethics (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996) who argue for a kenotic ethic of non-violence supported by both science and theology. Even in the psychoanalytic world there is growing recognition of the self-transcendent drive toward involvement beyond ones intra-psychic life, as in Andrew Samuels, The Political Psyche (New York: Routledge, 1993). After doing his classic text in 1906, The Quest of the Historical Jesus: A Critical Study of Its Progress from Reimarus to Wrede (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1969) which called into question all modern biographies of Jesus as socially constructed, hopeless self-reflections, Albert Schweitzer ended his effort by writing: It is a good thing that the true historical Jesus should overthrow the modern Jesus, should rise up against the modern spirit and send upon earth, not peace, but a sword. . . . . . . He comes to us as One unknown, without a name, as of old, by the lake-side, He came to those . . . who knew Him not. He speaks to us the same word: Follow thou me! and sets us to the tasks which He has to fulfill for our time. He commands. And to those who obey Him, whether they be wise or simple, He will reveal Himself in the toils, the conflicts, the sufferings which they shall pass through in His fellowship, and, as an ineffable mystery, they shall learn in their own experience Who He is. (p. 403) For more on the contemporary emphasis on pastoral care through worship see William H. Willimon, Worship As Pastoral Care (Nashville: Abingdon, 1979), Howard W. Roberts, Pastoral Care Through Worship (Macon: Smyth & Helwys, 1995), Don E. Saliers, Worship and Spirituality (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1984) and Worship Come to Its Senses (Nashville: Abingdon, 1996), Underwood, Means of Grace, and the books by Wimberly. More on the use of rituals and healing can be found in Malidoma Some, Ritual: Power, Healing, & Community (Portland: Swan/Raven, 1993), and Jeanne Achterberg, Barbara Dossey, and Leslie Kolkmeier, Rituals of Healing (New York: Bantam Books, 1994). Heather Elkins has written a book out of womens experience titled Worshipping Women: Re-forming Gods People for Praise (Nashville: Abingdon, 1994). In the classical tradition there are many texts that integrate perspectives on worship, community, and pastoral care such as Richard Baxter, The Reformed Pastor (Carlisle: Banner of Truth Trust, 1983), George Herbert, The Country Parson (New York: Paulist, 1981), and Martin Chemnitz, Ministry, Word, and Sacraments (St. Louis: Concordia, 1981). In the realm of Christian education see Susanne Johnson, Christian Spiritual Formation in the Church and Classroom (Nashville: Abingdon, 1989). For more specificity of this schema of right being, action, belief, and right-relatedness see Gregory J. Johanson, Both/and, Not Either/or: A Response to Alan Billings Pastors or Counsellors? Contact: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Pastoral Studies Vol. 110 No. 1 (1993): 19-28, esp. 25-26. For more on transpersonal psychologys understanding of healing splits see Ken Wilber, No Boundary: Eastern & Western Approaches to Personal Growth (Los Angeles: Center Publications, 1979), and John E. Nelson, Healing the Split: Integrating Spirit Into Our Understanding of the Mentally Ill (Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, 1994). For an evaluation of Transpersonal Psychology see William S. Schmidt, A Critical Analysis of Transpersonal Psychology From the Perspective of a Christian Theology, (Ph.D. diss., Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1982). See Kathleen Fischer, Reclaiming the Connections: A Contemporary Spirituality (Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1990). Lossky, Mystical, 201. See also Annise Callahan, ed., Spiritualities of the Heart (Mahwah: Paulist, 1990). See Michael J. Christensen, Theosis and Sanctification: John Wesleys Reformulation of a Patristic Doctrine, Wesleyan Theological Journal Vol. 31 No. 2 (Fall 1996): 71-94. The work of Christ gives substance to the promise of a restored family likeness, in which the human self, like Christ, once again comes to bear fully the image of God in Christ (Heb 1:3; Gen. 1:26) as a self defined by giving and receiving, by loving and being loved unconditionally. (Thiselton, Interpreting, 163) Leroy T. Howe, The Image of God: A Theology for Pastoral Care and Counseling (Nashville: Abingdon, 1995), 52-53. For more on the image of God see Losskys Mystical and also his In the Image and Likeness of God (New York: St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1974), Georgios I. Mantzaridis, The Deification of Man (Crestwood: St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1984. See also John D. Zizioulas, Being As Communion (Crestwood: St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1985), Harry R. Boer, An Ember Still Glowing: Humankind as the Image of God (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1990), John E. Sullivan, The Image of God: The Doctrine of St. Augustine and Its Influence (Dubuque: Priory Press, 1963), and Ray S. Anderson, Imago Dei, in Hunter, gen. ed., Dictionary, 571-72. For Wesleyan perspectives on growing in grace see Maddox, Responsible Grace and Albert C. Outler, John Wesley (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1964), 251-305. Through this evolving vocation we have claimed our deepest identity--that of imago dei--creatures evolving in the image and likeness of God. We are evolving for the purposes of spiritual communion with God, for creating and maintaining community with our fellow humans, and for living in dynamic mutual respect with nature. (Fowler, Faithful Change, 198) See Albert C. Outler, ed., John Wesley (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1964), 119, 251-305. Oden, Grace, 51. For more perspectives on this subject see Brian H. Childs & David W. Waanders, eds., The Treasure of Earthen Vessels: Explorations in Theological Anthropology (Louisville: Westminster/John Know, 1994), esp. Charles Gerkin, Projective Identification and the Image of God, Donald Capps, The Soul as the Coreness of the Self, and James E. Loder, Incisions from a Two-Edged Sword: The Incarnation and the Soul/Spirit Relationship. See also C. Kevin Gillespie, Listening for Grace: Self Psychology and Spiritual Direction in Robert J. Wicks, Handbook of Spirituality for Ministers (Mahwah: Paulist, 1995), 347-364. For instance, Ronald R. Lee, Clergy & Clients: The Practice of Pastoral Psychotherapy (New York: Seabury Press, 1980, and more recently Chris R. Schlauch, Faithful Companioning: How Pastoral Counseling Heals (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995). For secular therapists who have begun taking seriously the concept of a core or essential self (made in the Image of God) see the various writings of A. H. Almaas including The Pearl Beyond Price: Integration of Personality into Being: An Object Relations Approach (Berkeley: Diamond Books, 1988), Richard Schwartz, Internal Family Systems, and Brant Cortrights overview of transpersonal psychotherapy Psychotherapy and Spirit: Theory and Practice in Transpersonal Psychotherapy (Albany: State Univ. of NY Press, 1997). In the pastoral care realm see Clinebell, Ecotherapy, 94: The most illuminating understanding of why humans are inherently religious, in my view, derives from the empirical reality that all persons have existential or meaning-of-life needs. These are deep hungers of the heart that can be satisfied adequately only by spiritual, religious, or philosophical systems of belief and practice. . . . Assagioli believed that the I (self or ego) of everyday experience is not ones ultimate or true identity. Rather the core self is a reflection of what he called the transpersonal or spiritual Self, which is the powerful source of spiritual energy for growth. . . . The Self, in my understanding, as in Assagiolis and Jungs, and more recently in therapist Thomas Moores thought, refers to that transcending dimension of personality called soul in traditional religious language. This dimension is the major reason why humans are inherently religious. The goal of spiritually centered counseling, therapy, education, and parenting is to enable people to make their transpersonal, spiritual Self the unifying, enlivening center of all aspects of their lives. This Self is the channel by which the inspiration and empowerment of the divine Spirit become active in human lives. And, most important from an ecotherapeutic perspective, I understand the transpersonal Self, intertwined with the deep ecological self as constituting the core of our very being. (Italics his) In terms of reformulating psychodynamic talk of building at least an egoic-self through introjecting self-object ties from interpersonal relationships, Riet Bons-Storm suggests that basic building blocks of personality might be thought of as self-narratives using stories about experienced events. (Incredible Woman, 47) This is a more satisfying formulation that suggests that what is introjected are not blind, random units of pleasure or pain, but meaning-full, intellectual, emotional, events; events which the imagination transforms in meaningful ways according to core-organizing beliefs and integrates into ones ongoing story according to Piagets processes of assimilation and accommodation. If the event ruptures the imaginations normal integrative capacity, it might serve as a transcendent, sacred inbreaking word of expanded communion, or the basis of a lived problem or obsessio, or possibly a demonic unstory which simply overwhelms and must be exiled or repressed into unconsciousness. Unstory is a concept of Joan Laird, Women and Stories: Restorying Womens Self-Constructions, in Women and Families: A Framework for Family Therapy, ed. Monica McGoldrick et al., (New York: Norton, 1991), 437. Thomas Merton, Marxism and Monastic Perspectives, in John Moffitt, ed., A New Charter for Monasticism (Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1970), 80. See also Rodney J. Hunter, The Power of God for Salvation: Transformative Ecclesia and the Theological Renewal of Pastoral Care and Counseling, The Journal of the Interdenominational Theological Center Vol. 25 No. 3 (Spring 1998): 54-84 for a parallel position which places clinical pastoral perspectives under wider spiritual-prophetic ones. For a Wesleyan perspective on the biblical theme of new creation see Theodore Runyon, The New Creation: John Wesleys Theology Today (Nashville: Abingdon, 1998). Simon Chan, Spiritual Theology: A Systematic Study of the Christian Life (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1998), 16, 18. Chans viewpoint on spiritual theology is notable for including the formal criteria of the global-contextual, the evangelical, and the charismatic. In relation to practical theology he writes: A failure to distinguish between spiritual theology and practical theology has plagued Protestantism. In the narrow sense, spiritual theology is concerned with life in relation to God . . . whereas practical theology is more broadly concerned with action in the world. In the broad sense, spiritual theology seeks to discover the transcendent within every sphere of life and every area of experience, whereas practical theology concerns the practical application of theology. For example, in practical theology the doctrine that God is love may provide the motive for loving others and practicing charity. But in spiritual theology, the doctrine that God is love is felt as an experiential reality, defining the basic character of our union with God (as can be seen, for example, in Bernard). Practical acts of charity flow from such experience. Thus spiritual theology stands between systematic theology and Christian praxis. The importance of the place that spiritual theology occupies between systematic theology on one end and practical theology on the other cannot be overemphasized. Without the mediation of spiritual theology, Christian praxis is reduced to mere activism. The result is what Richard Lovelace calls the sanctification gap, which he identifies as a major failure in Protestantism. (pp. 19-20) For more perspectives on integrating spirituality with the pastoral task see The Study of Spirituality (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1986) edited by Cheslyn Jones, Geoffrey Wainwright, and Edward Yarnold, especially Part Three: Pastoral Spirituality, 563-605; Leech, Soul Friend; Ben Campbell Johnson, Pastoral Spirituality: A Focus for Ministry (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1988); Urban T. Holmes, Spirituality for Ministry (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1982); Miles, Practicing; Sweet, Quantum, and Faithquakes (Nashville: Abingdon, 1994); Barbara Fiand, Releasement: Spirituality for Ministry (New York: Crossroad, 1987); Frank Bateman Stanger, Spiritual Formation in the Local Church (Grand Rapids: Francis Asbury Press, 1989); M. Robert Mulholland, Jr., Shaped by the Word: The Power of Scripture in Spiritual Formation (Nashville: The Upper Room, 1985); Dallas Willard, The Spirit of the Disciplines (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1988); Sidney Callahan, With All Our Heart & Mind: The Spiritual Works of Mercy in a Psychological Age (New York: Crossroad, 1989); Tilden Edwards, Spiritual Friend: Reclaiming the Gift of Spiritual Direction (Ramsey: Paulist, 1980); and of course there is the extensive literature on spiritual direction in general. Rod Burton, Therapeutic Spiritual Direction: Reframing Contemporary Pastoral Counselling, Contact: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Pastoral Studies Vol. 126 (1998): 14-21, writing from a South African and international perspective, makes a similar case that pastoral counseling should be subsumed under spiritual direction and renamed therapeutic spiritual direction. This approach is in agreement with Shirley Guthries position that: Christian pastoral counseling motivated by a theology of grace will give up all neutrality about the goal of change, growth, or becoming. It will not encourage people to become whatever they want to be, or hide from them the fact that the counselor has a very definite goal in mind for them. Without manipulating people to attitudes and actions they do not freely choose for themselves, the counselor will openly stand for the Christian understanding of what fulfilled humanity looks like. Shirley C. Guthrie, Jr., Pastoral Counseling, Trinitarian Theology, and Christian Anthropology, Interpretation 33 (April 1979): 143 quoted in van Deusen Hunsinger, Theology and Pastoral Counseling, 231. See especially Charles Gerkin, Widening the Horizons: Pastoral Responses to a Fragmented Society (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1986), Prophetic Pastoral Practice, and An Introduction to Pastoral Care (Nashville: Abingdon, 1997). See Ralph L. Underwood, The Presence of God in Pastoral Care Ministry, Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary Bulletin, Faculty Edition. Prayer and Pastoral Care. Vol. 101 No. 4 (October 1985), and also Means of Grace which presents prayer as the soul of pastoral care, the presence of God as the thematic bond between pastoral care and the means of grace, reconciliation as the evangelical principle of pastoral care, baptism as the foundation of pastoral care, and the Eucharist as the eschatological horizon of pastoral care. (p. vii); Gerald L Borchert and Andrew D. Lester, eds., Spiritual Dimensions of Pastoral Care: Witness to the Ministry of Wayne E. Oates (Philadelphia: The Westminister Press, 1985); and Wayne E. Oates, The Presence of God in Pastoral Counseling (Waco: Word Books, 1986), 96, who writes, my hope for the full maturity of pastoral counseling is that we will both be called upon by others and feel called ourselves to focus intently with persons on their consciousness of the Presence of God and Gods action in their lives. Spiritual direction of the ongoing stressful pilgrimages of individuals, families, and small groups is, for me, the wave of the future for pastoral counselors. For a congruent Catholic perspective see the various works of Bernard J. Tyrrell including Christotherapy: Healing through Enlightenment (New York: Seabury Press, 1981) and Christointegration: The Transforming Love of Jesus Christ (Mahwah: Paulist, 1989). Thanks to Dr. Joanna Gillespie, Bangor Theological Seminary (Hanover, NH) for her helpful consultation on matters related to oral histories. It is not possible to research all books in the field to determine best sellers because many publishers will not release sale figures, unless it is to their advantage. Suzanne Langer, New Key; Jennings, Introduction; Stolorow, Psychoanalytic Treatment. See E. Brooks Holifield, History and Selfhood: An Historians View, Journal of Pastoral Care Vol. 28 No. 3 (September 1974): 147-151. Taken together, the history chapters on western, American, and pastoral contexts which follow take up a substantial number of pages The field of pastoral care and counseling, while intensely interested in personal histories and peripherally interested in how current events impact those histories, does not have a corresponding interest in and/or passion for the larger sweep of historical dispositions. Therefore, historical perspectives in pastoral care are constructive, as well as filling a relatively unmet need. While it is not hard to find informal concurrence with this judgment, Edward E. Thorton, Editorial: Once Upon a Time (Well, Actually in June, 1925) . . . Journal of Pastoral Care Vol. 29 No. 2 (June 1975): 73-75 says so explicitly in the fiftieth anniversary of CPE edition. He comments on saving a good historical article for the edition which could have been published earlier because, We feared that original historical writing about ourselves might be hard to find--and our fears came true. Though we polled the chairpersons of Historical Committees of every region of the ACPE, no other manuscripts were discovered. (p. 74) Holifield, Selfhood, 147. 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