ࡱ>   #` bjbj ;HZ[o'J Z Z Z n rlrlrl8lmn nn"nnnnnnK3 S s$hZ tnnttZ Z nnjjjt6 Z nZ njtjjZ Z jnzn 4+ãrl~j\‰0jƍpƍjƍZ j nDp&jjqVr<nnn ^nnnttttn n n `rln n n rln n n Z Z Z Z Z Z   CHAPTER VIII SPIRITUALITY AND PASTORAL WRITERS: THEIR WORLDS Leading Figures and Books in the Field of Spirituality and Pastoral Care As suggested earlier, their were multiple methods used to assess who the major figures and books in spirituality and pastoral care were so that they could be dealt with in a representative way below: Interviews with teachers of pastoral care (see Appendix B); surveying the books on as many relevant course outlines as possible; surveying the works cited in actual books on spirituality and pastoral care; consulting the spirituality and pastoral literature list and bibliographic sources in Appendix A.; making informal inquiries among mostly United Methodist colleagues; and noting the total numbers a book has sold when publishing houses were willing to broach that information. The interviews with pastoral care professors and specialized practitioners yielded more information than simply information about leaders and books in the field. Other aspects of the interviews are noted in the summary chapter. The Influential Writers and Their Worlds Writers in World One of Separation and Reunion Although Gerald May is a psychiatrist who disavows any special knowledge of the pastoral care literature, he is acknowledged by seemingly the majority of pastoral care specialists as one of the primary fountainheads for the rediscovery of spirituality in their work. He impacts pastoral care directly through the spiritual direction program of the Shalem Institute in Washington, DC., as well as his many well-received books. Mays work is a classic expression of World One. One of the first things he says in the preface to his Will and Spirit: A Contemplative Psychology is that will must come to sacrifice its claim to mastery and accept its rightful place as a dynamic, loving manifestation of spirit. He opens his first chapter by confessing that all my life I have longed to say yes, to give myself completely, to some Ultimate Someone or Something, but was frustrated due to his efforts to fit the image of an independent, self-sufficient man. He believes that there is something in all our hearts that calls for a reconciliation of the individual, autonomous qualities of will with the unifying and loving qualities of spirit, a communion made difficult by our human willfulness which holds out for being special and in control. The antidote for our condition is through offering our willingness to surrender our self-separateness through the realization that we are already a part of some ultimate cosmic process and simply say yes to the mystery of being alive in each moment. But, again, there is no hope of realizing unity in an atmosphere of either submission or mastery. For this reason, May is quite wary of the emphasis on growth in World Three. The basic assumption of the growth mentality, fostered by nearly all of Western psychology, is that human beings can find wholeness or fulfillment by actualizing their creative potentials. Thus, the coping, happiness, and growth mentalities demonstrate how easily spirituality can be reduced or distorted in psychological contexts. This is why attempting to integrate psychology and spirituality is so problematic. Personal will, self-importance, or even psychology itself tend to take the upper hand. Spirituality for May is a relationship with the mystery of creation, fostered through contemplative disciplines. The term contemplation implies a totally uncluttered appreciation of existence, a state of mind or a condition of the soul that is simultaneously wide-awake and free from all preoccupation, preconception, and interpretation. It is a wonder-filled yet utterly simple experience. The vast majority of Western psychologies have remained almost totally preoccupied with the contents and manifestations of consciousness. They have utterly failed to address consciousness without content or before thought. This is why May must emphasize that the contemplative psychology he is outlining does not have as its goal the separate autonomy of the individual. Rather, it is the realization of ones essential rootedness in God and relatedness in creation. Its means are not willful mastery but willing surrender. The insights it must draw on are generally found in the ancient spiritual traditions of both East and West. And its laboratory is the stillness of the human mind in silence. However, in this laboratory we run counter to our normal Western problem-solving mode and discover that mystery can be experienced, sensed, felt, appreciated, even loved, without being understood. It is more a matter of being with, than doing. Again, mystery threatens our willfulness. It requires humility. May combines some World One and Four themes in saying, It is not for us to use the power of mystery, but for us to be used by it. We do not embrace it in our arms, it embraces us. We do not capture it, but are captured by it. When we are in unity with God, it is not even right to say we are there in humility, because there is no we, no self. It is consciousness-without content sometimes called pure awareness, cosmic consciousness, Big Mind, or bare attention. This state in no way involves a shutting out of stimuli; everything is there and immediately present, more so than in any other sate of consciousness. However, an individual, perceiving, experiencing, understanding sense of self is simply not there at the time. This is why all attempts to try to make this state happen through meditation, drugs, group encounter, biofeedback, and so forth simply do not work. Plus, it is not the addition of a unitive feeling but the subtraction of self-definition that characterizes true unitive experiences. In actuality, we are all really at one all the time, but we are almost constantly pretending we are separate by defining ourselves in a multitude of ways. Unity happens therefore when grace comes to dissolve the barriers or splits we have constructed in our consciousness against increased communion. This grace is not always welcomed, of course, because it is a severe threat to self-image. Here, it is never a matter of willfully believing that we are fundamentally separate or at one. Instead, it is that we are absolutely and energetically both, as only willingness can permit us to realize. The spiritual masters of East and West have been proclaiming this for millennia, but it is not for willful ears to hear. Nirvana and samsara are one. God is both manifest in us and at the same time eternally transcendent, absolutely beyond us. Jesus Christ is at once human and divine. The One is the All, and the Ten Thousand Things are the One. The Tonal is one aspect of the Nagual. The little mind of daily life is the Big Mind of enlightenment. As the Theologica Germanica says, This world is an outer court of Eternity. In terms of the spiritual quest for love and increased agency-in-communion, there is more than narcissism here, . . . more than any personal need-satisfaction. In a way that echoes World Three concerns, there is an element of mutuality in the universe. If a person feels a longing to be at one with the universe, it is as if the universe feels the same longing to be at one with the person. Likewise, if I sense a great aching in my heart to be in love with God, it seems that God must in some mysterious way share that aching for me. However, May is quick to come back to his basic warning. As relating becomes intimacy, as intimacy becomes belonging, and as belonging approaches unity, ones self-definition becomes increasingly threatened, and will tend to put the brakes on the process. The ego loves a sense of self-definition and being in control. This why May is suspicious of many World Two impulses to act out love. Too often it is an act, and a condescending one at that, in which the giver loves the receiver, and thereby places him or herself in a separate superior position. True acts of love can only be fully realized in unitive experience. This level of truth requires divine agapic love to deal with the threat that unitive experiences poses to self-image. But, divine love is so terribly radical. It exists for all of us, absolutely and irrevocably and is totally out of our control. World One and Four agree that the prospect of really being loved no matter who we are, how we are, or what we do is so humbling that in spite of its reassurance it terrifies us. Thus we can remain frozen in the conviction that we must earn the experience of God through good behavior. Justification by grace, of course, claims just the opposite. The experience of God is given, freely, to everyone and good behavior springs naturally from that experience when it is realized and accepted. Again, for many of us, this requires too much humility, too much willingness, too much surrender of our self-importance. When he examines the institutional church, May observes that it is those who are most concerned with finding God . . . who often have the most trouble with church. They are the ones most hurt by the normal human fallibility and selfishness that are expressed in religious institutions. The agony of their unrequited love--is too great for them to bear. In both spirituality and church there is often a confusion between human and divine love. Two persons will naturally seek each other out romantically to deal with the pain of human separateness, fusing together in a way that the world outside disappears, and with it the feeling of separateness from it. The ecstasy of agapic love, in contrast, is characterized by an awesome joining with all the rest of the world, becoming a part of it. In an erotic high, the world disappears in love. In the spiritual high, the world appears in love. Since no distinction is made between me and you or I and Thou during the realization of agape, there is no sense of giving or receiving love. The agapic representation of love thy neighbor as thyself takes on a radically different meaning. Here the as thyself connotes union rather than empathy, identity rather than identification. In the realization of agape, you do not love me because you identify with me. In agape we realize we actually are one, along with the rest of creation, and with the rest of creation, in love and of love. Narcissism says, I need you to love me. Erotic love says, I need to love you. Filial love says, I love you because I understand you. Agape--if it could speak--might say, I am you in Love. Because agape is fundamentally effortless and beyond ego-control, May is suspicious of World Three attempts to set up stages of growth or development, even religious ones like Fowlers, that must mobilize psychic effort to be worked through. However, even though it cannot be controlled or mastered, it is possible that the energy of divine love can enter human awareness. Along with Wilber, May argues the evidence for this comes from the commonality of subjective experience. Such experiences repeatedly indicate that basic life-energy and divine love are so intimately related as to be essentially inseparable. The witness of Julian of Norwich, for example, clearly states: The love wherein He made us was in Him from without beginning: in which love we have our beginning. And all this shall we see in God, without end.  May builds a bridge to World Two concerns by noting that the human spiritual quest for what we have termed increased agency-in-communion comprises needs for meaning, purpose, belonging, and love. These do not represent a necessary progression. It is possible to have experiences of belonging which do not yield meaning. Similarly, not all experiences of love are associated with purpose. Love cannot stay within the realm of the personal and yield meaning. God is greater than that. It is only when love bears fruit, when it connects one to the rest of the world in service, that the sense of purpose finds its birth. For the contemplative, the way of discovering meaning is to discover how to be of service. As always in World One, the way toward service is through surrender.  Since there is so much resistance to surrendering, the problem of evil emerges, which May touched upon in his Addiction and Grace in the above discussion of World Four. On one level both evil and good are constructs of the human mind which create duality in the midst of unity. This doesnt discount that evil does indeed exist as a definitive force in the world. May believes theology does well to maintain a healthy ambivalence and paradoxical tension in relation to this issue of theodicy. He recommends Isaiah 45:7. I form the light and create darkness; I make peace and create evil. Here is a contemplative appreciation that admits a degree of both/and.. . . In unity, good and evil cease to exist just as perceiver and perceived evaporate. In duality, everything exists. And both are true all the time. Within duality, May expectedly sees the root of both sin and evil in human willfulness which separates us from God and neighbor. The paradigm for sin is willful self-determination in which separation is a mistake. Willful vengeance is the paradigm for human evil in which separation is intended. In either case the wrath of God in Romans 1, which gives us over to ourselves and allows us to dig our own holes deeper, eventually uses sin and evil to demonstrate to us the fallibility of willfulness and the necessity for reliance upon the divine mystery of God. Thus, our sense of separation impels us toward reconciliation and reunion, to being welcomed home with open arms. While the effects of this struggle between good and evil can manifest in the external world, the primary battleground is the human heart. The primary practice May recommends for the battle is contemplative silence. In graced moments of silence, when awareness is blessedly free of distracting content, it is indeed possible to re-affirm our surrender and to place our hearts utterly and completely in Gods care. When this is done, then we must indeed stand up and act. We must dive into the world of dualities and attachments in which we are thrust and pulled and tricked, a world in which we must evaluate and decide and commit and struggle. But then, no matter how adept and experienced we are, we lose some of our simplicity. Countless dualities besiege us, and we may come to feel very far away from our fundamental trust in God. This is the point we are forced to our knees and we realize we Cannot Do It Alone. We need the help of others to discern the spirits. Here, again, May cautions that seeking spiritual guidance is not the same as psychotherapy. Even those World Three therapies that emphasize naturalness and wholeness can mean anything, and will likely lead into subtle forms of willfulness, as opposed to willingness. Psychological growth can never be equated with spiritual growth. Meister Eckhardt was clear that we dont find God by a process of addition, but a process of subtraction. Even such a master as Carl Jung ends up reducing spirituality to a mental phenomenon, promoting additive growth. The good news is that true surrender (or true willingness) really occurs to us as a gift . . . [and] my sense is that such opportunities occur very frequently, perhaps many times each day. A spiritual friend or director can help us study how we miss the opportunities through organizing around various dread and doubts related to pride, and help us offer our willingness for Gods perfect love and grace to touch and heal those fears specifically. There is hope. God is experiencing Godself actively in all creation: in us, in other people, in the ten thousand things. We can relax in the faith and trust that we are all expressions of the living, dynamic, unconditionally loving Power which is in our hearts and at the same time utterly beyond us. We know that our error and the source of our unhappiness and violence is in thinking that we are separate and autonomous. But it is a true, realistic hope that all souls, with all their powers and vulnerabilities, with all their sufferings and accomplishments, will recognize their rightful place and their fullest life in the Love that bears this and all other universes. It is a hope for the ultimate homecoming. While we are left living with our hopes and fears, within and without, May recommends that we call to mind that even in the fragmentation and confusion of duality that we share the same silence. He offers a consummate expression of World One spirituality: My firm belief is that we are all together in this. Though political and economic conflicts may separate us and even make us adversaries; though we may not appreciate or understand each other; though our individual and societal attachments may cause us to harm and even kill one another, still we are irrevocably, irreversibly, together. This universal connectedness goes far deeper than idea. It transcends even the concept that we are all children of God. For in the realm of contemplative quiet, beyond all ideas, beyond our rainbowed images of God and self, beyond belief, we share the same silence. We are rooted all together in the ground of consciousness that is Gods gift to us all. We are all brought to life through that One Spirit that is unfathomable loving energy. In this field-beyond-image, our joining is absolute. There is nothing we can do to change it. When the Islamic mullah prays with true and quiet heart, I believe that the souls of the Iowa farmer and the Welsh miner are touched. When the gong sounds in the Japanese monastery and the monks enter the timeless silence of Zazen, their quiet nourishes the hearts of the Brazilian Indians and the Manhattan executive. When Jews and Christians pray with true willingness, the Hindu scientist and the Russian policeman are enriched. Thus when you struggle with your own mind, seeking that quiet, open beyond-ness that may or may not be given, you do this as much for others as for yourself, and you are helped by the struggles of others in ways beyond all understanding. Even in the activities of daily life, any act of compassion, however small, somehow touches everyone if it is done with a true spirit of willingness. Every particle of love, every fleeting moment of willingness, is like another drop of rain on a dry earth. It is well, I think, to keep this in mind.. Turning now to the more specifically spirituality and pastoral care material, Nelson S. T. Thayer, who wrote the first book with the actual title Spirituality and Pastoral Care in 1985, is also considered a pioneering force in the field. His book brought focus and attention to the spiritual emphasis which had been developing in pastoral theology. He is likewise a representative of World One, who has expressed much appreciation for the work of May before him, but integrates a few more elements from other Worlds as well. Thayers general sense of spirituality weaves together a bit of Worlds One and Three. Spirituality has to do with how we experience ourselves in relation to what we designate as the source of ultimate power and meaning in life, and how we live out this relationship. It does not simply have to do with inner feelings; it has to do with the integration and coherence of ourselves as experiencing and acting persons. As a pastoral educator, Thayer is also aware of the increasing demand for a more specific linkage of . . . theory and practice to the more specifically religious dimensions of human experience. Although he appreciates Mays hesitations about the willful dangers of practices, his book risks outlining a number of approaches. Thayer is well aware that there are a multiplicity of spiritualities and acknowledges the recent emergence of ethnic and feminist approaches. He also is finely tuned into the four-quadrant need to recognize that spirituality is embodied, lived experience, influenced by historical, cultural, and social circumstances. As he surveys the contemporary cultural, religious context of the field, it is clear to him that pastoral care needs to recover the realm of interiority as it recovers the realm of transcendence. As with May, he is not calling for a concentration on mere subjectivity, but a mindful state of consciousness. This is a disciplined commitment of observation and attention, and is not an indulgence in mere feelings. His World One goal is to foster the development of the capacity to be without interior images and feelings, to develop a capacity for interior emptiness. It is the fullness of emptiness that leads to an apprehension of transcendence. Transcendence reveals a different order of reality, . . . the experience . . . of reality as it really is, in its isness, just as such. Some describe this as a sense of Presence, or a sense of depth. Thus transcendence has also to be conceptualized as immanence. The One known as utterly surpassing all created beings is also known as permeating all structures and processes of life, even our knowing and experiencing itself. The great contemporary theologian and mystic Howard Thurman has called this the givenness of God . . . the movement of the heart of a man toward God; a movement that in a sense is within God--God, in the heart sharing its life with God the Creator of all Life. The evolved quality of awareness that Thayer promotes points to that capacity or aspect of our personhood that is able to respond to our human experience of birth, death, suffering, joy, sex, beauty, nature, and tragedy, as reflective of and participative in power and meaning that transcend our created (given) life. It is the capacity upon which our life is experienced as being contingent. He references World One theologian Paul Tillich who calls this quality of awareness the actualization of power and meaning in unity, an order of reality prior to and greater than our own [which] is coemergent with human being. The spiritual quest is a drive toward unity, a longing for union with the whole of Being. Spirit, then, is that by which we experience our oneness with the ultimate. As with May, Thayer affirms that union with the ultimate only occurs when the attachments by which we establish, experience, and sustain our identity are dissolved. Likewise, serious spiritual disciplines aim at a continual clearing away of the impediments to unitive experience; they do not claim to bring it about. Our particular spiritualities then, would refer to the way [we] keep [ourselves] receptive and responsive to the actualization of power and meaning in unity. As May fleshes these matters out he references Urban T. Holmes Spirituality for Ministry, John Eusden and John Westerhoffs The Spiritual Life: Learning East and West, and Mays Will and Spirit. As he moves to summarize his position Thayer is concerned to emphasize that credible spiritual disciplines will carry the person into, not away from, lived experience. For Thayer, the awareness of transcendence may in fact be indistinguishable from the awareness of immanence. Here he clearly claims the bias of [his]book: . . . Lived experience is the center of spirituality. Functionally speaking, all the disciplines of prayer, worship, and engagement with the world are vehicles for the awareness of God present in, permeating, emerging from our lived experience. Lived experience is not, however, a solitary mode of increased agency. The Christian tradition recognizes that the quality of awareness and perception of life in Christ Jesus or living in the presence of God requires a movement from solitude to community. Increased communion or community encompasses a shared life of relationships, liturgy (sacraments and preached word), and action in the world. These are all essential to maturing Christian spirituality. For Thayer, this approach addresses the modern concern, exacerbated in the sixties, to move beyond disembodied metaphysics to experienced reality, empirically verifiable. Without this move, religion is merely a collection of old stories and prescriptions for behavior reflecting the predilections of those who happen to endorse the religion. Therefore, the most important task for contemporary pastoral care is the recovery of spirituality in the sense of the experience of continuity between ones own deepest experience and the deepest, sustaining power and meaning of the universe. The recovery, as we would predict in World One, will carry us ultimately into mystery. We must bow before the wisdom of the The Cloud of Unknowings anonymous author, who wrote concerning the realities of contemplative prayer that if we are to see or feel God in this life it must be in the darkness or unknowing. In terms of ethics, Thayer sides with May in saying pastoral care must attend to the consciousness, the experience of the church member. He acknowledges with Browning, Bellah, Geertz, Hauerwas, and Lindbeck that the church as a community must socialize its members into a distinctive style of life. However, he is keenly aware of the limitations of communal living alone to promote the heightened consciousness needed for true compassion; something normally requiring individual discipline as well. He cites with favor the Religious Society of Friends, Sojourners, and the Church of the Savior in Washington, D.C. as examples of Christian communities that attempt to hold in creative balance the complementarity of solitary and corporate spiritual nurturing, and action in the world that is expressive of and yet also influences the spirituality of the individual members and the body. A good portion of the rest of Thayers book is devoted to introducing a variety of prayers which all have the focused endeavor to open our awareness to the reality of the transcendent. He is aware of Wilbers fundamental criticism of Protestant Christianity as having little in the way of actual spiritual practices, traditions, or experienced guides to offer contemporary seekers, who sometimes take up Buddhism by default. The bulk of Thayers attention goes to guiding the reader through the nuances of contemplative or apophatic approaches which are central to World One. As a pastor and a therapist, however, he is quite aware of the power and necessity of relationship, so he does devote space to verbal and imagistic approaches to prayer also. This bridges him into World Three concerns, though he never leaves his World One base behind. We cannot relate to God only as mysterious abyss or first principle. Because we are persons who require relationship, our religious being also requires the experience of relationship. This means verbal prayer--conversation--is crucial. Certainly biblical Christianity has always embodied the belief that Ultimate Reality is in some sense personal at its center, that the I-Thou dimension of experience is neither fiction nor projection. Christian spirituality must regain this truth. He leaves open the debate about the possibility of ultimate union vs. ultimate communion. Thayer is hyper-sensitivity to the dangers of self-deception and projection that come with anthropomorphic moves, but believes it is possible and necessary to take up the risk. Certainly the prophets and the process theologians remind us of Gods pathos and vulnerability, Gods own becoming in relationship to creation, [which] means also to us as persons. It is possible, ala Kierkegaard to stand naked before God without pretense or willfulness. We imagine ourselves before God, we express ourselves honestly and attentively, and forget about what we can get out of the relationship. And, of course, in a significant relationship, conversation emerges from and surrounded by silence. Indeed silence is essential as preparation and for receptiveness to words. A World Five note is touched when Thayer incorporates the experience of Gods absence as part of the divine-human relationship. It is spiritually healing in itself just to know that one can be sustained even in the midst of the experience of desolation and abandonment. In discussing verbal, imagistic, relational-based approaches to prayer, Thayer incorporates a World Three rationale into his work which includes a sense of purpose or telos. He does not believe this is antithetical to the World One appreciation that everything just is. Even the enlightened Buddha who knows everything is one, chooses to live in duality, compassionately ministering to the people in blindness. If one believes that God is actively, immanently present, sustaining all things, nudging and luring them toward the greatest fulfillment possible under given conditions, then it becomes incumbent upon us to discern as fully as possible what these conditions actually are and to let ourselves be aligned with the creative possibilities toward which this directivity can lead us. . . . Imagistic prayer is one way of out letting ourselves become more open to the range of reality of a given situation, in the faith and expectation that in so doing we are led to greater wholeness within the situation, greater sensitivity to the actuality of it, and greater responsiveness to its possibilities for good. Overall, Thayer believes spirituality can help pastoral care paradoxically emphasize both Gods ultimate unknowableness and an ever-deepening apprehension of oneself-in-relation-to-God. This is a process in which all of our life becomes incorporated in our prayer: all of our concerns, our hopes, our relationships, our anxieties, and our projects are experienced in prayer in a time of heightened awareness of ourselves before God. This does at least two things. On a narrative level, it fosters a fusion of horizons between our story and Gods story. On a consciousness level, it fosters the integration of contemplative and ordinary states of consciousness as it becomes more habitual to be present to the lived moment. Thayer is in total accord with May that spiritual progress toward more inclusive, compassionate consciousness is a matter of grace as opposed to ego-based effort. His book is a good illustration of pastoral care becoming self-conscious about the need to move beyond concerns for self-realization to self-transcendence. Writers in World Two of Conflict and Vindication Kenneth Leech is probably the broadest, most inclusive of all the spirituality and pastoral care writers. His book Soul Friend was well informed and eloquent about cultural history, psychotherapy, spiritual direction, as well as social justice. True Prayer related spirituality to all areas of life. His Experiencing God: Theology as Spirituality reflects a far deeper acquaintance with theology than most pastoral care givers. In The Eye of the Storm: Living Spiritually in the Real World Leech addressed his teaching to the general church population. And, Spirituality and Pastoral Care brought those two themes together for pastoral care givers. Clearly, for all his breadth and depth in whatever he writes, Leech without a doubt writes out of a World Two heart, with a passionate concern to champion God working through the church to address human issues of oppression in history. Leech begins his Spirituality and Pastoral Care by asserting that Christian spirituality is a transformative process of formation, a process in which we are formed by, and in, Christ . . . a process of Christ-ening. . . [which is] a work of grace from start to finish. He is concerned that this process be radically distinguished from that of adjustment. The Christian maturity this process strives for is a theological goal which will bring us into collision with prevailing values, and will therefore bring threats to our adjustment and our peace of mind. Likewise, it will also bring us into collision with much that passes for Christianity and for spirituality in our society. The Bible is central to spirituality growth. However, Leech is disturbed that the bible has been misused to reinforce oppression, violence, injustice, and the powerful interests of dominant social classes and groups. To be truly formed by the Word requires that we cultivate the qualities of insight, contemplative listening, and the willingness to allow our culture not to distort the Word but to be confronted and challenged by it. Leech, therefore, is suspicious of World One and Three approaches which might border on narcissistic spiritualities of self-cultivation, of personal enlightenment, of heightened awareness. It is often more akin to classical gnosticism . . . than to the biblical tradition, with its stress on the salvation and sanctification of a people. Leech is especially concerned with spiritualities which might miss the incarnational basis of Christian spiritual formation through a false division of reality into the spiritual and material. This kind of dualism leads to a religious life concerned with the condition of the inward soul of man and with the ethereal qualities of immortality. Leech contrasts this with authentic spiritual concerns for social justice, for the transforming of structures, for global peace and reconciliation. Another fundamental flaw in spirituality is the perversion and heresy which sees it as essentially individualistic. From Leechs reading there is in fact very little in the New Testament letters about personal spiritual formation as such. The centre of gravity is always the body, the solidarity; its spirituality is social. The biblical view is of a spirituality of the Kingdom of God, of a pilgrim people, of the Body of Christ. Paul speaks of mutual encouragement in faith (Rom. 1:12) and of mutual upbuilding (14:19); of our being one body in Christ (Rom. 12:5; I Cor. 10:17; 12:12). The gifts and manifestations of the Spirit are given for the common good (I Cor. 12:7). While God gives growth which allows individuals to progress from being babes in Christ to mature sons and daughters, changed into Christs likeness, the language of growth is primarily social language. It is the structure, the Christian community which grows, and we are built into it (Eph. 2:21-22). To put it another way, spiritual progress in the New Testament stresses the centrality of love as opposed to knowledge or mental enlightenment. Knowledge, gnosis, puffs up, while love builds up (I Cor. 8:1). Love is really basic, and without it even the prophetic gifts are useless (13:2ff.). Christian maturity in the fullness of Christ is maturity in love. In Hebrews, Jesus is said to have become teleios through suffering (1:10). This is not a spirituality of conformity, but a transformative spirituality of nonconformity . . . [which] will seem like folly to most people. To allow the Bible to form us in such a nonconformist way means we need to approach it through wrestling, brooding, and weeding. If we wrestle with God through the night like Jacob (Genesis 32:24-32), we can expect to emerge wounded and still not altogether clear about this mysterious will for us in our world. In the encounter between the Word of God and the dilemmas and perplexities of our day, there is no straightforward question/answer process. We simply cannot proceed direct from the Year of Jubilee in Leviticus 25 to the problems of international debt and land tenure; or from the apostolic koinonia of the early chapters of Acts . . . to the current debates about redistribution of wealth and capital punishment. The link is not that simple. It involves allowing the truth of Scripture to enter into dialogue, struggle and conflict with the contemporary reality. Insight comes not by direct application but through and in the conflict. In order for this to happen there needs to be a twofold process: grappling with the World of God, and grappling with the issues in our world, in our neighbourhood, in our personal lives. It is a central task of the church, nationally and locally, to seek to interpret the Word of God in relation to the conflicts of our day. Brooding over the Word goes beyond academic study for Leech. It has more to do with a contemplative approach to acquiring a biblical consciousness through meditating, ceaseless brooding, what the letter to the Hebrews means by tasting the Word of God (6:5). It should be a main task of the local church to guide people in such a practice. Weeding has to do with approaching Scripture with ideological and exegetical suspicion: that is, with the assumption that the meaning of Scripture has been coloured and distorted by the dominant culture. It is difficult, of course, to allow the Word to cut through the distorted interpretations, since we are part and parcel of the culture ourselves. We dont even realize the factors that organize our experience. Hence the subversive character of the work of discernment, for it calls into question all our partial perceptions, exposing them to the scrutiny of the Word of God. However much the difficulties, it is simply essential to disentangle the message of the Gospel from the accumulation of cultural baggage with which it has been covered. The local church should take the lead in promoting the ruthless persistence such an effort requires through the power of the Holy Spirit. The World Two aim of this process is that we become a biblical people: a people formed and nourished by the Word, a people of contradiction and of authentic nonconformity. To prevent Bible reading from being total projection, and the current emphasis on spirituality from simply becoming a fad, the latest diversion for protecting ourselves from the living God, Leech recommends the practice of silence. There is deep hostility in relation to the deep silence of God. But, it is fundamental. Its roots are in the biblical tradition which does not allow God to be named or defined. God is known in his works, in the darkness and silence of Sinai and Calvary, known as a hidden God. The apophatic or negative theology of the eastern church, in which God is spoken of only in negation, testifies to the incapacity of words and concepts to penetrate the reality of God. The development of hesychia or inner silence by the Desert Fathers was their main way of encountering the elusive Presence. It is the silence of unknowing of the Desert and the Dark Night which allow us to know ourselves without illusion, give up control, recollect God, allow the Holy Spirit to enter into and pray deeply within us, and give us the ability to truly listen. The valuing of silence is something Leech shares with World One, but his understanding of it is clearly in the service of World Two. It is silence which is prerequisite to shaping and fostering communities of resistance and of vision. The life of contemplation is linked with that of critical reflection upon the issues of the world, and resistance to its evil manifestations. The necessary withdrawal to personal, perhaps urban deserts leads to response and action. The conditions of the desert--a place of silence, of attention to God in simplicity and faith--should be made accessible in each parish community. Then the church can becoming a powerhouse of transformation as parishioners escape the diversion of many activities and discover the essential interlocking of solitude and solidarity. As pastors help people enter deeply into their own hearts, they will discover the truth that all evils are in common and must be solved in common. Personal solitude will lead into social health as we realize that we cannot deal with evil through violent attack, but only through allowing the Spirit to befriend and heal both ourselves and our neighbors together, for we are one. Leech references Simone Weil who wrote that brutality, violence, and inhumanity have immense prestige. Therefore, the contrary virtues of love and peacemaking must go beyond a simple rejection of violence, be organized in a disciplined way and exercised in a constant and effective manner. Whoever is only incapable of being as brutal, violent and inhuman as the adversary, yet without exercising the opposite virtues, is inferior to this adversary in both inner strength and prestige; and they will not hold their own against them. None of this is a matter of skills and techniques. It is a matter of the Word of God, challenging, piercing, shaking, opening, and confronting us with realities which disturb and transform us. . . . We are formed through struggle. The ideal of struggle assumes a social dimension to the spiritual path. There can be no private spirituality. The word private in fact is not a Christian word at all. The process of spiritual formation takes place within a world of wars and rebellions, of unemployment and strikes, of racism and oppression, of wealth and poverty. If pastoral care does not acknowledge and address this truth, it is in danger of deteriorating into ambulance work. According to the Flemish mystic Ruysbroeck (14th), those who see the attainment of inner peace and tranquillity as the goal of the spiritual life, and who neglect the common life and the demands of charity and justice, are the most harmful and most evil men that live. The life of prayer must never be separated from the struggles of humanity, because the spiritual life can never be true to itself if it deteriorates into a way of tranquilizing oneself against the anguish of the world. For Thomas Merton and others prayer is not quietism, but a yearning and a striving for the Kingdom in the freedom of the Spirit. Likewise, the only escape from the Marxist critique of religion as an opiate comes when contemplative silence leads to basic questioning, enhanced vision, a greater awareness of the realities of the world, along with the compassion to respond to them. It is struggling in silence that helps us in distinguishing the voice of God from the many conflicting voices within, and strengthens us for combat, strengthening for the movement of the Kingdom. World Two concerns tie into the Type C perspective of Asia Minor in many ways, especially through the emphasis on the Kingdom of God in history. The Kingdom of God is the key to the necessary new reformation in which prayer and politics, spirituality and social justice, mysticism and prophecy, will find their true harmony and interdependence. Christian prayer is Kingdom prayer: not the quest for inner peace of heart, but the stretching out of heart and mind towards the shalom which is inseparable from the justice and salvation of God. In the biblical tradition of the Hebrew prophets it certainly is the contemplative vision of the holy and just God which leads these men to attack the oppression of the poor, the alien, the orphan and the widow. The prophets zeal for justice was rooted in their vision of, and struggle for, holiness, for being true to the right-relatedness of Gods realm on earth which alone allows justice and peace to embrace. Leech weds Worlds One and Two by affirming the contrast between the mystical life and the prophetic life is a contrast which is not known to the biblical writers, for whom the knowledge of, and union with, God was a unified whole. Leech references Jim Wallis who argues that evangelical training in the United States at least, has no clear proclamation of the Kingdom of God. The disastrous result becomes saved individuals who comfortably fit into the old order, while the new order goes unannounced. The social meaning of conversion is lost and a privatized gospel supports the status quo. In addition to neglecting the Kingdom of God, a second major weakness of contemporary Christianity for Leech as suggested above is not taking seriously the incarnational aspects of Christology. The truth of the Incarnation, of the taking of humanity into God, is the basis both of a materialistic, earthy and fleshy spirituality, and of a spiritually-based commitment to action in the world. Grace is carnal, the presence of Christ in all flesh, the dignity and potential glory of being human. It is the Word made flesh, which drives us out to seek and serve Christ in the poor, the ragged, the despised and the broken. The incarnation makes it impossible for Christians to opt for a spirituality which despises the flesh, fears human passion, sexuality and warmth, and shuns the world of politics as squalid and contagious. Leech realizes that addressing the issues which God sets before us in our time will inevitable rock, if not divide or fracture the church. Thus, there will be the tendency to avoid such issues as divisive, preferring harmony to controversy; and as we know, controversial matters are not conducive to church growth! If it isnt clear already, Leech assures us that nowhere in Scripture is harmony preferred to truth or to justice. The prophets attack those who cry Peace, peace when there is no peace. Jesus promises not peace but a sword, not unity but division. It is true that reconciliation is certainly the ultimate aim of the Gospel, but it is rarely the immediate result of its impact. In the midst of inevitable conflict, Leech counsels reliance on the Holy Spirit to lead the church into all truth. Since virtually all Christians affirm this, it should be possible and right for Christians of differing opinions to seek to grapple with those contentious issues lovingly, fearlessly, and prayerfully, and to seek a common mind. Surely, in terms of a witness to the world of violence all around us, if the Christian community cannot do this, what hope is there for humanity? Sanctification must necessarily pass through the way of politics. And, if the church really is . . . a provisional arm of the Kingdom, ought it not to be saying, in relation to divisive issues, It seemed good to the Holy Spirit and to us . . . It is not that the Holy Spirit can preserve us from all error, although speaking out of a consensus is a good sign the Spirit is at work, but it is surely better, after thought, debate and prayer, to speak on the basis of present perception, than to remain silent in the face of great evil. As Martin Luther King, Jr. suggested, the church is not called to be the servant of the state, still less its master, but rather its conscience. The church, therefore, needs to be in deep prayer, prevailing upon the Holy Spirit to help it emerge from its Babylonian captivity into a new liberty to face new challenges. This will only be possible if it is spiritually mature, rooted in the Word, steeped in silence, and struggling in faith for the Kingdom of God and his justice. Leech has much to say about how reclaiming the gift of spiritual direction can help the church in its willingness to be guided by the Holy Spirit, but only of course within a context which assumes the unity of spirituality and social action, of holiness and justice. Spiritual direction of ascetical disciplines of solitude and reflection should lead one to a deeper insight into and solidarity with the anguish of the world. Radical action begins with radical contemplation. Good spiritual direction will always include an inescapable element of conflict, of spiritual warfare, of resistance. An important function of the director then, is to seek to help nourish the inner resources needed in the struggle with the principalities and powers, a struggle where often only the fool will enter the battleground. Counseling and psychotherapy can also have a place if they are not simply used as tools to provide comfort and adjustment within an unholy world. As R. D. Laing has taught us, true sanity involves breaking through the confines of the habitual ego, ordinary waking consciousness. It involves ego-transcendence, the recognition that the ego is only a small part of the total personality. The general movement in psychotherapy toward trans-personal psychology has brought therapeutic work closer to the spiritual traditions. Here, Leech critiques pastoral counseling or casework theology for being behind the curve of secular therapists. The casework method increased among Christians at the same time professional social workers were gaining a more political understanding of their work. Pastoral counselors allowed the dialogue with psychiatry to become totally imbalanced. They downplayed spiritual truths at the same time therapists were seeking greater spiritual wisdom. Clergy with unsettled identities sought refuge and retreat into the counselling field. One reason for the overall enthusiastic embrace of counseling and psychotherapy, of course, was the collapse of any coherent school of spiritual direction in the post-WWII period. It was undoubtedly true that much Christian spirituality has interpreted the way of holiness as a rejection of human nature. So the more spiritual one becomes, the less human one gets. This made World Three psychologies attractive which affirmed that a spirituality of human wholeness is possible. Surely, the association of holiness with wholeness and maturity has its roots in early Christian reflection on the consequences of the incarnation. Leech is also fine with psychologys knowledge of the unconscious which helps with humility and the hermeneutics of suspicion, and also ties into the long tradition within Christianity which lays stress on the demonic, on structural sin, and on the principalities and powers of the fallen world. Spiritual directors would do well to learn the lessons of depth psychology. Good therapy, like good contemplation involves moving away from dependence on props and structures, being set free from idols and false images of god. It is all akin to the work of a prophet, for the prophet sees idolatry as more threatening to true religion than atheism. Thus, prophets value any process which helps perceive reality correctly and clearly with the understanding that reality encompasses the structures of the world as well as the soul. Pastors who learn from counseling just need to keep clear on their World Two identity, knowing that they are not about the preservation of interior peace but about opening the doors of the soul to commotion and upheaval, and preparing people as far as is possible to respond to this necessary process by which alone true wholeness is attained. That pastors can become clear or keep clear is highly problematic. Leech goes into a number of studies which show that laity often do not encourage deep theological reflection on the part of their pastors. Seminaries do not provide training in deep prayer. The emphasis on a professionalism which apes lawyers and doctors in a culture that values growth at all costs, mitigates against it. The busyness of church activities and the inability of pastors to support each other is endemic. Churches are not well-connected with retreat centers which can easily provide the kind of retreat and training in silence that is needed. Laity, who assume pastors learn everything they need in seminary and pray every day, dont support contemplative activities. Unless major alarms go off and major changes are made, mainline church life threatens to remain at a superficial external level which burns out clergy and laity alike. Leech believes it would help if pastors moved from an identity as a professional cleric to that of a priest, a symbol of contradiction. To be a priest is to be a walking sacrament . . . [and] to bear witness in ones body and life to the reality of Gods grace mediated through matter. To do this is not a matter of better organization, rationalizing of resources, improved techniques, or higher standards of training, but a matter of recovering the sacramental and symbolic character of priesthood. In a final summary Leech offers the following: Spirituality is not simply a preparation for good pastoral care and good priesthood, a technique for doing some job better. It is the inner reality of priesthood and pastorate, it is the integrated and lived theology of holiness and liberation, the heart of sacramental action, the flesh and blood of pastoral life. All pastoral work and action must be rooted in, and take its meaning and life from the inner life of the spirit. All priesthood must find its identity, its central meaning, in that inner solidarity with Christ which is the core of the contemplative and mystical experience. Writers in World Three of Emptiness and Fulfillment The majority of contributions to the spirituality and pastoral care literature are found in this world. This is quite logical since the general themes for much of contemporary white, mainline church pastoral care and counseling revolve around issues of emptiness and fulfillment, self-estrangement and wholeness, with Christ understood as the exemplary model who inspires full divine-humanbeingness. One of the pioneers for integrating a spiritual perspective with World Three pastoral care is Morton T. Kelsey, the author of many, many books in the field. He likewise is representative of an entire camp of contributors who find spiritual direction and nourishment in the work of Carl Jung. James Hillman was one of Jungs students, and a former director of the C. G. Jung Institute in Zurich. Although he is not a pastor, as was true in Gerald Mays case, his book Insearch deserves special consideration because it was a forerunner and impetus to the spirituality and pastoral care literature. Insearch was published in 1967, and lays out the basic approach of so many Jungian therapists, priests, and pastors who followed. One of the first attractions of the Jungian approach to those post-sixties questers who experienced the limitations of mainline psychology was that it distinguished between soul and psyche. Hillman states, no matter how healthy we get mentally, we still need soul. The good news is that we have souls, but we can and do lose them. The bad news is that in terms of ordinary psychotherapy, pastoral or otherwise, if the soul is not implied from the beginning it will not appear at the end. The phenomenal sales of Thomas Moores Cure of the Soul appears to have been a thirty year lag-time popular response to what Jungians have been saying for many seasons, obviously marketed at a time the public was hyper-primed to hear it. Jungian soul-work proceeds through encouraging communion or connections with more of life, which in the end also fosters stronger agency. It is the way of wholeness. Two people can have greater connection to each other as they are connected deeply within themselves, and present to the same moment. Beyond personal communion, the ground of being in the depths is not just my own personal ground; it is the universal support of each, to which each finds access through an inner connection. Thus, the collective unconscious or larger Self provides a bridge for both personal and interpersonal emptiness. For Hillman and Jungians in general it is the unconscious that is the door through which we pass to find the soul. When the soul is accessed through the unconscious ordinary events suddenly become experiences, thereby taking on soul; . . . meaning becomes vivid again as emotions are stirred. And it is through the unconscious that many people have found a way into love and a way into religion. It is the nature of inner connections to the unconscious to evoke a rich interior life, and a place where meanings home. Meaning is conferred contextually, as has been mentioned many times by now. The spiritual impulse moves us toward increased communion. And, as those pieces and parts that before lived unconnected are laced together, are deepened and extended, that habitable dwelling place for religious life . . . begins to form itself. To say it another way, as the capacity to experience and to love life as it is grows, one needs fewer events because one has more experiences. This growth is growth of soul as . . . it makes meaning possible, . . . is communicated in love, and has a religious concern. That soul which comes through experiencing the unconscious can deal directly with religion. We dont have to demythologize religion in order to meet modern man. As a matter of fact a demythologized God is a dead god, a god disemboweled of emotion, a mental figment without psychic reality. Soul has a natural religious concern. We can choose the alternate route of involvement with the unconscious thereby reconnecting modern man to his myths. To explore the unconscious for Hillman entails entering into the dark mystery of the unconscious, facing the shadow. This approach to spirituality does not strive to get more light into our lives, but to trust that if we reach into the darkness and pull whatever is there into the light, it will be healed. The creation is good, as Genesis suggests. We can place ultimate trust in it. As the unconscious is made conscious over time, our souls become more whole. This entails a moral issue. As we commit to the spiritual path, figures appear in the shadow which represent positive possibilities of ones own nature, potentialities that have not been given a chance. I am guilty not only toward the past, but toward my own potentialities. Where the ego has neglected its own virtues and talents, then these virtues and talents will be incorporated into figures of the dreams who have become social outcasts--that is, cast out by the fixed laws of the way in which we have set up our inner society. Then these potentials must appear as outlaws, misfits, even cripples or lunatics. Healing these, the blind and the lepers, raising the dead, becomes an inner necessity to bring health to the personality. The cure of the shadow, the befriending it, and allowing it into our lives is a problem of love. It is not a matter of putting me in the center which likely degenerates into the aim of curing the ego--getting stronger, better, growing in accord with the egos goals, which are often mechanical copies of societys goals. In true soul work the ego must serve and listen to and cooperate with a host of shadowy unpleasant figures and discover an ability to love even the least of them. Loving oneself is no easy matter when it includes loving all of oneself, including the shadow where one is inferior and socially so unacceptable. The wonderful grace in this process, however, is to find out that the care one gives this humiliating part is also the cure. Ethically speaking, the devils work is done in the shadows of our fears while we are running toward the light. It is connecting with the perfect love which casts out all fear, which familiarizes us with our shadows, our own devil-likeness, which is the ultimate protection for us and those around us. There is much paradox in this work. Embracing who we are allows us to become more than we are. We find that rotten garbage is also fertilizer. Cure itself is a paradox requiring two incommensurables: the moral recognition that these parts of me are burdensome and intolerable and must change, and the loving laughing acceptance which takes them just as they are, joyfully, forever. Here Western moralism joins with Eastern abandon, each holding only one side of the truth as one both tries hard and lets go, both judges harshly and joins gladly. For Hillman, the soul which facilitates this paradoxical process, is not all; there is something beyond it. The morality embraced here of placing God down in the deep will aim toward the transcendent immanent--that is, the deeply-within which is at the same time beyond. Here is a bridge between Worlds Three and One. The beyond within is the ultimate aim of the inner connection; a self-connectedness which is common to all beyond the ego. It points beyond itself; transcends itself, and therefore it imposes a morality which demands a process of transcending, always going deeper, farther. Hillman says this spiritual quest for simultaneous ascent and descent can be called in Jungian terms, the moral impulse of the individuation process. Whether God is placed within or above, it is always this beyond aspect which guides the moral impulse. Guilt and conscience then are both possible and natural in relation to ones own possibility of self-realization, or self-redemption. The Holy is not honored or respected by our being less than what we can be. However, being all that we can be is not a matter of conquering and masculine assault. It is more a matter of receptivity, openness, relating, caring. It is as a woman, the psyche in its female form, that the soul receives and knows God. Jesus did not become one with God through violent battle. His greatest strength was his compassion for human weakness, his willingness to yield to human fear and cruelty, so that they could be embraced and thus transformed through a love from which nothing could separate them. The Holy Spirit, imaged by the dove, is the feminine aspect of the Trinity which counsels and inspires love. The religious moment requires a passive mood to Gods intentions, a receptive state to the Divine Will, a wounding experience which opens us, it is feminine in nature. Love as agape, means to receive, to welcome, to embrace. The religious quest then, is not so much to search for and locate God. It has more to do with preparing the ground so that He may descend from the heights as the dove plummets, or arise from the depths, or be revealed through personal love. The ground is prepared by insearch, by courageously reclaiming the lost areas of the soul, where it has fallen into disuse and disease. It is further prepared by separating the strands of the shadow and containing in consciousness the tensions of moral perplexities, so that our actions are less like actings-out and more like acts. In facilitating this search or quest, it is good for pastoral care and counseling to remember in a day of specialized, professional services, that as human questers we do not have problems according to Hillman, we are problems. The problem in psychology or pastoral work is the individual himself, just as I am my own problem. Therefore, in our work, the cure can never be the riddance or exorcism of the presenting problem, but only and always the care of the person whom we meet. In his book Prophetic Ministry: The Psychology and Spirituality of Pastoral Care, Kelsey both quotes Hillman, Jung, Sanford, and other Jungians, and develops these same themes in his unique way. Prophets for Kelsey are those who speak to the needs of their times. In addition to the biblical prophets and Jesus he cites John Woolman, William Wilberforce, Francis of Assisi, Florence Nightingale, Father Damien, and Martin Luther King, Jr. They all had in common an experiential intuition of Gods Spirit, a corresponding vision of what God wanted for the fullness of human life in their time, and a clear discernment of what structures of society needed to change to be brought more in line with the hopes of Gods Kingdom, or risk the perils of being out of line. Prophecy flows from a living knowledge of the living God, something in short supply in our rationalistic, materialistic age. Worse than that, meaninglessness can destroy as effectively as arsenic. There is a literal mind-body connection. Kelsey shares that he was a child of our age and knew of that meaninglessness. He found hope through the healing of Agnes Sanford and theological framework of Von Huegel. However, the skeptic within kept whispering that I had no basis for real belief. He found himself lured into entering Jungian analysis and soon discovered people who believed that God was real and still spoke to human beings through dreams and as one listened deeply in the depth of the night. In the process he developed greater personal wholeness and meaning in a World Three process open to World One mysticism, meant to bear fruit not only internally, but in active World Two prophetic ministry. Healing was and is a large subject for Kelsey. He realized in his own life and that of others that the spiritual disease of lostness and rootlessness has somatic as well as psychic effects. The lack of vital religious experience and confidence is as much a disease, a spiritual disease, as athereosclerosis is a disease of the body. Thus, there is a big job for real religion in providing experience that gives meaning, and thus reduces tension, the tension that tattoos itself silently but surely all over our body and internal organ systems. Kelsey became an expert on psychosomatic medicine and encourages the church to do so also. Then we will know that these tensions cannot be fooled. Real religion does not amount to mere ideas. It takes more than insight to counteract the cellular memory of an historical occurrence. It takes here and now, passionate, self-authenticating experience to call into question the imprint and lessons of a previous experience. Ultimately, we will remain tense until we see our lives in the context of a transpersonal meaning, until we have had experiences that bring conviction that such meaning does indeed exist. Surface consciousness can be fooled, but not deep consciousness. And for Kelsey, Jung showed more clearly than anyone else that the religious conviction of the patient has a great deal to do with emotional health, and so with physical wellbeing. Perhaps, then, suggests Kelsey, the Church has not been quite so ridiculous as many people have imagined when it stressed the possibility that spirit can have a creative and upbuilding influence upon the body. There is a rich legacy of healing in the church to recover and claim. Claiming it means in part believing prophetically, in the face of an empiricistic, reductionistic culture, that there is some reality other than material reality that can effect a creative change in the bodies, souls, and minds of men and women. In terms of pastoral care, there are so many people confused by doubts, problems, and meaninglessness, which lead to physical as well as emotional illnesses . . . [who provide] a great need for counseling with a dimension of meaning, which can have both physical and emotional effects. Likewise, there is also a growing appreciation of the need for spiritual guides who are also trained as pastoral counselor, and . . . know the methods of dealing with individuals and groups in a meaningful way. The overall purpose of spiritual direction is to bring men and women into touch with the central meaning of the universe and to enable them to relate all aspects of their lives to this meaning. For all the admitted dangers, World Three writers hold counseling and spiritual development in close proximity. For instance, Kelsey remarks that behind ordinary problems of sexuality and authority (which everyone has) one often finds a spiritual void that has intensified the problems. The whole person must be engaged as people are assisted through conflicts and depersonalizing emotional problems. Since Kelsey was a child of the rational-technological-empirical pre-WWII West when the Newtonian shadow loomed especially large, he took it as part of his prophetic calling to remonstrate for a place for experience in religious life. He recounts the great suspicion in both theology and psychology in the last twohundred years which did not allow any place for experience on the religious journey; Baron von Huegel and C. G. Jung being the great exceptions. By experience Kelsey means mystical experience that involves perception of something different from the space-time continuum. He cites all manner of research on the commonness of mystical experience, the high correlation with emotional maturity, the attempts of right-brain meditation, drugs, music, dance, ritual, and charismatic renewal to pursue non-ordinarily states of consciousness, and the high degree of reticence to tell any professional (left-brain) religious person about such experiences. He outlines and recommends Jungs theory of the physical in relation to the nonphysical psychoid world as a helpful interpretive map. In terms of navigating the meaning-full waters of non-ordinary consciousness, Kelsey compares both Eastern and Western methods. He notes that both Eastern and Western methods suggest the importance of relaxation and silence, of detachment and the asceticism of quietness. Since the East generally sees ultimate reality as cosmic mind, with which one merges, losing ones ego identity, the spiritual path it uses is often a World One apophatic approach which leads to imagelessness and to the loss of much of ones sense of individuality and separateness. Christianity for Kelsey in its most characteristic practice perceives the core of the universe as love, with which one relates. Therefore its spiritual path never transcends the use of images in meditation; it leads to an enhanced sense of individuality achieved through an encounter with God. Thus, after relaxation and silence function to quiet the mind, there is a World Three return of awareness to the image. The image is seen to lead the individual not only into the depth of the human psyche, but also into the spiritual world that impinges upon us human beings. In this work and others, Kelsey goes on to outline five approaches to meditation which can be useful in a World Three approach to spiritual direction which keeps in view the therapeutic need for healing and wholeness. The first is entering into the mythological story in an imaginative way which enables us to share in its transformative power. For instance, in deep depression over loss one can imagine oneself in the garden of resurrection with the other Mary, and share with her the experience of joy and victory as she met the Risen Christ. A general World Three principle for Kelsey is that since the biblical stories all point toward victory, stepping into them can facilitate the possibility of victory within the individual life. A second method is that of inner dialogue through relating to dream symbols, using Progoffs intensive journaling, Gestalts chair techniques, or Ignatius of Loyolas dialogues with the Risen Christ, the Virgin, or some other religious figure. This inner dialogue in non-ordinary consciousness can open up a level of meaning that can hardly be reached in any other way, certainly not in the repetitious external conversation of ordinary consciousness often employed in standard pastoral care and counseling. Inner dialogue can bring one to a relationship with a highly creative level of the objective psyche external to ones own personal psyche. Creative imagining is a third way to get beyond ordinary consciousness and deal gracefully with moods and emotions which seem often so amorphous and unconfrontable. As Hillman demonstrates in his classic study Emotion, inner images are deeply related to emotions. Following Jungs own example, when he had to face his personal dark night of the soul, emotions can be consciously invited to take form and voice through images where they can be dealt with in a creative way. They can be related to as sub-personalities, listened to, responded to compassionately and wisely by the larger non-egoic part of the Self. Extreme feelings can be dissipated. Positive solutions can be envisioned. Notes Kelsey, one can seldom become what one has not first of all conceived imaginatively, the power of which has been empirically confirmed by Larry LeShans work with cancer patients. Sometimes entire life stories can be worked through imaginatively with art, music, dance, or creative writing such as Dantes Divine Comedy, Bunyans Pilgrims Progress, and St. John of the Crosss Stanzas of the Soul. Dreams, of course, are a staple of World Three growth oriented spiritual formation. Dreaming is a natural altered state of consciousness, where the Spirit can get around normal consciousness to offer images, pictures, and stories, which can be befriended gracefully for the teachings they embody. A final method Kelsey recommends is practicing a mindful or witnessing state of consciousness. This is a process of becoming quiet and coming to observe the flow of ones inner life. Both by sensory deprivation and through concentration on a symbol or mantra one can step out of ordinary experience and observe the flow of images that is ordinarily found in dreaming. In World One, a spiritual friend might suggest simply staying with this practice of bare attention, not attempting to add or subtract from what is there, and simply know that this might lead to the No-self of unity consciousness. However, World Three concentrates on moving the self toward increased health, wholeness, and integration. Therefore, Kelsey recommends cultivating this state of consciousness to clear out the busyness of the mind, and then moving to work with the flow of images while in this state. For instance, the image of a healing and transforming figure or power might be invited into ones meditative situation. Kelsey offers a number of examples of applying these spiritually-based counseling methods to various human predicaments including violence and aggression. Only the religious inner journey (in the broad sense) frees us. . . . The basic meaning of religion, from the word religio, is to bind to, to relate to. The human task is first to know ourselves and face the destructive powers within us, and then to come to know this saving power, [the power of the Self, beyond the normal consciousness of the ego, to integrate opposites] to tie to it and relate to it. This power alone can handle metaphysical evil. Those who would handle aggression in themselves or in others have more than a humanistic task. In a summary judgment, Kelsey offers that guiding people on the spiritual quest would appear to be one of the most important and distinctive areas in pastoral counseling in the decades to come. If we step outside the Jungian camp, the most pioneering voice in World Three spirituality and pastoral care is Howard J. Clinebell, Jr. Like the others, he also is concerned with finding that place where the Spirit touches our spirits outside of normal, rational consciousness. He was driven to this, like many of his contemporaries, by the general spiritual malaise [which] impacts every person who seeks care and counseling; the epidemic of existential emptiness, ethical confusion, meaning vacuums, spiritual poverty, and pathology which is everywhere present in our society. Like other classically trained pastoral counselors, Clinebell had built-in reticence about spiritual arenas with their possible pathologies, and was only encouraged through his own experience. He recounts that he was in a therapy session one time with a Psychosynthesis practitioner who he says, sensed my deep frustration in attempting to use only ego-level understandings to solve my problems, and resolve the hard lumps of grief and anger within me. But, a turning point in the session came when he invited me to go to the place within you where youre together and whole and at peace. Look at your issues from that perspective. The results opened up a new dimension of consciousness. He says, as I did this, I was surprised that the lumps of painful, frozen feelings began to melt. . . . I experienced a sense of release and a gentle flow of healing energy. He gradually realized that he could use this energy either to continue working on the issues (less obsessively) or release them as beyond my power to resolve. Out of this experience and others Clinebell came to posit that all of us need to discover and develop the inner wisdom, creativity, and love of our transpersonal or spiritual Self, which it is so easy to lose contact with in our busy, surface-living world. In his Ecotherapy: Healing Ourselves, Healing the Earth he writes: The goal of spiritually centered counseling, therapy, education, and parenting is to enable people to make their transpersonal, spiritual Self the unifying, enlivening center of all aspects of their lives. Then the Self, which is the soul, or that part of us that is made in the image of God, can become the channel by which the inspiration and empowerment of the divine Spirit become active in human lives. In another place he writes, the ringing affirmation of our religious heritage [is] that the integrating center of wholeness which impacts all other dimensions is the wholeness of our spiritual lives. Clearly, it is true that there are no psychological or psychotherapeutic answers to existential anxiety, as Wilber notes above. The only constructive means of handling existential anxiety is an authentic religious life, enabling the actualization of the image of God within the person. Therefore, as theological counselors--the function of pastors is to nurture the growth of persons toward a more mature (in tune with spiritual reality) faith and a more vitalizing, growthful relationship with God. A life-enhancing religion enables persons to confront rather than evade their existential anxiety. . . . Existential anxiety is transformed to the extent that we are able to live in eternity in the midst of our transitory lives. Clinebell finds it easy to agree with Carl Jung who once observed, the mythical and mystical aspects of religion may be our most effective defense against the mass-mindedness of a technological society. Again, the hi-tech revolution enhances the need to stay centered in the spiritual core of our human identity--our higher Self (Roberto Assagioli) or soul. In general: As persons discover and develop those spiritual capacities that are their transpersonal essence--the higher Self within them--their existential anxiety is gradually transformed into a constructive force in their lives. Persons who treat themselves like machines, who feel they have never lived, whose inner creativity and aliveness are trammeled by neurotic conflicts tend to be most terrified by death. Conversely, persons who have learned to stay open to the loving Spirit of life and thereby come alive within themselves, find that awareness of their finitude is transformed into a stimulus for living more fully and purposefully. The more the image of God is developed within them, the more they can celebrate in the celebration of being. (Bugental). Our most basic alienation as human beings is from the transcendent within us. To discover and develop this image of God is the key task of spiritual growth work. As is common to World Three approaches, Clinebell also affirms the close connection between spiritual direction and pastoral psychotherapy. The essence of our uniqueness as pastoral counselors--our theological and ethical training--will become increasingly valued in the new world that is emerging. We must recover and update our neglected traditions of spiritual healing and moral guidance, integrating these with the strong emphasis on insights from the human sciences and methods from secular counseling and psychotherapy. By so doing, we can liberate the creative, untapped power of the pastoral in pastoral care and counseling. The close combining of spiritual and psychological counseling reflects Clinebells World Three emphasis on wholeness. His liberation-growth model covers sixteen different points, and his principles of growth counseling, twentysix. He has another twentythree criteria for identifying salugenic, as opposed to pathogenic, religion, all of which check for enhanced aliveness and trust. Salugenic religion results when people satisfy these [spiritual] needs in open, growing, reality respecting ways that say a resounding Yes! to life. Likewise, the goal of the religious dimension of pastoral care and counseling is to help people grow in the depth and vitality of their spiritual life so that it will empower all aspects of their lives, and put them in a right relationship with God, themselves, others, nature--you name it. Not surprisingly holiness, health, and holism go closely together in World Three for Clinebell. A guiding vision for Spirit-centered pastoral care and counseling needs to be informed by the new holism that is emerging in many fields and the growing influence of the new physics from which a more holistic and systemic worldview will eventually develop. Certainly, biblical images such as the body of Christ remind us that systemic ways of thinking are indigenous to our spiritual heritage. Therefore, holistic pastoral care will focus actively on enhancing the quality of a persons total wholeness, including physical wholeness. This emphasis will involve utilizing insights and methods from the body therapies and integrating these methods with the intrapsychic and interpersonal therapies that have been central to modern pastoral counseling. Part of the good news of the way God has created us in an interdependent, participatory universe is the discovery that the way overcoming body alienation can awaken ones spiritual life is paralleled by the discovery that faith, hope, love, and a sense of transcendent purpose can maximize healing and enable one to handle tremendous stress without developing illness. An implication of being part of a body in an interdependent world is the awareness that there can be no such things as privatized self-actualization or wholeness apart from others. The only self-fulfillment that is genuinely whole occurs in covenants of mutual commitment to self, other, and community wholeness. Thus, the future calls the pastoral care and counseling movement to help the church become what the divine Spirit longs for it to be--a wider, deeper channel through which the springs of justice and love from that Spirit can flow into parched and barren lives, relationships, groups, and institutions. If we offer our willingness to dream and to dare, to work and to laugh, to love and to pray with the church around the world, we can become co-creators with it of the new age of transformed consciousness and caring community, which is Gods dream for the human family. For Clinebell, it is his World Three emphasis on wholeness which empowers a healthy and effective World Two emphasis on healing the planet, broadly conceived. The goal of Spirit-centered liberating counseling for women (and for men) must be empowerment for challenging and changing the sick institutions, not adjusting to them. We must recognize the radical interdependence of individual healing and growth, on the one hand, and social healing and transformation, on the other. Behind every personal problem is a cluster of societal problems. We must train those within the realm of pastoral care to work with others to change the systems that cause their brokenness. We must include consciousness-raising in our work and become more countercultural than in the past. To this end Clinebell was instrumental in the founding of the International Pastoral Care Network For Social Responsibility. Another implication of becoming whole through growing up into the Christ, into that mind which was in Christ Jesus, is that we are transformed through the renewal of our minds to see the relativity of our local, limited identities, and lured to embrace a global perspective. Therefore, Spirit-centered pastoral care and counseling must transcend the movements predominant North American and European middle-class male origins and orientation to become increasingly transcultural and global in its perspectives. Along this line Clinebell applauds and encourages the growth and development of cross-cultural counseling as well as the meetings of the International Congress of Pastoral Care and Counseling. We must allow the Spirit to lead us to a more detribalized, inclusive identity [which] can enable ones caring and counseling to contribute in small but significant ways to the emerging global conscience, caring, and community upon which planetary wholeness and peace ultimately depend. Writers in World Four of Condemnation and Forgiveness Here is a major hole in white, mainline Protestant pastoral care. It seems that none of the pioneers or influential writers in spirituality and pastoral care works and writes out of this world. Gerald May helped outline the predicament of World Four above through his work on addictions, but his solution moves toward a World One contemplative surrender and offering of willingness, as opposed to a World Four acceptance of forgiveness. There are probably a number of reasons for this void. As noted in the above history, writers such as Tom Oden who tried to build a bridge between Neoorthodoxy and pastoral care, did not have a great reception. Oden himself critiqued Thurneysens attempt to say all pastoral care boiled down to proclaiming Gods forgiveness in one way or another as inadequate. Likewise, Albert Outler, who was commonly considered a champion of orthodox theological concerns, cautioned liberals and evangelicals alike that forensic metaphors of atonement were better replaced by the broader biblical tradition of therapeutic metaphors in our day. Certainly, the increasingly influential liberation theologies have trouble with a narrow emphasis on personal forgiveness and grace when social structures cry out for redemption. And, feminist writers have expressed great difficulty with the dynamic of becoming broken and powerless before a basically patriarchal God who seems to demand the blood sacrifice of his own child. As Hunter was quoted as saying above, modern, progressive pastoral care givers essentially resist an emphasis on a concern for forgiveness of sins as narrow, legalistic or unhealthily pious. The contemporary preference is for understanding bondage and addiction in terms of unconscious conflict, false consciousness, or the inhibition of natural feeling and spontaneity. The field generally finds a more comfortable habitat in World Three. To touch upon spirituality and pastoral writers in this world necessitates looking over the fence into the more conservative-evangelical-charismatic-fundamentalist camps. This proffers a two-fold problem. First, mainline liberal pastoral care specialists are often loathe to do this both personally and professionally. Secondly, appropriate evangelical writers rarely use the word spiritual in their titles because they think of themselves as doing standard, biblically-based work which naturally encompasses the guidance of the Spirit. It is not a far look to glance at the work of David Augsburger, however. While he currently teaches at the consciously evangelical Fuller Theological Seminary in California, his church background is in the passivist movement of the Mennonite Church, and his Ph.D. is in pastoral psychotherapy and family therapy from the mainline-liberal School of Theology at Claremont. He is an AAPC Diplomat and quite familiar to mainline pastoral care through his cross-cultural work on counseling and mediation. While this is not the place to go into the considerable depths of Augsburgers work on relating to war and violence, we can say that he both takes World Four issues of reconciliation seriously as a part of the overall Christian tradition, and that he struggles with it. He acknowledges that something inexplicable happens in the death of Jesus that classical theology has defined as God reconciling us to Godself in a unilateral work of atonement. Like others, he asks is this reconciliation or expiation? Does this have to do with the healing issues of transforming enmity? Or does this add the contradiction of redemptive violence? Also, if God destroys the Son for some greater good--the salvation of humankind--what guarantee of Gods steadfast love could ever be offered? What assurance could there be of God as Abba--loving parent-- that would be believable to both our conscious and unconscious trust processes? It is clear to Augsburger that the healing word is the reverse of that classical view. Jesus bore our sins not to reconcile an angry God to us, as blood-atonement theories hold, but to reconcile us to God. Therefore, the meaning of the cross, in pastoral theology and in the individual therapeutic journey, is less a matter of reconciling God to us, as many atonement theories stress, than of reconciling us to God. The Good News is that God has refused ledger keeping; God makes no demands for repayment. The redemptive act of God is to break us free from our bondage to rage, resentment, recrimination, and revenge. He quotes with approval Raymond Schwager: God needs no reparation, but human beings must be extracted from their own prison if they are to be capable of accepting the pure gift of freely offered love. It is not God who must be appeased, but humans who must be delivered from their hatred. In terms of delivering humans from their hatred, violence, and bondage, God must be greater than humanity, but somehow still of it, and yet transcend the habitual human cycles of victimization and revenge. If God is just a bigger, more mysterious version of ourselves, there is no hope of being able to jump out of the self-perpetuating victim-offender dynamic. Augsburger notes that the reflex of pain is to inflict pain. A most basic human impulse, rooted in early childhood development is to seek or seize justice whenever their is a perception of having been violated, wronged, or lied to. It is actually so primitive, that it is inevitably present in both offenders and victims. They both bring a sense of wrongedness . . . to the reconciliation situation. A closely related fundamental point in human alienation and estrangement then, is that the rupture of a relationship involves both in the evil done. This is no small thing. The most painful insult of an injury is often the secondary one, the internal implosion of rage that takes us hostage, that elevates hatred and resentment to a dominant, even idolatrous, position in our inner court of justice. We remember here that the lex talionis in Hebrew law was instituted to put a limit on such rageful implosions and explosions. One can only take an eye for eye, not two legs and an arm for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, not a heart for a tooth. Augsburger quotes Virgil Elizondo on this subject: The offended feels in the very entrails of his/her being the need to demand payment in kind. It seems that the damage done by sin can only be repaired by sinning against the one who sinned, except that the action taken against the offender appears as necessary according to the demands of justice. . . .[T]he ultimate sinfulness of sin itself and its greatest tragedy is that it converts the victim into a sinner. The greatest damage of an offense--often greater than the offense itself--is that it destroys my freedom to be me, for I find myself involuntarily dominated by the inner rage and resentment--a type of spiritual poison which permeates throughout all my being--which will be a subconscious but very powerful influence in most of my life. . . . I hate the offender for what he/she has done to me but in the very hatred of the other I allow them to become the Lord and Master of my life. The power of World Four reconciliation and atonement is that it can offer us a Lord and Master beyond the biospheric confines of our fight and flight response, and our primitive socialization experiences. John Patton offers a clue to this Christian way by arguing that forgiveness is not something we do, but more like something we discover. As Augsburger exposits Patton: I am able to forgive when I discover that I am in no position to forgive since I also need forgiveness. I am more like those who hurt me than I differ from them. Therefore, forgiveness is not an act of generosity or superiority but rather a discovery of similarity. There is nothing here that says anything about not practicing tough love, not setting boundaries, not having people meet the consequences of their behaviors. It is, however, the admission that it is all right to be like everyone else that at last sets us free. So, the reconciliation of the cross has something to do with helping us know that we all stand before God in need of forgiveness, unable to pray the prayer of thanksgiving by the Pharisee that we are not like these other lesser ones. The mythos of this approach is that the reconciling action must be taken through the one who is truly one of us, one with us in our suffering and pain, namely God, in the innocent victim of Jesus. Jesus then gives us something that needs forgiving through his Word which is a two-edged sword. On the one hand he tells stories reflecting the love and compassion of God such as in the father of the prodigal, the Good Samaritan, the woman who turns her whole house upside down looking for one lost coin, and the owner of the farm whose generosity moves him to pay all workers equally. He instructs us to consider the parables of grace in nature that undergird the of lilies of the fields and birds of the air. On the other hand, he says trusting in this ultimate ardor and mercy means giving up our earthy claims to fame and most basic attachments such as money, religious superiority, and family. The fear of such a radical letting go leads us all to say crucify him! instead, including even his closest disciples who likewise betray, deny, and abandon him. Now here is the crucial nexus. God has taken the lead in reconciliation because only God can take the lead. As the One offended and as the One who has been present with all who are offended, God has chosen to be the Innocent Victim at the center of history in order to initiate reconciliation. What next? Does God say, yes this proves that all humanity has sinned, demonstrating they are all at the mercy of their biological fears, but since I made my own son a blood offering to my all-too-human need for retributive justice, it is all okay now. Just believe that Jesus is the expiation for your sins and I will pardon you from your just punishment, but if you dont, I cant, because this principle of justice and retribution is bigger than I am. This solution simply brings the old human paradigm and predicament to a higher level, but not the level of second order change. Before, the law was to follow the ten commandments, love God and neighbor with all your heart, mind, soul, and strength. Now, it is to believe certain things about Jesus. It is still all willpower and self-justification on a human plane. As Augsburger struggles with it, transformative reconciliation here has something to do with Gods mercy acknowledging that humans are in truth compound beings totally capable of every biologically based fear, hate, and jealousy along with all the violent acts that accompany them. When the unjust crucifixion demonstrated this in the starkest clarity, the redemptive step beyond was taken when Gods grace addressed not just that part of us which perpetrated the violation, but that center of us which is made in the image of God. This is the soul or spirit which can both respond to the divine love capable of embracing and forgiving our inherent qualities which led to violence, and which can pass that mercy on to others. It is not our biospheric or noospheric aspects that are evoked and engaged in Wilbers terms, but our theospheric. God steps out of the human system and does a new thing, something that transcends ordinary humanness. It has something to do with compassion, which jumps to a higher, more inclusive state of consciousness. Biblical scholarship indicates that the word compassion, which we employ so readily and easily today, was used exclusively in the Gospels in reference to Jesus alone, or within parables that he taught. It was a new thing. In addition to the connotation of agape love, compassion literally translates from the Greek as moved in the guts. Thomas Merton, as mentioned above, has said that compassion comes from a profound sense of the interdependence of all things. In terms of Body Theology, the eye cant rest when the foot is hurting. We are connected. We are one. The compassion that Jesus taught and lived, which was confirmed in the resurrection embrace of the betrayer community of offenders, is that God cannot see us as totally other, which means we can never see one another as totally not I. Augsburger writes: If genuine reconciliation seems a rare event, it is because authentic love is uncommon as well. Love, when it is true agape, is an equal regard that includes love of enemy. In the situation of alienation, the other is an opponent, at enmity and therefore an enemy. Agape refuses that definition and sees the other as estranged but not excluded. The nature of agape is inclusion. In our normal human development it is a great surprise when we are encountered by this irrational level of compassion which does not exclude us, even though we have done deeds or thought thoughts which by any human standard of justice, merit exclusion. We are surprised by joy as love lifts us to another level, (though we never leave our embededness and vulnerabilities to our bodies, the earth, relationships, and communities behind). It is a level of shalom, a peace which passes all understanding. Again, reconciliation with God always comes as a discovery, not as an achievement. It has the indisputable quality of gift, which inspires a corresponding sense of thankfulness, and a natural desire to express itself in a life of gratitude. Being dealt with in such a non-ordinary grace-full way opens up the possibility of transformed relationships with others. Augsburger argues that in reconciling us to Godself, God has reconciled us to each other. Something is essentially, radically different about the human situation--the sinner and the sinned against, the oppressor and the oppressed are now in a new situation. The good news of the gospel is that I and my enemy are no longer in two irreconcilable camps. God has drawn a new map of the universe in the kin-dom of God. We are no longer on opposite sides; we both stand, together, in need of reconciliation and are the beneficiaries of the same reconciling act on Gods part. My enemy and I are one. Augsburger references Robert Schreiter, who puts it in a similar way, namely that the reconciliation that Christians have to offer in overcoming the enmity created by suffering is not something they find in themselves, but something they recognize as coming from God. The Christian question is never How can I bring myself, as victim, to forgive those who have violated me and my society? Human biologically-based, rationally-based, tribally-based personhood is not capable of forgiveness. The question can only be How can I discover the mercy of God welling up in my own life, and where does that lead me? The process of human reconciliation that alone can get beyond the pseudo-reconciliation valued by some of todays managerial, technologically-based approaches to mediation is something mysteriously like this: In the act of violence, a perpetrator gives up a portion of his or her humanity, but a core of human character and possibility remain. In reconciliation, the subject, the violated, perceives the object, the violator, as cause of the injury yet as distinct from and more than the act of violation. As the injuree is able to see the self as more than the injury, he or she becomes able to see the injurer as also being something more than the injury event and its consequences. This process, of course, is best facilitated when we can know as we have been known, accept as we have been accepted, embrace as we have been embraced. For Augsburger, all our movement toward reconciliation is rooted in our having been reconciled by anothers mercy and therefore empowered to be an agent of reconciliation. He once again quotes Schreiter who affirms we do not bring about reconciliation, it is God who reconciles. . . . Reconciliation is not a skill to be mastered, but rather, something discovered--the power of Gods grace welling up in ones life. It is a matter of the Spirit touching our spirits, and freeing those essential qualities and fruits of the Spirit which come with recovering the image of God with which we were made. In World Four, the first experience of the Word-Event of Gods reconciliation often has a deeply moving, radical, rupturing effect on the organization of our experience. Subsequently, it becomes possible, as May puts it, to recognize our non-reconciled state, which we can regularly expect since grace is never a possession we can hold on to, and to offer our willingness to sacrifice it to God and receive once more the assurance of mercy which we can then pass on anew. Growing in grace over time and becoming more of a person of Shalom has to do with daily learning more of the intricacies of attachment, violence, surrender, and returning to rest in Gods grace again and again. Reconciled individuals necessarily live in reconciling communities for Augsburger. The other--the offender--is a brother whose unbrotherly behavior has torn the fabric of community. It is the task of community to reknit that fabric, and those closest to the torn edges act first, in line with the general approach of Matthew 18. He references John Howard Yoder in particular, as having much to teach in this area. Augsburger himself has volumes more to say here and in his numerous writings. In this section it is sufficient to note him as an example of someone trying to bring pastoral care to bear on the important topic of war and violence through wrestling seriously with a World Four spirituality of forgiveness and reconciliation, along with other approaches as well. One other writer we will mention briefly in this world is David Seamands. Seamands is an ordained United Methodist pastor with degrees from Drew Theological Seminary and The Hartford Seminary Foundation and many years of parish and mission field experience. However, he is a larger stretch for most mainline liberal pastoral care specialists to consider since he self-consciously identifies himself as an evangelical and taught at Asbury Theological Seminary as Professor of Pastoral Ministries. In his book Healing for Damaged Emotions, which had sold over 1,000,000 copies, he works within World Four dynamics in his chapter on Guilt, Grace, and Debt-Collecting, as well as other chapters where it is appropriate to the situation. But, he is not buried in World Four. His chapter on The Wounded Healer is a clear example of World Five dynamics, and his chapter dealing with low self-esteem (Chapter 4 Satans Deadliest Weapon) utilizes World Three themes. Seamands is an example of a number of evangelical writers who talk about the necessity of salvation in World Four categories of justifying grace, but then go on to do all sorts of creative pastoral work under the umbrella of helping people grow and mature under the rubric of sanctifying grace. Another comment on Seamands is that he is acutely aware of the difference between rational religion as opposed to experiential religion. As an evangelist he is a firm believer in preaching Gods Word and in the power of the Holy Spirit to turn preaching into a transformative Word-event. However, in counseling situations he carefully tracks whether the Word people have received has stayed on the surface or actually affected their organization of experience at a deep level where it makes a difference in their perception and expression. If the Word preached or taught has not helped someone with their fightings and fears within and without, it is noteworthy that Seamands, just like all the writers in Worlds One through Three, often turns to managing states of consciousness to effect the desired healing. In particular, he employs the methods of inner child work associated with the healing of memories approach. See his Healing of Memories and Putting Away Childish Things in particular. All told, there is a wealth of pastoral wisdom in Seamands work for those who in mainline Protestant pastoral care are willing to give him a look. He is especially helpful for those liberal pastors looking for resources to deal with the big believers, or seriously pietistic parishioners who consult them. Once again, however, the overall picture is that there is precious little in the mainline, white spirituality and pastoral care literature that works out of World Four. Writers in World Five of Suffering and Endurance A similar judgment could be made about World Five. There is a dirth of material here also. This is fairly understandable in terms of cultural-social factors. While there are numerous individuals who have experienced severe pain in their lives for various reasons, the country in general, and white, Protestant pastors with special training in pastoral care in particular, are not likely to have experienced severely crippling social oppression, though perhaps more likely, some early childhood harshness. There are people who have survived forms of pain, trauma, or oppression who have gone on to write eloquently about it. Eli Wiesels work stands out, as does Victor Frankls mentioned above. It is possible a pastoral care specialist or professor could come out of this situation, but not likely one would be disposed to be a parish pastor facing the weekly problem of speaking words which contain hope for normal middle class congregations who do not have a history of atypical suffering. Since existentialist philosophy and theology was well-known in America, a number of pastoral writers are sensitive to some of those themes, especially when working with traumatized people, but few actually live and write out of this World. One writer who worked out of World Five in a specific and profound way, who got little attention at the time, but is still available to consider today, is Frank Lake. Though Lake was a psychiatrist, he was nearly synonymous with the rise of pastoral counseling in England, and founded the Clinical Theology Association, which has survived his death. He is a prime exemplar of doing pastoral counseling in terms of making grace specific. There are multiple reasons he was not widely embraced in the late sixties-early seventies: Publishers were not anxious to deal with his 1,300 page tome published in 1966 as Clinical Theology: A Theological and Psychiatric Basis to Clinical Pastoral Care; he was an evangelical Anglican doing a clearly confessional psychology at a time the American clinical movement was still ambivalent about its church-faith connections; Neoorthodoxy was waning theologically; Moltmanns Crucified God, which Lake leaned on, was not published until 1974; Lakes faith commitments lead him to be clinically eclectic while many American pastoral counselors were trying to demonstrate proficiency in particular modalities; many humanistic-school people had trouble with Lakes use of traditional psychiatric nomenclature; and others had trouble with his innovative uses of LSD, Reichian breathing, primal integration, intrauterine and birth trauma therapies. For those willing to check him out an abridged version of Clinical Theology by Martin Yeomans was published in 1987 and there is a complete list of his work in Stepthen Marets dissertation on Lakes maternal-fetal distress syndrome. The issue Lake worked with that is squarely in World Five is clinical or applied theodicy. He clearly argued that Christ did not simply reconcile sinners to himself on the cross as in World Four, but that he healed those who suffer as implied in Isaiah 63:9. He writes, it is customary in theological circles to place the weight of meaning on the Cross as the focus of Gods activity in reconciling sinners rather than sufferers to Himself. Then he raises the question: does this exhaust the divine-human meaning and objective therapeutic work of the Cross? Is there not a richness of reconciliation in the Cross, not only for those whose inescapable problem is their culpable sin, but for those whose central problem of faith or unbelief lies in their inability to be reconciled to the devastating evils which came upon them in their innocence? Lakes position on this developed both out of the pain of his own early development, and his intimate encounter with the fathomless pain of the people he worked with. Among our patients . . . are those whom the sin of the world has so cruelly injured in the foundation year and since it, that they cannot believe, from the bottom of the heart, that God is good. They cannot trust a God whose world holds such memories of innocent suffering. They cannot honestly trust, and the harder they try to trust, the harsher the paradox of the untrustable universe becomes. Like Job, they have a quarrel with God. Such suffering was not, they claim, the result of any sin of theirs, nor was it proportionate to any human fault. The sinners need is that God should be reconciled to him, by forgiveness. The sufferer needs to be reconciled to God by some clear evidence that God shares his suffering and understands, by identification, what it is like. The Cross is Gods supreme answer to this cry of anguish from those who suffer, like Lear, being more sinned against than sinning. In terms of psychiatric categories Lake discovered it was the schizoid personality that had the hardest time growing into holiness or becoming unified in the service of God. Schizoid is not the same as a schizophrenic break from reality. However, normally at the earliest age, the person perceived so much harshness that it felt life-threatening and set up a two-part split that cut the person off from both intimate contact with the outer world of persons, and awareness of the inner world of organic feelings. So, then, how is it possible to be given wholly to a Creator whose providences you have learned in the most painful possible way to distrust? The deepest layers of your spirit are left wrestling with the problem of theodicy. Is His government of the world entirely evil, or just amazingly inefficient, that such terrors should come upon the innocent? Lake affirms that were it not for the Cross of Christ we would have no answer to this charge, that something set the world going which has in it more of misery than mercy, a world misruled by fate and futility, by injustice without redress or effective reproach. In the cross, sinners do not simply find they are justified by grace, but God is justified in the face of sufferers. In the cross God shows His entire identification with us in unmerited suffering. Standing at the foot of the cross, then, no one is able to throw it back in Gods face and say that He caused suffering which He could not bear. In terms of clinical treatment, it becomes possible to bring a depressed patient, crushed with a sense of injustice, to view the cross and realize that he cannot any longer maintain a picture of god over there, impersonal, heartless, letting evil get out of control, because it is manifestly not so. But more than this, it becomes possible for patients to know and sense the presence of Christ with them in such a way that it radically changes everything. It is by His presence within us and within His Church that we can maintain a continual sense of our resources in Him as being infinitely greater than the demands made upon us. It is the Christ who can identify with absolutely every kind of pain we know, because he went through it himself, who becomes a healing resource. The mortal Christ was totally emptied of every humanistic hope and ingenuity, which paradoxically ended filling him with the all-powerful, healing presence of trusting in nothing but God. Becoming nothing, he became everything. Thus, in therapeutic work, the presence of Christ in the power of the Holy Spirit can be evoked to go with a patient into their repressed memories of trauma where they can be seen, consciously acknowledged, healed through the presence of Christ, and freed from their frozenness in the past. When working with trauma it is contra-indicated to simply evoke the old memories, because the person is re-traumatized and/or dissociates, leaving their body while engaging the process abstractly. This can only be prevented by reentering the primal scenes with a resource that was not available the first time which can now counter the terror. Utilizing Christ as the healing resource for Lake definitely involves changing states of consciousness, as opposed to teaching or preaching or cajoling in ordinary consciousness. Lake first discovered he could change states of consciousness and evoke buried memories through LSD-25. When that became illegal in England, he found he could get the same result through Reichian breathing. Later he discovered it could be done with relaxation techniques, the use of mindfulness, and later in life, the inner prayer methods of the healing of memories approach. Once the appropriate state of consciousness is achieved in which the presence of the Christ and the truth of the persons experience are accessed, Lake encourages full awareness and healing, as opposed to any palliative measures. So far from discouraging the emergence of hitherto suppressed feelings of resentment against injustice and rage against God, we encourage the full, radical, and heart-felt expression of them, of every doubt and every protest. Let this emerge in full force at the foot of the Cross. Creation has gone wrong, but the drama of redemption moves on through death and resurrection to the giving of the Sacrament. In this the unknown God becomes known in the breaking of His body, and the shedding of His Blood, which are given as resources of infinite joy. The goal of pastoral care in this process for Lake is not self-realization, or of psychic completeness, but of Christ-realization. Only as an act of faith do I hold that the latter will in the end achieve the former. It seems more often to be traveling towards the death of the self than to its realization. Sometimes God can make what cannot be removed, creatively bearable as in Pauls thorn of weakness in his side. Of course, the natural man in us tends to reject the paradox that mental pain and spiritual joy can exist together in us, without diminishing either the agony of the one or the glory of the other. Like Christ, from this point of view our wisdom is to let the bottom be knocked out of our humanity, which will ruin it as a container at the same time as it turns it into a satisfactory channel. Along the same lines, for Lake it is the fullness of the Holy Spirit at work as counselor which will be active to force the alien elements of despair, distrust, anxiety, rage, envy, lust, and the like, which are each mans deposit from the intolerable passivities of infancy, to declare themselves before they are cast out. When this happens there is the danger that overly-religious clergyman, ignorant of these ways of the spirit, and dealing with his own bad side solely by active repressive combat will become fearful and scandalized by what emerges from the attics and basements of a hitherto respectable member of his congregation, attempt to confront it, encourage re-repression of it, or have the parishioner referred for psychiatric interventions to suppress it. Lake notes that it is also true that the very idea that mental pain may be part of the birth pangs of the spirit has become almost foreign to medical practice. By contrast, the Christian pastor knows that this is the first moment in which ultimate Christian faith has become possible to this believer. He must, he can, despair of himself in the presence of God, as the first act of a new faith which rests in Gods activity when our own is exhausted or self-canceling. All the deeper purgations of the psyche and the spirit of man take us, by definition, out of our depth. The waters of affliction flow over us. We are baptized into His death. We undergo, and are acted upon, in our helplessness. There is required of us an attitude of active passivity which is attentive to God while all our own powers and those of the therapist or pastor are eclipsed. It is in this way that God establishes His authentic life within us in those hidden places from which the springs of our action and passion arise. In addition to his clinical work and biblical study Lake found much supportive material for his clinical theodicy in the wider tradition, especially Augustine, Luther, St. John of the Cross, John Bunyan, Jean-Pierre de Caussade, Soren Kierkegaard, P. T. Forsyth, Simone Weil, and others, all discussed in Marets dissertation. While there is a wealth of other material in Lake, it sufficient here to note him as one example of a self-consciously spiritually-based pastoral counselor with personal and professional affinities with World Five. Henri Nouwen and an Overlapping of Worlds Since we have designated Henri Nouwen as the one who gave distinctive impetus to the white, mainline spirituality and pastoral care integration, arriving on the scene at the time of a unique confluence of events with a rare set of interests and talents, it is appropriate to employ the typology with him also. Doing so reveals that a person can definitely touch upon more than one World through a lifetime, thereby filling out a spirituality which was born in a personal context of circumscribed individual-social dispositions. As might be expected from one who was immersed in mystical, ascetical theology, both personally and professionally, Nouwens work reveals some definite World One themes. Jurjen Beumer, Nouwens biographer, indicates that solitude was a main theme in Nouwens spirituality. Its contours often point to barrenness, desolation, and inconsolable solitude, which aches for a tearing of the veil and a coming home. A positive aspect of solitude is realizing that everyone shares it, and this clarity gives the ability to relate to the other. In real solitude there is an unlimited space for others, because there we are empty and there we can see that, in fact, nobody stands over and against us. The knowledge of fundamental inner aloneness also warns against the illusion that those around us can eliminate our solitude. Although our loneliness can drive us toward human community, we realize that no friend or lover, no husband or wife, no community or commune will be able to put to rest our deepest cravings for unity and wholeness. In deep prayer, however, we are asked to give up all that divides us from others so that we can become those we pray for and let God touch them in us. Prayer is also Gods breathing in us, by which we become part of the intimacy of Gods inner life, and by which we are born anew. Beumer writes that in none of his writings have I detected that Nouwen is a mystic in the sense of calling himself at one with the Divine. Rather, he is a spy in the promised land who has to come to peace with Gods Ever-Present Absence. Nouwen writes, here we touch the heart of prayer since here it becomes manifest that in prayer the distinction between Gods presence and Gods absence no longer really distinguishes. However, he affirms it is in the center of our longing for the absent God that we discover his footprints, and realize that our desire to love God is born out of the love with which he has touched us. The subtitle of Beumers biography is A Restless Seeking for God. Even though the presence of God is so elusive, Nouwen encourages us to never give up our seeking, for the Eternal One is a fire that burns to warm every human being, a well that rises up in humanity and society. And, for Nouwen, God is rather Someone, hidden but nevertheless present in our lives and the life of this world, as a living reality, most brilliantly illuminated in humanity. Jesus is his name, who makes us restless until we find our rest in him. The words referring to God as Someone, the emphasis on relationships and wholeness give a clue that there is a great deal of World Three driving Nouwens work. The World One longing for being home and in harmony are sometimes close to the World Three ache for enriched belonging and being loved to overflowing. Nouwens cycles of depression would support this self-based issue of emptiness and fulfillment. The importance of World Three in terms of wholeness through human community and confirmation was demonstrated for Nouwen in 1985 when he received a letter from the LArche community Daybreak near Toronto asking him to come and be their pastor as they ministered to resident guests with severe, chronic mental and physical handicaps. The letter specifically said we truly feel that you have a gift to bring us. For Nouwen, who had struggled continually to find his true sense of vocation, it was deeply moving to be explicitly called from beyond himself and his own inclinations which had previously driven his professional moves. Beumer writes, the spirituality of LArche fit in very well with his own discoveries, but it also offered a dimension that had missing up until then: living and working in a believing community. Later Nouwen would write of his experience at Daybreak that I have been led to an inner place where I had not been before. It is the place within me where God has chosen to dwell. It is the place where I am held safe in the embrace of an all-loving Father who calls me by name and says, You are my beloved son, on you my favor rests. In terms of vocation, Nouwen wrote in Creative Ministry that the purely professional approach was severely lacking and denied the best that people were hoping to receive. He sounds World Three notes in affirming that what is so special about the vocation of ministers is that they are expected to introduce depth into human lives; they let the beckoning voice of the Other resound in the midst of all the other voices that tempt and seduce. A minister is the one who challenges us to celebrate life; that is, to turn away from fatalism and despair and to make our discovery that we have but one life to live into an ongoing recognition of Gods work with man. The Christian minister is the one whose vocation is to make it possible for man not only to fully face his human situation but also to celebrate it in all its awesome reality. Christ exemplifies the perfect model of vocation as the one who lived life in the flesh in creative obedience. His uniqueness lies in this: that he is the only One who has followed the voice of his Father with all the consequences that involves, even death! Nouwens theology and spirituality began to incorporate World Two themes during his tenure at Yale as he became more interested in Central and South America, which he visited on more than one of his frequent sabbaticals. The poor, oppressed continent, just hours away by plane, was waking up. Indeed, the poor themselves were waking up. Economic poverty is not fate; it is an organized condition. And step by step the church was awakening as well; the church which had historically supported the powerful, and was now discovering that the poor come first in the Gospel, that God has a special bond with those who have nothing. Nouwen began to articulate the connection between prayer and on-line ministry which takes up the plight of the poor as Gods. When we have met our Lord in the silent intimacy of our prayer, then we will also meet him in the campo, in the market, and in the town square. But when we have not met him in the center of our own hearts, we cannot expect to meet him in the busyness of our daily lives. Gratitude is God receiving God in and through the human interaction of ministry. This viewpoint explains why true ministers, true missionaries, are always also contemplatives. Seeing God in the world and making him visible to each other is the core of ministry as well as the core of the contemplative life. Beumer comments that Nouwens spirituality began to take on more socially critical features, something that had not been very pronounced up until then. As Nouwen lived close to the reality of the Latin American situation, he also voiced a concern that liberation theology ran the risk of becoming too much of the world, too much a copy of some other socially critical theory. However, he was quite impressed that Gustavo Guteirrez in his life and in his writings such as The Theology of Liberation did a great job of holding the unity of prayer and action, reflection and involvement. While Nouwen was deeply drawn into World Two and seriously considered becoming a priest to those in poverty in South America, his basic disposition toward World Three would not allow it. He was happy in Guatemala when he was able to spend enough time walking with the Lord to feel at peace. When he was too busy or preoccupied and entangled in my own complaints and emotional needs, I always felt restless and divided. Out of his raw honesty Nouwen wrote I had to face the fact that I wasnt capable of doing the work of a missioner in a Spanish-speaking country, that I needed more emotional support than my fellow missioners could offer, that the hard struggle for justice often left me discouraged and dispirited. In the forward to a Gutierrez book Nouwen added, I became aware of how individualistic and elitist my own spirituality had been. It was hard to confess, but true, that in many respects my thinking about the spiritual life had been deeply influenced by my North America milieu with its emphasis upon the interior life. of solitary individuals. Whatever his personal situation was, Nouwen remained clear that mysticism and ethics have their meeting point in the person of Father/Mother, for the ultimate vocation of a human being is to be there for others. Therefore, when you are really called by name, you realize that you yourself are the instrument through which the One is active, that the healing hands of God are translated into your healing hands. The practice of solitude can be an important aspect of service as it reveals to us our false self and we do battle with our own demons, demons which were and still are brutally tyrannizing society--greed, ambition, pressure to achieve, and so on. Then, there is created a space for social involvement; ethics follows conversion. It was the experience with LArche communities that brought Nouwen into living contact with World Five. Here people were poor in certain respects, rich in others, but would remain poor regardless of what was ever done or not with external structures of society. Here, indeed, the image of Him who is pre-eminently Poor is revealed. Working with the materially poor you can still keep up appearances and hope for a dramatic victory of right over might. But working with the chronically mentally ill constantly refer[s] you back to yourself. All the so-called professional tricks are abolished. Here the handicapped themselves become our teachers and healers. Through them the Eternal One appears, for God, as one of the poor, is eager to dwell within you--right where youre standing, naked and exposed, eye to eye with your own inner sanctuary. Here is where the troubled affairs of humanity and society come together and burst apart when the Poor One calls. The encounter with the poor turns out to be an encounter with Jesus. Jesus, the mystery of the incarnation, is truly with us through it all, in the here and now, day after day. This is sustaining knowledge, and, as always, a gift. As with the spirituality and pastoral care literature generally, there is virtually no sign of World Four in Nouwen. He did cut short his tenure at Harvard, in part because of the heavy, dissonant disjunction he experienced between the upward mobility of those at the school compared with the downward mobility of the poor and the handicapped he had worked and lived with. He also realized the addictive cycle that May describes where at Harvard, the pursuit of the higher, greater, more beautiful, more expensive, and richer is an upward spiral that ends in total estrangement. But, there is no dynamic brought to bear of confession, forgiveness, or justification by grace either in a Protestant or Catholic form. Forgiveness, or course, is a concept that is associated with the institutional church. It is one of those that is hardest to be simply spiritual about, as opposed to religious. Beumer notes that the churches and the church are [also] both almost absent themes in Nouwens work. Beumer speculates that it might have been interesting if Nouwen had ventured some kind of spiritual ecclesiology that included positions on women, homosexuals, AIDS, married priests, house churches, social concerns, liturgical renewal, etc., but he did not, even though he did take great interest in and was present for Vatican II. Historically, of course, Nouwen started writing at the precise time the institutional church was under heavy criticism from a number of fronts, even more so in his native Netherlands than in the United States. However, he was at the fountainhead of incorporating prayer into ministry training programs where they had been especially neglected, a move that could only serve to energize and revive the church. For Nouwen, the Jesus Prayer, the prayer of the heart, or interior prayer constituted a murmuring stream that continues underneath the many waves of every day and opens the possibility of living in the world without being of it and of reaching out to our God from the center of our solitude. Initial Reflections on the Typology Jones typology appears to have significant functional efficacy in outlining theological worlds and the particular sort of spiritualities they tend to promote. Taking the theological self-test inventory normally gives people points in all the worlds. This is good, since it promotes an appreciation for all the worlds and demonstrates our flexibility as religious creatures in being able to see beyond our immediate horizons. The typology doesnt try to pidgeon-hole people into one way of being in the world. However, it is usually clear that we major in a specific world. In applying the typology to the spirituality and pastoral care material, it does not appear that any major approach was left outside of the Worlds, though many writers hit themes in more than one World. Going the other way, the typology revealed a lack of engagement with some of the Worlds, Four and Five in particular, that would be appropriate for writers and practitioners to explore. Even though all the examples of spirituality and pastoral care writers were academicians with a wide overview of the field, it is amazing how centered in one World they all are. While they can nod their heads to the good points of another focus, they approach and incorporate that other focus through their home-base World. The overall impression is that the writers are not quite conscious of the basic theological underpinnings of their Worlds and how relative they are to the other worlds. Clearly, Jones does a masterful job of giving each World a wholesome integrity, complete with biblical, classical, and contemporary theories of the human condition, sin, salvation, Christology, and atonement, all related in his book to affinities for music, art, and literature. Few of the writers cited were as self-conscious, knowledgeable, and articulate about the parameters of their positions, especially in relation to other options, with the possible exception of Leech. All these contributors, I believe, would be informed and enriched by being aware of Jones typology. It might help add consistency, focus, and theological depth to their positions. Plus, the functional nature of Jones typology, built phenomenologically around personal issues, would help pastoral care persons enter into theological dialogue with the assurance that human sensitivities and realities would be honored, even as distinctions were being hammered out. This could help us go a good distance in putting some of the pastoral-theological back into pastoral counseling as Marv Gardner has advocated for it. Jones work is certainly consistent with the research which demonstrates religious behavior is influenced by personality patterns such as Richard P. Vaughans recent Pastoral Counseling and Personality Disorders. However, it is good that Jones does not commit to singular theories of causation regarding the personality development which would lead to particular obsessios. He leaves us with a more open relational, mutually interactive position that can affirm dispositions from all four quadrants. This makes his work compatible with much recent thought, such as James E. Loder, The Logic of the Spirit: Human Development in Theological Perspective. Also, the clarity of the Theological Worlds makes it relatively easy to compare them with other typologies. For instance Richard and Joan Hunt used the Theological Schools Inventory (TSI) in a study which discovered three scales outlining three dimensions of spiritual formation which inform the motivation of three styles of ministry. On first examination it looks like their Priest scale falls into Jones World One, their Awakener into World Three, and their Energizer into World Two. Is also noteworthy that the functional, phenomenological approach of the typology can be adopted on just that basis by those in or outside a faith community, that is by social scientists or religionists. The self-test inventory offers a workable empirical research tool. However, the typology can also be used by those who work out of a confessional stance, those who could use it to clarify how God works through Christ in a number of ways to address a number of situations. The essential rhythms of the Theological Worlds are certainly a great help to pastors in their central task of making grace specific for those within particular schools of theology and approaches to spirituality. Sensing the obsessios and realizing which epiphanias are both longed for and organized out as real possibilities, helps make clear what options need to be offered, and what splits and/or barriers are likely to be negotiated. Becoming familiar with the Worlds can help pastors become not only theologically literate, but, as Carrie Doehring suggests, theologically fluent in a way that allows theological perspective to be applied to the everyday life of the congregation. This is a cardinal skill for encouraging growth in specific individuals and whole congregations toward the telos of increased levels of agency-in-communion. The word congregation is worth underlining. White, mainline, Protestant pastors are by definition community persons, servants to the local Body of Christ. Almost every church, every denomination, acknowledges that each baptized member is commissioned to Christs ministry through special gifts conferred by the Holy Spirit to be used for the benefit of the whole.. Thus, the common saying, The ministers of this church are the members. People dont simple go to church. They are the church. Plus, they are the ones who bring Christs ministry out into the world through the multiple contexts of their lives. While the meaning of ordination is the subject of another entire volume, we can simply note here that the ministry of the pastor is to the ministers, to the church as a community faith. It is the pastors job to enable, empower, instruct, feed, sustain, order, and build up the community itself so that its individual members are edified, enlightened and supported in their ministries. Pastors function within the multiplicity of gifts in the church to provide a focus of unity, and promote harmony within and among the parts. It is an important and necessary job on the one hand, but not altogether spectacular, special, or privileged on the other. A pastor might not preach, teach, counsel, visit, march, advocate, or read scriptures as well as any number of people within the congregation, but pastors have the charism to representatively either do them or make sure they get done in such a way that the body is edified and built up as suggested in Ephesians 4. The point is that the pastor has an important leadership function in terms of working with the members of the one Body, the we, though we are many, are One. Leadership, as Richard Schwartz has outlined it, begins with the compassion and wisdom to recognize each part as having a rightful place within the body, though gifts, graces, and temperaments might vary considerably. A leader then promotes balance within the system by fairly allocating resources, responsibilities, and influence among the members. Boundaries are monitored. Polarizations among members need to be mediated. Each member needs a unique, graceful kind of nurturance, which could be quite different from that of another member. The interface with larger systems outside the Body needs to be dealt with. The leader needs to model the core values of the system and maintain its shared vision. All of this can be understood as an elaboration of Pauls body theology where each person is a vital and interdependent member of the Body, with Christ as the head. It is in the leadership function of the pastor within the congregation that the Theological Words typology is so valuable. While individual members of the Body can be allowed to be somewhat unconscious about their limited views, needs, and talents, pastors simply do not have that luxury. Pastors must develop fine sensitivities and understandings of individual differences, and pick up the nuances of what Worlds people are operating out of. It is a crucial skill for being able to respond to their personal needs; to encourage different programs within the church which balance out and pick up on the strengths of the different Worlds; to preach and teach in a way that addresses the gamut of necessary themes; to understand that not everyone will participate or be pleased with the different facets of a church program; to be able to mediate conflicts within the congregation; to be able to realize that those in different Worlds will affirm the same scripture for varying reasons, listen to the same sermon through alternate ears, see the same situation through unlike eyes, and on and on. In dealing with potential or unhappy parishioners, the typology can guide pastors in making judgments about whether their churches are large enough to steer a person to certain activities within it that correspond to his or her spiritual needs, while encouraging tolerance of others who gravitate in different directions, or to acknowledge that a churchs overall thrust is so centered around one World that the person would really do better to find a more compatible community of faith. In a congregation, potential unhappiness can be somewhat subverted and increased tolerance advanced through preaching and teaching the essence of the Theological Worlds under the general umbrella of how great God is that grace can be mediated in so many ways. Likewise, the typology can be helpful in a developmental and/or holistic way. Jones explicitly puts out a disclaimer against any world being considered in any sense better than another. On one level this true. We are all equally close to Christ as Word, as ultimate It. But, this does not cancel the spiritual quest of growing up into the fullness of that mind which was in Christ Jesus where we experience Christ as Body (Ultimate We) and ourselves in Christs image (Ultimate I). So, on another level, a progression can be seen going through Worlds Five to One that concerns the pastoral task. World Five is most basic, of course, since it is the one closest to sheer issues of survival. Spiritually speaking, if we dont have that epiphanal sense that God is with us through all the ups and downs, it is going to be hard to endure in life at all. Enduring, breathing, living on the earth when our literal survival is not at stake, enables us to engage World Four issues where it is necessary to be encountered by the truth of justification by grace so that we do fall prey to the multiple possibilities for debilitating addiction. If this freeing, though radical, knowledge is in place, it allows an unencumbered exploration of World Three in terms of developing all the gifts and graces that are possible for us as those made in the image of God, but without the fears of addiction or traps of ego-inflation. The overall strength that comes from solidifying our human powers in the Spirit then allows for much creativity and vigor to be brought to bear for working issues of World Two peace and justice within the realm of Gods ongoing history on earth. Having a strong and engaged self, then paves the way for the profound letting go and becoming nothing (I Corinthians 1:26-31) of World One which invites us into that unity with God that Jesus prayed for (John 17), and fosters that ultimate, all-compassionate level of agency-in-communion. Having outlined this progression, a number of qualifications follow. Most of us struggle with one basic obssessio in a lifetime and that is perfectly fine. The injunction and/or lure to grow in grace does not imply rungs on a ladder to perfection. It is more like a one foot high sapling tree is perfect in and of itself before God, which doesnt mean it wont have another quality of perfection when it is ten feet tall. No stage is any better or more appropriate on an ego level. Surely the Biblical witness is that God chooses the weak and foolish, as opposed to the powerful and enlightened, to accomplish divine purposes. God can and will and does use, communicate with, guide, and gift people with mystical inner knowledge no matter what World they are struggling with. The worlds do not represent rigid steps. A person in World Five, lucky to simply be here, can still reach out to support a person or cause ala World Two. Similarly, a World Two warrior might have a great need to find Gods unconditional love which will free him or her from an addiction to power or resentment or success. Again, a pastoral leader fluent with the Theological Worlds can help lead through encouraging balance in a persons life and the life of the congregation. This is no small task for pastors since they have their own roots in a particular world which they know the best, understandably have preferences for, and relate to the easiest. It is not that leaders could or should give up their rootedness in their own worlds, out of which a number of their gifts may come, but that they dedicate themselves to the discipline of learning how to know and honor that which they would not naturally gravitate towards. It takes the gift of considerable humility to submit to such a leadership vocation of inclusiveness, harmony, and balance. Part of John Wesleys self-examination for those considering the ministry was to ask themselves if they were ready to do anything asked by God, even if it were contrary to their natural inclinations. It should be emphasized that the motivation to bring balance is not just a theoretical nicety. Functionally speaking, if the four quadrants are not being paid their due through all the Worlds being honored and respected, persons or communities are not receiving the broad attention which will help them to survive and thrive. Speaking confessionally, while each World is eloquent in what it does best, it basically turns heretical if it attempts to make its something into everything. Living in one World promotes transcendence within a limited realm, but does not represent a full exposition of the Gospel. Each World absolutely requires the other Worlds to make it whole, to make it true to the biblical heritage. It is the special calling of the resident pastoral theologian to monitor when following the transcendent logic of a particular World is appropriate and when heresy needs to be called by name. There can also be a self-monitoring encouraged within congregations where people are taught to read clues from their boredom or addictive tendencies in trying to recapture old passions, insights, and experiences. But, either the pastor or someone spiritually mature sometimes need license to speak the truth in love and say, Yes, growing personally is of the Spirit. No, ignoring the poor is not an option. Yes, helping the poor is of God. No, doing so out of a bitter heart that needs healing is not right. Yes it is good that offenders seek the forgiveness of God in Christ. No, it is unacceptable to not advocate for a living wage for those who work to help keep them out of crime. Since all Christians have theoretically committed themselves to grow in grace, to grow up into Christ who is head of the Body, this same emphasis on balance can be put positively, developmentally. Yes, it is good to connect with your strength, feelings, logic, family, etc., but dont stop there. God is greater than that! Also connect to . . . (the next wider context). . . . But dont stop there. God is greater than that! Also connect to . . . Since professional, academic pastoral theologians also deal with high levels of specificity in their reflections, as do local church pastoral theologians, the same word applies to them. They dont have the luxury of simply playing the scales of an individual approach to their analysis and theory construction. They cant simply major in trumpeting to the vast majority of the cases they consider existential malaise, process theology analysis, object-relation issues, Barthian critique, personal power differential investigation, social-political commentary, evangelical conversion concerns, or what have you. They must be able to do jazz, do variations that take into account the multiple, four quadrant contexts and dispositions in play. Of course those who publish or lecture do have the luxury (and necessity) of at least letting their listener know from what limited and invested standpoint they speak. Now that we have said, here and throughout the manuscript, that the luxury of a functionally imperialistic viewpoint is unacceptable, we should confess that that is more often than not the case, just as our consideration of the spirituality and pastoral care writers demonstrated. Rick Warrens book The Purpose Driven Church derives from over twenty years of studying churches, as well as leading a growing, changing one. One of his conclusions is that pastors tend to do what they do best. If left to their own devices, they will fairly unconsciously keep doing what they do best and lead a church down that same trail. If the pastor pioneers a church, or stays with one for a long time, it is possible he or she will attract those who share the same basic vision, and the church will have a degree of congruence, but at the price of a limited witness. If the pastor is in a connectional system like the United Methodist, a church could experience what is termed serial unhappiness as one pastor after another does a short-term ministry emphasizing the virtues of their particular world, alienating many, garnering the applause of others, and leaving a number in confusion. Warren lists five basic forms a church can take with each highlighting a distinct pastoral talent. He emphasizes that to prevent the ineffective, inefficient witness of having one form, or bouncing around between different ones, requires that a church work out a solid structure (EC) which incorporates the values of all five (IC), and keeps that holistic vision in the consciousness of the congregation. One of the hopes of mainline Protestant churches in adopting a lectionary-based approach to worship and preaching was that it would force a wider consideration of relevant biblical emphases. Table Nine offers one way to think of integrating the emphases of the Theological Worlds, the church year, and Warrens basic church forms. The correlations are not great. The chart is only suggestive of the principle of encouraging balance. There are many more possibilities in Warrens book. As of this writing, Jones was readying a manuscript for publication which deals entirely with pastoral care implications of honoring the different Worlds. It should be said again that the relative lack of balance we are talking about refers to white, Protestant mainline churches. If white churches took their relationship with their sister African-American churches more seriously, they would find a heuristic corrective to learn from. Even middle class and upper-middle class African-American churches have a World Five appreciation for the God who can sustain people in the midst of abject, crushing oppression. Still, the knowledge of having been sinned against by the system has never kept them from concentrating on World Four issues of willful sin and the need for conversion and forgiveness. Once inside the church, there is also a great World Three emphasis on helping each person use Gods grace and blessing to grow personally, socially, educationally, and financially to be all that they can be for the glory of God. No matter how blessed, African-American churches certainly hold a critical, thoughtful eye on the iniquities of the society around them, and continually contribute whatever they can to prophetic World Two attempts to challenge and change the entrenched powers and principalities. Then in the mystic writings of a Howard Thurman, the non-violent love preached by Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Uncle Remus stories referenced above where even the evil, treacherous Fox and Bear are still addressed as Brear, meaning brother, the World One impulse toward unity consciousness is intuited. Table 9. Balanced Emphasis Chart of Typologies WORLD JESUS ROLE CHURCH SEASON CHURCH TYPE (Jones) (Jones) (Hardin/Quillian/White) (Warren) I Revealer Advent/Christmastide Classroom II Messiah/liberator Pentecost/Kingdomtide Social Conscience III Example/Model Epiphany Family Fellowship IV Savior/Redeemer Easter Praise-Worship V Suffering Servant Lent Soul Winning _______________________________________________________________________ Source: W. Paul Jones, Theological Worlds, Rick Warren, The Purpose Driven Church, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1995), and H. Grady Hardin, Joseph D. Quillian, Jr., and James F. White, The Celebration of the Gospel (Nashville: Abingdon, 1964) This exposition of the African-American church does not mean to demean it through romanticizing it, and denying the problems it deals with within itself, but simply to hold it up as a model for possible emulation which holds more of the Worlds in creative tension then does the typical white, mainline Protestant church. It is a straightforward process to assess Theological Worlds as an academic exercise, such as we have done here in relation to the spirituality and pastoral care literature. It would add to the exercise if the main writers could take the self-test inventory so the results could be compared. Asking anyone to struggle with discriminations to rank sixty-three written questions necessarily limits the Theological Worlds Self-Test Inventory to an educated, emotionally stable segment of the population. Once pastors are familiar with the typology, they can pick a couple of questions that make special sense to them and use them in casual conversation to help understand the World a person is living in. So, would Jesus be for you more like a suffering companion or . . .? Help me understand what life is most like for you. Is it more like a mysterious pilgrimage, a basic right, a . . . ? As it stands, the test asks to rank responses with three points for the one which fits best, then two, then one. This forces points to be spread out over all the Worlds. It might help distinguish the Worlds more sharply to simply allow ten points to be spent however the test taker sees fit, with the freedom to put all ten on one World or spread them out more evenly. The inventory is also only available in English at present, which limits its application. Jones believes the test has cross-cultural validity, that the same basic types of Worlds would fall out if the test were written to address Buddhists, Hindus, or Muslims. This has yet to be established. In its present form, built around Judeo-Christian material, it is also questionable how well those who identify themselves as non-religious spiritual seekers would relate to it. It serves well within the Christian context, and a number of non-Christians have in fact affirmed the inventory and learned from it. Since each World is limited with corresponding strengths and weaknesses, the concept of a meme has not been used in respect to them, though it would be fair to do so in relation to a faith community with a high degree of congruence. It would be more in line with the overall thrust of this volume to place all of the Worlds under the Type C God-in-history meme where they could all be moderated and integrated. Personal communication. May, Will & Spirit, vi-vii, 1, 3. May, Will & Spirit, 6, 13. May, Will & Spirit, 18, 21. May, Will & Spirit, 22. May, Will & Spirit, 25. May, Will & Spirit, 26, 27. May, Will & Spirit, 30, 31, 35. May, Will & Spirit, 44, 45. May, Will & Spirit, 56, 59, 59, 61. May, Will & Spirit, 67. May, Will & Spirit, 85, 83, 84. May, Will & Spirit, 127-28, 136. May, Will & Spirit, 136, 140. May, Will & Spirit, 143. May, Will & Spirit, 155, referencing Erich Fromm, Art of Loving (New York: Harper & Bros., 1956), 11, 25. May, Will & Spirit, 167. May, Will & Spirit, 168-69, 260: In growing psychologically, one moves toward increasing autonomy and independence. In growing spiritually, one increasingly realizes how utterly dependent one is, on God and on the grace of God that comes through other people. May, Will & Spirit, 202. May, Will & Spirit, 208. Although it is a high calling, May does believe World Two actions can be pure, if they are grounded in World One consciousness. It is possible to resist injustice or cruelty without having to identify oneself as a resister. It is possible to promote peace and good will without claiming the title of prime peacemaker or agent of love. But if one allows the complexities of action to eclipse the simple willingness of ones soul toward God, narcissism will creep in. Then it will be all too easy to contribute to bloodshed in the name of trying to stop it or to accentuate hatred in the name of love. (p. 280) May, Will & Spirit, 263, 264. May, Will & Spirit, 267, 270. May, Will & Spirit, 288. May, Will & Spirit, 288, 293. May, Will & Spirit, 308. May, Will & Spirit, 309, 310. May, Will & Spirit, 320. For a recent example of a contemplative, World One approach to pastoral care see Sarah A. Butler, Caring Ministry: A Contemplative Approach to Pastoral Care (New York: Continuum, 1999) Thayer, Spirituality, 13. Thayer, Spirituality, 14, 25. Thayer, Spirituality, 26, 28, 29. Thayer, Spirituality, 30. Thayer, Spirituality, 48, 47. Thayer, Spirituality, 50, 51, 52, 54. Thayer, Spirituality, 57. Thayer, Spirituality, 60. Thayer, Spirituality, 66. Thayer, Spirituality, 67. Thayer, Spirituality, 70, 71. Thayer, Spirituality, 81. Thayer, Spirituality, 106, 110. Thayer, Spirituality, 107, 108. Thayer, Spirituality, 111. Thayer, Spirituality, 115. Thayer, Spirituality, 116. Kenneth Leech, Soul Friend: The Practice of Christian Spirituality (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1977); True Prayer: An Invitation to Christian Spirituality (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1980); Experiencing God: Theology as Spirituality (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985); Spirituality and Pastoral Care (Cambridge: Cowley Publications, 1989); and The Eye of the Storm: Living Spiritually in the Real World (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1992). A couple of other books in Leechs World Two camp are George D. McClain, Claiming All Things for God: Prayer, Discernment, and Ritual for Social Change (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1998), and Robert McAfee Brown, Spirituality and Liberation: Overcoming the Great Fallacy (Louisville: Westminster Press, 1988). Much of the feminist and liberationist literature referenced above would find a place in this camp also, Coutures Blessed Are The Poor? for instance. Leech, Spirituality, 5, 6. Leech, Spirituality, 7, 8. Leech, Spirituality, 8. Leech, Spirituality, 9, 10. Leech, Spirituality, 12. Leech, Spirituality, 14. Leech, Spirituality, 14. Leech, Spirituality, 15. Leech, Spirituality, 15, 16. Leech, Spirituality, 16. Leech, Spirituality, 18, 19, 20-21. Leech, Spirituality, 26. Leech, Spirituality, 27, 29, 28, 30. Leech, Spirituality, 39: It is the sense that love, peace, justice, and the quest for a more human community need organization which has driven many young Christians from spirituality to politics; while the recognition of the depths of evil in individuals and structures has driven them back to renew their own inner resources and spiritual disciplines. Leech, Spirituality, 31. Leech, Spirituality, 31. Leech, Spirituality, 32, 33, 34. Leech, Spirituality, 35, 36. Also, 73-74: Spirituality can so quickly and so easily lose its contemplative, visionary dimension, and become a quest for salvation by technique, a matter of finding the right mantra or formula for instant enlightenment. Without the prophetic demand for sharpened perception, the prophetic negative against all that would reduce the divine, spirituality can become a drug, a form of illusion, of clouding of consciousness, another resource of the culture instead of a resource against the culture. It is all too easy and too common for nonprophetic, privatized spirituality to become mere convention, as well as to lost its humanity and become nothing more than religiosity. True spiritual direction is concerned to discriminate and to avoid false paths, to create a health ecology of the spirit. Leech, Spirituality, 36. Leech, Spirituality, 67, 69. Leech, Spirituality, 38-39. Leech, Spirituality, 38. Leech, Spirituality, 40. Leech, Spirituality, 40. Leech, Spirituality, 40-41, 41. Leech, Spirituality, 44. Leech, Spirituality, 47, 72, 73. Leech, Spirituality, 56. Leech, Spirituality, 56, 57. Leech, Spirituality, 57, 61, 61-62, 62. Leech, Spirituality, 71, 65. Leech, Spirituality, 75-81 passim. Leech, Spirituality, 130, 135. Leech, Spirituality, 136. James Hillman, Insearch: Psychology and Religion (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1967). Hillman, Insearch, 45, 44, 45. Hillman, Insearch, 37. Hillman, Insearch, 50, 58. Hillman, Insearch, 64. Hillman, Insearch, 67. Hillman, Insearch, 74. Hillman, Insearch, 75. Hillman, Insearch, 76. Hillman, Insearch, 76. Hillman, Insearch, 77. Hillman, Insearch, 86, 87. Hillman, Insearch, 107, 108, 126. Hillman, Insearch, 125. Hillman, Insearch, 125. Hillman, Insearch, 16. See Sister Donald Corcoran, The Spiritual Guide, for more on Hillman and how he can be helpful in spiritual direction. For instance she notes Hillman finds an important key to understanding soul-making in the myth of Eros and Psyche. (p. 226) There is a reciprocal dynamic of eros and psyche. Psyche needs to be awakened by love (relatedness) and love needs to be elucidated, led into light by psyche. (p. 227) Soul (psyche) needs an invitation and guidance to transcendence; spirit needs to be drawn to groundedness--to enter into life and materiality. (p. 228) Hillman believes that in our times we suffer and are ill from their separation. The dialectic of Eros-Psyche creates a movement toward transcendence (ascending eros) and a movement toward immanence (groundedness), reflecting the Platonic theme of ascendance and descendence. (p. 228) Transcendence and immanence are both genuine movements of the inner process. The soul, as it were, moves upward and downward at the same time. Soul is the intermediate realm, the connection between above and below. (p. 229) Hillman argues that every person must find soul for his eros and love for his psyche. (p. 232) Morton T. Kelsey, Prophetic Ministry: The Psychology and Spirituality of Pastoral Care (New York: Crossroad, 1982). Kelsey, Prophetic, vii. Kelsey, Prophetic, x. Kelsey, Prophetic, xi. Kelsey, Prophetic, 63. See his classic Psychology, Medicine & Christian Healing (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1988). Kelsey, Prophetic, 63. Kelsey, Prophetic, 64, 66. Kelsey, Prophetic, 69, 70. Kelsey, Prophetic, 70. Kelsey, Prophetic, 77, 76. Kelsey, Prophetic, 76, 77. Kelsey, Prophetic, 78. Kelsey, Prophetic, 78. Kelsey, Prophetic, 79, 78-79, 79. See James Hillman, Emotion (Evanston: Northwestern Univ. Press, 1961), Larry LeShan, Cancer As A Turning Point. Kelsey, Prophetic, 79. Two practical approaches to dream work are Eugene T. Gendlin, Let Your Body Interpret Your Dreams (Wilmette: Chiron Publications) and Montague Ullman, Appreciating Dreams: A Group Approach (Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, 1996). Kelsey, Prophetic, 79-80, 80. Kelsey, Prophetic, 162. Kelsey, Prophetic, 80. Howard J. Clinebell, Jr., Revisioning the Future of Spirit-centered Pastoral Care and Counseling in Gerald L. Borchert and Andrew D. Lester, eds., Spiritual Dimensions of Pastoral Care: Witness to the Ministry of Wayne E. Oates (Philadelphia: Westminister Press, 1985), 103. Howard Clinebell, Well Being: A Personal Plan for Exploring and Enriching the Seven Dimensions of Life: Mind, Body, Spirit, Love, Work, Play, the Earth (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1992), 34, 35. Clinebell, Well Being, 34, 35; Howard Clinebell, Ecotherapy: Healing Ourselves, Healing the Earth: A Guide to Ecologically Grounded Personality Theory, Spirituality, Therapy, and Education (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1996), 94, 94; Revisioning, 108. Howard Clinebell, Basic Types of Pastoral Care & Counseling: Resources for the Ministry of Healing and Growth (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1984), 108, 109, 104, 109. Clinebell, Revisioning, 106. Clinebell, Basic Types, 112-13. Clinebell, Revisioning, 104. Clinebell, Basic Types, 110. See Rhonda Sue Pettit, Toward A Model of Holistic Spirituality for Pastoral Counseling (Ph.D. diss., Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1992) who deals with Clinebell extensively and includes many of his maps and lists. Clinebell, Revisioning, 107, 109, 107-08, 108. Clinebell, Revisioning, 108, 118. Clinebell, Revisioning, 110, 112. Clinebell, Revisioning, 115, 116. The word lure in this paragraph is a reference to process theology. Clinebell was a colleague to many of the main process theologians at Claremont School of Theology for many years. Thanks to Rodney Hunter for this tip. While I have reviewed Augsburgers work on cross-cultural pastoral counseling, it wasnt clear to me that his other works on confrontation and forgiveness wrestled with World Four issues in the context of his Mennonite beliefs about non-violence. See David W. Augsburger, Pastoral Counseling Across Cultures (Philadelphia: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1986), Conflict Mediation Across Cultures (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1992), Caring Enough to Confront (Ventura: Regal Books, 1981), Caring Enough to Forgive (Ventura: Regal Books, 1981), and Helping People Forgive (Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996). Augsburger, Helping People Forgive, 152. Augsburger, Helping People Forgive, 152. Augsburger, Helping People Forgive, 152. Raymond Schwager, Must There Be Scapegoats? (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1987), 209. Augsburger, Helping People Forgive, 154. Augsburger, Helping People Forgive, 154, quoting Virgil Elizondo, I Forgive but I Do Not Forget, in Casiano Floristan and Christian Duquoc, Forgiveness (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1986), 71, 70. Augsburger, Helping People Forgive, 155, referencing John Patton, Is Human Forgiveness Possible? (Nashville: Abingdon, 1985). Augsburger, Helping People Forgive, 155. Also, on pages 152-53: Reconciliation begins with the victim. We are the reciprocal victims of one anothers evil; we are the victims of evil in the whole contextual system--the social, political, economic, as well as moral system--that alienates us from each other and from which, as well as within which, we are alienated. If reconciliation begins with the victim, someone must rise from among the victimized to initiate the healing movement. Jesus appears from the poor, the powerless, the people under domination of an occupying army. He stands in solidarity with the abused. . . . He is a spokesperson for justice to the oppressed, a voice for the voiceless. The reconciling movement comes from the Truly Human One. The following are some clarifying comments about compound individuality by the author written as Pastoral Implications for the Nineteenth Sunday in Ordinary Time Lectionary Homiletics Vol. X No. 9 (August 1999): 11. Pastorally speaking, people are often confused and troubled by the interplay they struggle with between their experience of their spiritual and fearful selves, just as Paul was confused in Romans 7 by the interplay between his inmost spiritual self and the law at war in his members which prevented him from doing what he wanted to do. To help people understand the confusion better, it can be helpful to offer some brief teaching about biblical anthropology which helps them know that they are essentially compound individuals. According to Genesis and contemporary philosophy of science as well, development is by envelopment. The first level of our being is the material one of physical elements [Wilbers physiosphere]. God created us from the dust. The second level is biological [Wilbers biosphere]. God breathed into us the breath of life and we then became living, organic systems like the other plants and animals. Now we are compound beings of the material and biological, but there is more. We are given high mental capacities. We can categorize, reason, name the other animals, and thereby have dominion over them [Wilbers Noosphere]. We are material-biological-mental compounds, but in addition, we are spiritual [Wilbers theosphere]. We are made in the spiritual image of God, and can manifest the gifts of the Spirit such as compassion, wisdom, and peace which enable us to live in a right relationship with God, self, and neighbor. Notice these four levels represent a hierarchy of increasing embrace and complexity. As philosopher Ken Wilber puts it, the material level is most fundamental, because it provides the basic building blocks of everything above it. Cut out the material elements and everything else disappears. However, the spiritual level is the most significant, because it encompasses and organizes all the parts below it into a greater whole. What parishioners need to be clear about within this meta-theory of compound humanness is that there is both upward and downward causation. That means that if we are operating from our spiritual inmost self which is made in the image of God, love really can conquer all. We really can trust that the gift of the creation is good, accept our identity as children of God, and worship God by thankfully enjoying the creation. We can consider the lilies of the field and the birds of the air, turn the other cheek, live in community while sharing things in common, participate in non-violent resistance, give our money to the poor, whatever is needful--all through downward causation or spiritual centeredness. Christ is the head who controls the members of our body, individually and corporately. However, just because we have the capacity for spiritual gifts and actions, we do not leave the other levels behind. The Spirit which touches our spirit is always incarnated in this material-biological-thinking body. We still need essential nutrients, trace elements, and water or we die. We still have all the biologically- based fears for survival, and tribal security. We can still use our reason in the limited service of these basic needs. So, does a nice guy like O. J. Simpson have the capacity for rage and revenge? Of course. We all do. Can high-minded, moral presidents like Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagen, and Bill Clinton still have sensual hormones which can be stimulated into lust? You bet. Can a Christian country like Germany allow hard economic times to seduce it into Jewish scapegoating, and allow physical fear to intimidate it into looking the other way and not see a holocaust? Undeniably so. Our fears can rise up from below (upward causation) and rule consciousness. Augsburger, Helping People Forgive, 158. Augsburger, Helping People Forgive, 155. Augsburger, Helping People Forgive, 156-57. Augsburger, Helping People Forgive, 155, quoting Robert Schreiter, Reconciliation (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1992), 43. Augsburger, Helping People Forgive, 153. Augsburger, Helping People Forgive, 154-55, 157-58. This approach, of course, is totally contradictory to that heard and encouraged on a number of radio talk shows where offenders are referred to as non-human, as Vermin born under a rock. This kind of talk touches that part of us that is rightfully angry, that is tired of people being excused, let off, etc., but is not helpful, not transformative. It specifically disavows the possibility or desirability of reconciliation. It is the way of larger prisons and a higher percentage of the population living in incarceration, where here in the United States we already have the highest percentage of our population living in prisons than any other country in the modern world. For a clinician who has actually had good experience healing through accessing and empowering the larger self or souls of those who are not thought to have a functional, let alone higher self--those labeled with eating disorder, bi-polar disorder, juvenile sex abuser, spouse beater, clinical depression, sociopath, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and more, see the work of Richard C. Schwartz termed Internal Family Systems. Augsburger, Helping People Forgive, 160. See John Howard Yoder, The Politics of Jesus (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1971) and The Priestly Kingdom: Social Ethics as Gospel (Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1984). David Seamands, Healing for Damaged Emotions (Wheaton: Victor Books, 1981). David Seamands, Putting Away Childish Things (Wheaton: Victor Books, 1982), and Healing of Memories (Wheaton: Victor Books, 1985). The foundation source on Lake is Clinical Theology: A Theological and Psychiatric Basis to Clinical Pastoral Care (London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1966). Other books still relatively available are Tight Corners In Pastoral Counseling (London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1981); With Respect: A Doctors Response to a Healing Pope (London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1982); the abridged version of Clinical Theology by Martin H. Yeomans (New York: Crossroad, 1987); Carol Christian, ed., In the Spirit of Truth: A Reader in the Work of Frank Lake (London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1991); John Peters, Frank Lake: The Man and his Work (London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1989), and Stephen M. Maret, Frank Lakes Maternal-Fetal Distress Syndrome: An Analysis (Ph.D., diss., Drew University, 1992) who offers a complete bibliography on Lake. Lake, Clinical Theology, 1103. Lake, Clinical Theology, 1103. Lake, Clinical Theology, 1103-04. Lake, Clinical Theology, 818. Lake, Clinical Theology, 818. Lake, Clinical Theology, 314. Lake, Clinical Theology, 314-15, 315. Lake, Clinical Theology, 315. Lake, Clinical Theology, xvi, xxv. Lake, Clinical Theology, xxvi, xxvii. Also: But no one who still reads the Bible or the lives of the men of God can escape this evidence, that dreadful inner doubt, distress and darkness accompany almost every major spiritual crisis. Some people are taken through this dark valley in solitary dependence upon God alone, faithful even when he seems most to have absconded. In one sense it is always a journeying alone. Others, for lack of any human contact or encouragement, become lost in total despair or draw back from the encounter with hitherto dissociated aspects of themselves. It ought to be part of pastoral care, of special care if it cannot be made generally available, to give wise pilotage to souls in danger of foundering in these narrows. Withdrawal for spiritual renewal involves a shaking of the foundations in so far as they are less than thoroughly sound. But when God has done the shaking and a man has consented to the disturbance of this deeper digging, he returns to the world with a new basis in God-centeredness and empowering. The fact of having suffered and having been delivered opens doors in the lives of others who are in the same wordless peril and mortal crisis. A clinical theology prepares men to use mental misfortune like a friend, as an unexpected negative way to God, which, doubling back on the usual affirmative route, still meets God in the end. It prepares us to do without all kinds of reassurances we commonly demand. The clergyman who hopes for an unparadoxical cure, who wants to be able to say something helpful, in order to produce the same tranquilizing effect as the doctors new medicines, is ultimately looking in the wrong direction. Meditations which induce a peaceful frame of mind are to be compared with pre-medication. They are not the cure. They are merely a help in the preparation of the patient to endure an operation for which no total anesthesia is possible. (p. xxvii) Lake, Clinical Theology, xxvi. Note: In England the definition of a pastoral counselor is not necessarily someone who is ordained, but is often a therapist who works out of a deep commitment of faith to Christ and the church. As author, I have special gratitude for Nouwens generosity in allowing me to use his work in my anthology of pastoral care sermons, Feed My Sheep, and in another volume of ordination sermons, not yet published. The following treatment of Nouwen follows closely Jurjen Beumers biography Henri Nouwen. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 84. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 89, quoting Henri J. M. Nouwen, Clowning in Rome: Reflections on Solitude, Celibacy, Prayer, and Contemplation (New York: Doubleday, 1979), 31. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 87, 88, quoting Henri J. M. Nouwen, Reaching Out: The Three Movements of the Spiritual Life (New York: Doubleday, 1975), 19. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 90, quoting Nouwen, Clowning, 32. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 95, quoting Nouwen, Reaching Out, 89. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 103, quoting Nouwen, Reaching Out, 90, 91. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 167. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 58, quoting Henri J. M. Nouwen, The Road to Daybreak: A Spiritual Journey (New York: Doubleday, 1988), 94. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 58, 82, quoting Henri J. M. Nouwen, The Return of the Prodigal Son: A Meditation on Fathers, Brothers, and Sons (New York: Doubleday, 1992), 14. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 76, quoting Nouwen, Creative Ministry, 90-91. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 76, 77, quoting Nouwen, Creative Ministry, 90-91. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 45. Beumer also notes (p. 28) that Nouwens exposure and interest in World Two goes back to his experience with Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Black civil rights movement. Nouwen participated in Martin Luther Kings great march from Selma to Montgomery in 1965. This affected him deeply. His written account of this march is very moving and takes us back to those events once again. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 48-49, quoting Henri J. M. Nouwen, Gracias: A Latin American Journal (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1983), 21. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 49, 50. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 51, quoting Nouwen, Gracias, 151-52. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 53, quoting Henri J. M. Nouwen, With Burning Hearts: A Meditation on the Eucharistic Life (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1994), 3. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 81, 85. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 64, 63, 64. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 64. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 56. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 168. Beumer, Henri Nouwen, 96 quoting Nouwen, Reaching Out, 105. Marv Gardner, Integrating the Pastoral Dimension Into Pastoral Counselor Training Programs, Journal of Pastoral Care Vol. 47 No. 1 (Spring 1993): 56-64. Richard P. Vaughan, Pastoral Counseling and Personality Disorders: A Manual (Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1994). James E. Loder, The Logic of the Spirit: Human Development in Theological Perspective (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998). Loder specifically adopts an interactionist position, which understands development happening relationally as the person encounters the environment, with certain innate structural potentials (grammar). I have automatically excluded certain other theoretical options, among them preformationism [Anton van Leewenhoek = child as little adult], predeterminism [G. Stanley Hall = developmental Darwinism = ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny = determined from within], and environmentalism [J. B. Watson and B. F. Skinner = determined from without]. (p. 19) Richard A. Hunt and Joan A. Hunt, Spiritual Formation and Motivation for Ministry as Measured by the Theological School Inventory, Journal of Pastoral Care Vol. 47 No. 3 (Fall 1993): 275-284. For a recent review of the definitions and assessment scales related to spirituality and religion see David B. Larson, James P. Swyers, and Michael E. McCullough, eds., Scientific Research on Spirituality and Health: A Report Based on the Scientific Progress in Spirituality Conferences (The John M. Templeton Foundation, 1998). Carrie Doehring, Theological Fluency and Pastoral Theology in a New Millenium forthcoming. We can also note that this is a calling which pastors struggle with mightily when faced with an actual local church which seems light-years away from the ideal of a church; which is comprised at many points of obstinate, obstructionist people who actually frustrate ministry; which often is an extended, exclusionist family looking for a chaplain, and will make it a sport to criticize the pastor from many different directions at once. It is so much easier, and so much more ego-syntonic to embrace an identity as Biblical Scholar, Professor of Religious Studies, Pastoral Psychotherapist, or Change Agent in society. Will Willimon puts it like this in his essay, The Spiritual Formation of the Pastor: Call and Community Quarterly Review (Summer 1983), 36-37: I'm not a "community person" by natural inclination. Tell me I have some charismatic flair for leadership. Praise me for the art of my preaching or the empathy of my pastoral care, just let me share myself and pour out my feelings, urge me to become a spiritual virtuoso, but please do not yoke me to the body, do not marry me to that unruly bride, do not force me to find what I do and therefore who I am among those who gather at Northside United Methodist Church, Greenville, S.C. Let me free-lance ministry, give me a degree and tell me I am special, encourage me to tack up a shingle, allow me to set up office hours, call me professional, teach me some exotic spiritual gnosis that makes me holy but do not hold me accountable to the church. I love Jesus and I want to serve him. But he married beneath his station. For me, the real scandal of ministry, the ultimate stumbling block, the thing I avoid and fear the most, is the church. Like many of you, I set out to serve God and ended up caught among those whom God served. My problem, my difficulty with the Spirit is that it wants to tie me to the church. The pastoral ministry is so tough, its demands so great, its dependence upon the Spirit essential because such (ordained) ministry is a function of the church. Schwartz, Internal Family Systems, 149ff. See also Gregory Batesons propositions of what characterizes a living, organic system with the quality of mind in his Mind and Nature. To repeat, heresy is understood as an unacceptable restriction of the experience of the community of faith. Marcion was not considered a heretic because he exposited a new covenant creator-God of love, but because he deleted and negated Yahweh, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob of the Hebrew scriptures. See Odens survey of atonement theories in his Word of Life where he says they all need some corrective voices from the others to form an adequate teaching. They are best viewed as complimentary. (p. 414) In addition to Loders book on development above, see James E. Hightower, Jr., ed., Caring for People from Birth to Death (New York: Haworth Pastoral Press, 1999) which has specific sections on spiritual development with each developmental period. Rick Warren, The Purpose Driven Church (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1995). See Alton B. Pollard, III, Mysticism and Social Change: The Social Witness of Howard Thurman (New York: Peter Lang, 1992). 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