ࡱ> #` bjbj F{ZX'TTTf f f f8Bfg$܁6h6h"XhXhXhjjjzzzzK{ =~ ]$hrni@jrnrnXhXhLzLzLzrn^XhXhzLzrnzLzLzLzXh*h b ģ ftLzlzd0܁LzxyvLzLz jjLzk| lejjjy^jjj܁rnrnrnrn^eDe  CHAPTER IX Characterological Ways of Being From Culture to a Holistic Characterology Although we have acknowledged repeatedly that it is impossible to completely separate out issues of one quadrant from another, we now shift our relative focus from the internal-communal or cultural (IC) quadrant of common values to that of the interior-individual (II) quadrant dealing with individual consciousness. We have explored the helpful contribution of W. Paul Jones in fleshing out five ways of viewing the world theologically that are the basis for five cultural schools of thought to which various representatives of classical and contemporary times have been drawn. However, the various cultural influences that swirl around us as we participate in multiple national, religious, educational, vocational, voluntary communities and associations only impinge upon on us, setting limits and possibilities. They do not come directly into consciousness unaffected by the way we organize experience internally. They do not make decisions for us or determine our affective responses toward our choices. They do not sort out for us which choice to make among many. The people who come to church, certainly newcomers, do not ordinarily walk in with a knowledge of what theological schools of thought, traditional or modern, with which they have the most affinity We turn now to looking more closely at the still mysterious inner imagination which guides our preferences and choices according to the way it perceives life in general. The way we organize experience has deep roots in our personal background, family, significant nurturing relationships, and more--that is, in internal-individual variables which assume the existence of a responsible subject made in the image of God, as was outlined earlier. Since we have looked at spiritual experience in terms of Word-events which affect the organization of experience, it is good now to incorporate into the discussion some of the wisdom pastoral counselors and psychologists of religion have been mining in personality studies for the last hundred years on how that organization is effected from its earliest inception. It is another step in the service of learning about the specificities of the human condition, so that grace can be brought to bear in unique and transformative ways. Without attempting to be deterministic, it should shed some light on why we end up gravitating toward the particular obsessios which Jones has discovered, and why our pursuit of the spiritual quest for increased agency-in-communion takes the general direction it does. This chapters effort, therefore, is in the tradition of Paul Pruysers Minister as Diagnostician, and Nancy Ramsays more recent Pastoral Diagnosis. If the clinical-spiritual work we do with individuals and families is indeed pastoral, what we learn about diagnostics and interventions from our dialogue with the social sciences should revolve around the theological fundamental of grace--how it might be specifically needed, and what paves the way for its finding a healing entrance. Universal specifics and Unique Applications The questions of differentness and specificity arise very quickly once pastors are out on the front lines of ministry. Why does that person love the sermons and that other look pained by them? What makes that teacher great with young children and totally ineffective with older ones? What is going on with George that makes him sign up for every small group experience offered, and with June, that she avoids every opportunity? Why did Stan get depressed after successfully chairing the major funds drive campaign? What made Beth want to control every decision that went into the remodeling plans? What is making Sue and Lars so unhappy, just eighteen months after their joyous wedding? With some persons it is easy to understand them as a pastor. We resonate with them. Their lives are not far form the understanding we have of our own lives. It is a joy to be with them. With others, we are at a loss. We have a hard time even imagining how they interpret and relate to the world in ways so alien from our own. We find that our resourcefulness in being able to help these others is unavailing. It might stretch us just to be with them. One of the tensions or polarities in theology that is helpful in addressing this predicament in ministry is that between the universal and the particular which was outlined in the introduction. We noted there the debate in pastoral theology between Greer W. Boyce who cautioned against using a universal specific, a common diagnosis and common remedy in any and all cases, and Joachim Scharfenberg who raised the opposite concern of becoming lost in an endless maze of experiential data with no way to understand or evaluate it from a Christian perspective. We also noted that if the ministry of Jesus is consulted for a perspective on this matter, we find the use of both universal specifics and unique applications. Jesus did operate with a common diagnosis and remedy for all situations, a universal specific. In its simplest form it read, "Repent! The Kingdom of God is at hand!" When it came to applying this overall perspective to particular situations, Jesus was impressively adaptive in offering particular formulations to people that addressed their specific situations. To one it was, "Leave the dead to bury their own." (Luke 9:60) To others, "Do not be anxious about your life, what you shall eat." (Luke 12:22) To the woman with ointment he said, "Your sins are forgiven." (Luke 7:48) To the healed Gerasene Demoniac he commanded, "Return to your home, and declare how much God has done for you." (Luke 8:39) The woman who touches his hem heard, "Daughter, your faith has made you well. Go in peace." (Luke 8:48) When Martha was distraught because Mary was not helping her serve, Jesus responded "Martha, Martha, you are anxious and troubled about many things; one thing is needful." (Luke 10:41-42) If, as pastors, we reflect on our practice of ministry, we realize we also operate with a general conception of what is happening and what is needful, some universal framework for understanding the situation, regardless of the particulars. This is true of secular psychotherapists as well. Various ministers might articulate it in different ways, but it probably comes down to some variation on one of the five Theological Worlds. Again, for the sake of shorthand, we continue here the above usage of naming the universal specific for pastoral care and counseling situations as the need for grace. This is the point where ministry often fails. Most clergy have more schooling in the universals of the faith than in the hands-on art of understanding, and knowing how to access a person's unique, core organizing beliefs that underlay his or her experience in life. It is definitely an art. Many of us despair of having the intuition of Jesus to correctly read and effectively touch another's life. Some of us drop out of parish life to pursue advanced clinical studies in order to go deeper with people. Others strive hard to develop a referral network to help those who do not respond to their ministry, and are too often disappointed with the quality of help available. Again, we are often hampered by our own viewpoint as clergy. We know experientially and cognitively how grace came to us. When we articulate and communicate this mode to others, it is somehow frustrating when there is not a more wide-spread response. The basic lesson that people are different has not yet been learned, integrated, and utilized. Likewise, some of us are effective in attracting and helping a certain type of person in our ministry, (which is especially possible in America's mobile and pluralistic society) but are responsibly bothered by our failures, those who do not find help. A familiarity with the five Theological Worlds should be a significant help in this situation. In the rest of this section an outline of a holistic characterology based in personality studies of quadrant II is added that has proved helpful in the praxis of ministry. The helpfulness is in delineating a number of typical characterological stances that people develop to make sense of life from its earliest stages. These stances reflect particular core organizing beliefs that determine a person's experience and expression. The beliefs thereby give a good clue to the specific word of grace persons need to be able to transcend and transform their brokenness and alienation. They are beliefs which are theological in the sense that they attempt to make meaning out of life. And, they are the beliefs that someone brings to Christian education, worship, the spiritual quest, and/or a pastoral counseling situation which are automatically in dialogue with whatever theology is presented. Historically, this exercise is, again, in the tradition of Gregory the Great's classic book Pastoral Care. In that book, Gregory assumed orthodoxy on the part of his clergy readers, that is, grounding in the universals of the faith. He then proceeded to apply his dictum that what was a helpful response for one could be harmful to another. He did this through developing 72 human personality characteristics into 36 polarities, and illustrating how someone on the intimidating-aggressive end of a polarity, for instance, needed a different pastoral response than someone else on the intimidated-meek end. What follows is a typology that results in two variations on five characterological ways of being in the world. Gregory might have applauded the simplicity and economy of such a scheme, while noting that it can't hope to cover the waterfront, which it does not claim to do. No typology can ever capture the infinite nuances of the human condition, nor legislate what is possible or not possible for the Holy Spirit to evoke in any given life. No person should ever be typecast as a type. Still, character studies, based on recurrent developmental issues that all people share to some extent, can definitely be a help in ministry. They can sensitize pastors to the lesson that people are in fact different which is why they gravitate toward a particular school of thought or approach to spirituality. Two separate human beings perceive and react to the same world in a different way depending on whether they organize it internally as hospitable-inhospitable, nourishing-withholding, or freeing-binding, etc. All persons have their individual faith center, their own core organizing beliefs which program their personal computers. Character studies can teach common basic issues in people to look for. They can be of help pastorally in giving clues to what form of bondage a person is living in, and therefore, how the person specifically needs to grow in grace in order to move toward freedom and self-transcendence. As ministers, we do not need to reinvent the wheel with every new person we encounter, though we do need to stay open to the uniqueness of every person's experience. Once character studies have been delved into deeply, and the scales have been learned, we can be equipped to do jazz in our responses, to improvise the necessary variations that more closely resonate with the spontaneity of the live human being we are encountering. As Nancy Ramsay puts it: Our [pastoral] knowing not only develops through historical and contextual variables, it also arises in dynamic reciprocity with others. Pastoral diagnosis does not involve the simple application of preconceived ideas catalogued by certain sets of variables. Rather, it is a process like accurate empathy in which we bring informed self-awareness to a conversation. How the other engages us will itself shape the unfolding process of conversation. The typology presented here is an integration of modern character schemata which were studied over the years in constant dialogue with the form and content of the Christian imagination--what it means to have this mind in us that was in Christ Jesus. It has been both formulated and tested in the crucible of parish ministry, pastoral psychotherapy settings, and refined through training and workshop presentations around the world with feedback from both pastoral counselors and spiritual inclined psychotherapists. There is no attempt made here to justify or make self-evident the validity of this or any other characterology. That discussion and the clinical work it is based upon can be found in the literature cited. The typology is offered here in brief, highly condensed form with the hope that it will resonate with the experience of readers, prove helpful for ministry, and provide an internal-individual (II) quadrant typology of World Views which can be correlated with the internal-communal (IC) quadrant typology of Theological Worlds. There is great danger in presenting typologies--the danger of objectifying, stereotyping, or thinking pathologically. That ill-effect would serve to ungracefully aggravate the loneliness and pain of life, not bridge it. Whenever we label someone as a type; a Peter or Paul, tightwad or spendthrift, femme fetal or macho man, psychopath or narcissist, egghead or jock--we reduce them. We imply we have captured their essence, which is limited to a small arena, a part of them, and cut ourselves off from engaging the creative capacities their soul or core self can generate. We separate, alienate, or sin by introducing an "us and them" dynamic. The hope in presenting this typology is the opposite one, that it will function to underline the wisdom of the justly famous American psychiatrist Harry Stack Sullivan, who spent his career trying to demonstrate to his colleagues that we are all more alike each other than different. Since the typology is built around common developmental issues that we all go through and rarely come out of untouched, most readers will recognize a part of themselves in all the dispositions, while perhaps majoring in one. We are exploring normal, not abnormal human dimensions of life here. In a church, when congregants realize and make peace with the notion that they do indeed have certain characterological dispositions that are different than others, it can become a way of affirming that everyone has been given varying gifts by the Spirit that can all be used in building up the Body. On the Necessity of the Grace-Full Word A preliminary question arises. Do ministers, lay or ordained, actually need to worry about how to communicate the Grace-full Word to others in order to foster the spiritual growth of self-transcendence? Is that not a rather authoritarian stance and model? There is much secular and religious power of positive thinking, especially prevalent in World Three, which affirms that persons have within themselves what it takes to change and grow. Plus, there is the notion we are simply called to be with our neighbor in solidarity with his or her suffering in a World Five or Two way. Anything more could be pretentious and grandiose, if not actually destructive. These reservations are well taken and must be respected for the truth they contain. However, the biblical tradition is clear on the necessity of grace coming to us from without in some respect. It is one of the criteria of transcendence we have previously affirmed. Human beings are generally revealed in the Bible as being too alienated from that original goodness of creation to do anything else but dig their hole deeper if left completely to their own devices. Paul Watzlawick and others from the Mental Research Institute in Palo Alto, California have written a book called Change that sheds light on the necessity of the grace-full word from a modern perspective. The MRI group, working with families and individuals in emotional-psychic pain, is interested in the nature of change or transformation. Watzlawick is the one in the group with a classical European background in philosophy, so he suggested they research the literature on change back to ancient times to find light on the subject. He was disappointed to find that the only material in millenniums of Western thought were overall positions that either permanency was real and change illusory, or vice versa. There was little on the actual dynamics of change or transformation. The group needed to turn to modern mathematical Group Theory and Russell's Theory of Logical Types to find help. Studying this material led them to affirm that "persistence and change need to be considered together, in spite of their apparently opposite nature." Modern Group Theory is helpful in explaining how the more things change, the more they stay the same. Within the structure of a given system there can be a change from one way of behaving to another within a given way of behaving according to four basic group property laws. This is referred to as first order change. Things change within the system without the system itself being affected. The identified patient in a family is cured of his or her symptoms, for instance, only to have some other family member become dysfunctional. Groups or systems are invariant or stuck at the level of first order change. There is also the possibility for a significant type of second order change. Changes from dream states to waking states, from position to motion, from simple motion to acceleration, from scape-goating relationships to accepting, empathic relationships are illustrations. Here there has been a change to a different Logical Type of system with a different body of rules governing the structure or internal order of the system's members. The program that governs the action of the computer has been changed. The system itself has changed. Watzlawick notes that, "a system which may run through all its possible internal changes (no matter how many there are) without effecting systemic change, i.e., second-order change, is said to be caught in a Game Without End." "It cannot generate from within itself the conditions for its own change; it cannot produce the rules for the change of its own rules." To add to the predicament, if methods of first order change are applied to issues of second order change, the proposed solution can add to or actually become the problem. In Christian experience the issue of justification by works versus grace illustrates. People attempt to justify their lives by trying to be a good something; parent, student, businessperson, crook, athlete, whatever. Then they happen to be "converted" and now try to justify their existences by going to church, walking down the aisle to shake hands with the preacher, reading the Bible, converting others, helping the poor, etc. Nothing fundamental has changed. It is all still a system of self justification. And the more "trying to do right is applied to the situation, the more hopelessly mired and bogged down within itself it becomes. For to be justified by grace involves the cessation of trying, non-doing, a faith that Another has done what is needful. Who or what can save us from such a state, a game without end? The Theory of Logical Types is clear. "Going from one level; to the next higher entails a shift, a jump, a discontinuity or transformation -- in a word, a change -- of the greatest theoretical and practical importance, for it provides a way out of a system." Second-order change appears unpredictable, abrupt, illogical, etc. only in terms of first-order change, that is from within the system. Indeed, this must be so, because, as we have seen, second-order change is introduced in the system from the outside and therefore is not something familiar or something understandable in terms of the vicissitudes of first-order change. Here is a modern way of conceptualizing some ancient Christian understandings. The word of grace to people trapped within their own alienation and pain must be a transcendent word, a word that comes from outside the system of brokenness and separation and is not determined by it; a new word, and a word that will surely be seen as "foolishness to the wise." So, the answer to the question posed at the beginning of this section is "yes." A grace-full, freeing word is a necessity for people living in darkness and bondage. And, it must be a word from without, whatever its form may be; even though it might be a non-authoritarian, non-confrontive word that simply functions to connect someone with his/her God-given core self or inner wisdom. Character theory can be of help in letting a minister know what that word might be to a specific person. Next, the meaning of "character" in this context is considered. Character and Characters: Multiple-Dispositions Concept of Character The terms "character," "character type," "character formation," refer to many things depending on whose characterology one is considering. It should be noted that the word "character" is used here in a somewhat pejorative sense. When someone remarks about us that "we have character," or "we certainly are a character," there is a positive implication. There is a predictable substance or core quality to us that can be counted on, that won't be blown about by every new wind of doctrine. The negative implication is that we might be rigid, be compulsively repeating unconscious patterns. We might be in servitude to our character, and can't get out of our normal roles, even when it is desirable and appropriate to do so. In line with this more negative implication which was outlined in the Introduction as part of the human predicament, we could say that Jesus was a perfectly "characterless" person. That is, he was not limited to any one fixed characterological way of being. He had the inner freedom to do what was necessary in the moment, to be not one thing, but everything at once. He could enjoy children, debate Pharisees, consider the lilies, and/or drive the money changers out of the temple. This section follows closely the thinking and research of Ronald S. Kurtz. Kurtz understands character in terms of deep seated belief systems which fixate behavioral patterns; what we have been discussing in terms of the organization of experience. We learn and impose various limitations on our thinking, feeling, interacting, posture, movement, etc. and these limitations manifest in characterologically constant ways of being in the world. We can be seen as having characteristically predictable ways of dressing, buying cars, meeting new situations, developing friendships, and so forth. Those of us labeled "Conformists" are thought to have our own car factory. We buy cars that are small and cramped, ones that break down at streetlights or on freeways, but only if there is a line of impatient drivers behind us. If we ask someone what time it is when we have a perfectly functional watch on our wrist, that may be a clue to our having a "longing" character, one that disposes us to lean on others for support. However, it is important in Kurtz's view that character types not be given a life of their own. This is the temptation to get caught in pathological thinking. There are no conformists or longers in the world. There are only those of us who have adopted conforming or longing strategies for surviving in life. The word adopt implies a creative act. Kurtz relates character to acting, drama, performance, and is therefore part of the constructionist school of psychology. This suggests our responsibility in our own lives. He also recognizes the caughtness, the bondage of life. He sees that our characteristic behavior and choices are not conscious now and we have no conscious memory of having adopted them earlier. We are talking here, as outlined in the Introduction, of that level of organization in us which directs both reception and response to a situation stimulus before the experience of reception, or expression of response is actually made -- in current parlance, the program that is running the computer. In Jenning's more theological terms, following Langer, that we have already employed, it is the action of our imaginations which symbolically transform the givens of a situation to make them available to consciousness. As ministers, of course, we are especially interested in whether one's character is reflective of a Christian imagination, whether the filters which interpret the world and guide actions are congruent with the images, symbols, and narratives of the Hebrew and Greek Testaments reflected in one of the Theological Worlds. As Richard Byrne has put it: I have found it helpful to urge students to think holistically about themselves. . . . They are present - body/mind/spirit. Whether it is in the classroom or in the streets, the way they gesture or the clothes they wear, for instance, express their mental states and spiritual being. Likewise, I try to demonstrate how what they think and what they proclaim express how they are experiencing the saving, loving activity of God in their lives. Pastorally speaking, we often need to focus on the nature of bondage, the system or game without end that people are caught in, so that we might better know the transcendent word that would be grace-full, freeing and healing for an individual. The study of characterology is helpful in enabling us to assess the system a person is caught up in, to identify the faith structure that is in operation, the core organizing beliefs that are present. Holistic Characterology: Generalities The question of which characterology to use naturally emerges. There are a wealth of systems for understanding people through various characterological posturings. Some are informal ones such as discerning someone to be more a Mary or Martha. The Jungian typology is helpful in assessing constitutional predispositions. We may come out of the womb disposed to introversion or extroversion, and need to make peace with that reality throughout our lives. Then there are Freudian, Reichian, Bioenergetic, Loevingerian systems on the psychological-developmental level; adrenal, pituitary and thyroid types from medicine; the somatotypes of Sheldon; the metabolic types of Kelly; astrological types; types developed by the Buddha and by Chinese medicine, the Enneagram, and so forth. An underlying issue is the question of causation. Do we have a certain characterological way of thinking, moving, and relating because of genetic makeup, psychological history, structural armoring, or nutritional variables? Unfortunately many systems appear somewhat imperialistic in arguing that their factors are the true causative ones, and therefore the ones which should be considered most important for funding, research, and treatment. Kurtz is clear in understanding character (at more than the lip service level) as multiply derived. He has developed a schema that maps a number of typologies together and outlines directions for interventions at multiple levels. In general, when discussing the influence of unconscious programs or basic faith in one's life, Kurtz likes the formulation of Karl Popper that argues the best single word for describing the unconscious is "disposition". An organism is disposed to, not absolutely predetermined, but disposed to such and such. People can be seen as developing and becoming disposed to such things as withdrawal or persistence. The most important thing about this concept for character development and maintenance is that dispositions can be affected in many ways on many levels from the metabolic to the cultural-social. Thus, the concept of disposition fits well with the four-quadrant form of analysis. It helps make sense of the paradox we struggle with in our social thought that we appear to be simultaneously determined from without and responsible from within. The remainder of this chapter will consider various factors (a limited number from among the many choices) that dispose people toward, or help maintain, certain developments in character formation which in turn influence choices of Theological Worlds. The dispositions will be mapped together in an overall schema with a discussion of possible interactions. At the end there will be a general note on implications for approaching holistic interventions in ministry. Metabolic Constitutional Dispositions Metabolic Types In American psychology the notion that we are born differently was resisted for many years, to a large degree for ideological reasons. Fortunately, mothers were never completely bullied out of their clear experience that children can be born into the same family with significant differences from their siblings and peers. One child is notably active, reactive, and sensitive. Another appears naturally more calm, easygoing, and cheerful. Since World War II and the entrance of a number of mothers into professional psychology, this notion is no longer anathema. One system that addresses these genetic differences which is notable for its clarity and usability is William D. Kelly's Theory of Metabolic Types. It is important to consider it here briefly to at least acknowledge the full systems approach to holonic existence we have adopted. As holons, we are wholes made up of parts, and parts of greater wholes. Kellys work is one approach to dealing with the sub-parts of which we are made, the biospheric aspect which can wield powerful dispositions related to upward causation. Through his work in clinical nutritional Kelly discovered that different people needed different diets and dietary supplementation to move toward optimal health. There was no such thing as an "ultimate super diet" that could be confidently prescribed for any and all people. He then went on to research and distinguish a variety of metabolic types based on relative dominance of autonomic nervous system function plus relative efficiency or inefficiency of metabolism. A type one in Kelly's system is an extreme sympathetic. Since the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system has to do with fight or flight responses, and heavily works the adrenals and thyroid, etc. it is not surprising that a type one is charged, has an impetus to activity with a lot of energy in the muscles, doesn't like to stand still, and is disposed to keep busy to the point of exhaustion whether in work or play. The body build is in the direction of a Watusi with narrowness in the head from side to side and narrowness in the body from back to front. Type ones are built for running sprints, thin and lean. They do well on an alkaline residue diet which tends to push them toward balance; greens, raw vegetables, fruits. Needs for dietary supplementation often include Vitamins D, C, B1, B2, B6, Biotin, Folic Acid, Paba Potassium, Magnesium, and Manganese. They are also disposed to be constipated since they minor in digestive functions. TABLE 10. Metabolic Types Metabolic Efficiency  10 Sympathetic A: Parasympathetic dominant dominant N: 8 4 S: 5 high acidity 1....... ..............................................................................................2.high alkalinity 6 B: 7 A: L: A: 9 vegetarian N: carnivore C: E: 3 Metabolic Inefficiency _________________________________ Source: William D. Kelly, training materials A Kelly type two is an extreme parasympathetic. They are almost never constipated since they major in the parasympathetic functions of resting, healing, and digesting. Their digestion's are so good and so fast that if they are fed only rice and vegetables, they are soon considering eating a live cow. They need protein, meat, purines, an acid residue diet to give them energy and push them toward balance. Dietary supplementation is oriented toward Vitamins A, E, B12, Sodium Ascorbate, Niacinamide, Pantothenic Acid, Choline, Inositol, Bioflavonoids, Calcium, Phosphorus, and Zinc. They are built more for the long haul; endurance not speed; more like an Eskimo with rounder physiques. Everyone cycles through sympathetic and parasympathetic swings during the day; for instance, 3:30 a.m. and 2:30 p.m. generally being maximally parasympathetic. People go through tighter or wilder swings depending on their relative ANS balance and efficiency. TABLE 11 Psychological Characteristics of ANS Dominance Sympathetic Dominance Parasympathetic Dominance A lot of get up and go Lacks high energy and motivation Actions usually explosive Relaxed, calm, firm actions Rarely remembers dreams Remembers dreams well Alert, wide-awake, fast reflexed Cool, calm, collected Easily emotionally upset Emotionally stable Exercise nut Dislikes exercise Difficulty falling asleep Falls asleep quickly Seldom depressed Prone to sadness, defection, depression Intense, decisive, impulsive Slow to make decisions, sticks by them Lake of endurance, quick energy Marked endurance Starts projects, leaves them Stays with projects long term Can't eat before sleep Sleeps better eating at bedtime Hits ground running morning Hard to get going in AM Impatient, irritable Not easily upset Emotional ups and downs Loyal, steadfast High strung High stress tolerance Logical, rational Intuitive Takes initiative Follower, joiner Strong sexual passion Weak sexual passion Good student/athlete Popular, people person Eating, necessary evil Eating enjoyable, social event High pressure business orientation Low pressure, agreeability, cooperative Nervous, jumpy Slow, sluggish Intellectually oriented, concentrated Emotionally, socially oriented ___________________________________ Source: William D. Kelly, training materials. Kelly type tens have great energy and relative overall good health because they are maximally efficient digesters, assimilating all possible nutritive value out of any food. They can be appropriately active or relaxed because of being balanced metabolizers. A Kelly type three is also balanced but the person is weak and anemic because of being highly inefficient as a metabolizer, gaining only ten percent or less of the nutritive value of the food ingested. Kelly has worked out the typical personality/psychological characteristics that go with sympathetic or parasympathetic dominance. All of the characteristics can be linked to underlying biochemical, metabolic mechanisms. A sympathetic having a lot of get up and go for instance is tied to active adrenal and thyroid function. Metabolic biases can be seen fitting into strategies or dispositions for dealing with life. Regardless of ones philosophy, if the nervous system is over in one direction, there is going to be marked dispositions to certain tactics. "Sympathetics" are not good at waiting around, stalling. They are ready for action, posed to fight back before the war even starts. They are the doers of the world in their natural state, good lawyers, doctors. They don't relax well. "Parasympathetics" on the other hand are easy going, relaxed, don't readily become too nervous or upset. They tend to meet the world with their warmth. They can, due to their nature, be charmers and diplomats with a good measure of humor. They are often the steadfast workers of the world; good, sweet, family people. They can learn to get things by being nice, and it can be hard not to want to respond to them with their easy going metabolic rate and temperament. Theoretically those of us who are sympathetic dominant could better sustain the energy and focus to enter into World Two social action concerns. If we are more parasympathetic dominant, we might find ourselves naturally (metabolically) gravitating toward the nurture of World Three. Metabolism represents one of the multiple contexts we live in. Metabolism can definitely be manipulated in the direction of balance or imbalance by diet, exercise, and/or supplementation. Metabolic biases can also be influenced or countered by psychological factors. A normally parasympathetic person can be made to be constipated physically if mental stress and guilt are able to mobilize enough fear and anxiety to call into play the sympathetic nervous system, and slow down the genetically stronger parasympathetic endowments. Metabolism is an objective aspect of our being which can be empirically dealt with through the methods of the external-individual (EI) quadrant. Cortical Control Cortical control is another disposition related to genetic inheritance. Though the underlying mechanisms of its expression are not fully understood, cortical control is possibly related to Sheldon's concept of ectomorphy. High ectomorphy implies high cortical control, strong inhibition of impulses and the functions of the autonomic nervous system, a tendency to withdrawal, and a psychological fear of and difficulty with expression. The cerebral cortex (primarily composed of ectomorphic or nervous system tissue) is the director or primary influence on the voluntary musculature, which it employs to produce somatic manifestations of character (which will be discussed below in the section on "Structural Dispositions.") Kurtz notes (in a transcription of a workshop talk): In body psychology terms, high cortical control is called over-bounded; low cortical control, under-bounded. Tight and loose, over-organized and under-organized are associated concepts. Since Kelly's metabolic types 1, 4, 2, and 5 are all imbalances in the sympathetic-parasympathetic dimension, cortical control is probably related to metabolic efficiency and stability. Very high cortical control probably reduces efficiency by inhibiting the ANS, and low cortical control probably increases the tendency of the ANS to make wide swings. With overboundedness (0), you get suppression of spontaneous, organic, feelingful behavior. Flat, cold, emotionless, distant, uptight, serious, stuck, mental, head-tripping, all that sort of thing is part of being over-bounded. Under-bounded people (U) are voluble, expressive, suggestible, and generally, out of control. In the extreme, we have hysteria and manic depressive psychosis, life lived at the mercy of one's feeling impulses. TABLE 12 Key Words for Cortical Control Under-bounded (U) Over-bounded (O) scattered contained under-controlled over-controlled loose tight spontaneous inhibited steam ice disorganized over-organized bleed energy bind energy spill over hold in impulsive cautious inconsistent steady dispersed focused unstable inflexible ___________________________ Source: Ron Kurtz, training materials. Historical Dispositions Depth psychologies in the 20th century have been classically interested in developmental issues; how we integrate sensory mechanisms with parenting relationships over time. Judeo-Christian theologies are interested in the issue of righteousness, or right-relatedness; how we relate to God, self, and others in community. The following characterizations will interweave these two concerns. People Disposed to Withdrawal One of the fundamental features of the Judeo-Christian imagination we have noted is that there is one God, the creation is good, and we are part of it. That means that we are welcome here. Whether we have done anything to deserve it or not, we are children of God, part of the family. There are many of us who, at the deepest level of our beings, do not believe this. For whatever reasons, we have come to feel not welcome. We have developed a strategy of withdrawing from what seems like an inhospitable world. Table 13. Sensitivity Cycle CLARITY Insight Barrier Response Barrier I n t e g r a t i o n RELAXATION EFFECTIVENESS I n c r e a s e d S e n s i t i v i t y Completion Barrier Nourishment Barrier SATISFACTION The Cycle: Relaxing the system allows greater sensitivity and clarity to emerge, which fosters optimal insight into what the system is needing. When this leads in turn to effective choices and actions, it makes it possible for the system to be nourished in some fundamental way. Relaxing into the satisfaction this nourishment creates enables sensitivity to increase and augment the systems ability to be led by its organic wisdom. Each function of the cycle can be blocked by a corresponding barrier. Unresolved barriers can function to reverse the cycle leading to uninformed actions resulting in greater frustration, more tension and confusion, and the risk of still more unsatisfying actions. _____________________________________________________________________ Source: Ron Kurtz, Body-Centered Psychotherapy: The Hakomi Method (Mendocino: Life Rhythm, 1990), 164. Neo-Freudians say this predicament often originates in the first stage of growth, the TACTILE. As a fetus, we know with our skin. The first thing infants have to integrate are sensory mechanisms related to tactility, touch, vision, hearing. Lowen indicates there is a fundamental right assimilated at this stage, the right to exist. If there is trauma here; harsh treatment, hatred, rejection, lack of touching, unresponsiveness or lack of timing to join with our needs, etc., a conflict may ensue between existence and need. We can develop a disposition toward a Withdrawn character structure. Our basic experiential philosophy or core organizing belief as this character disposition is, "I can exist if I do not need. Existence is primary. I will help insure my life by cutting myself off from all those needs for food, company, attention, etc. that bring threatening reactions my way." The withdrawal is both from life within and contact with life without. We are threatened to see life too clearly, and have a barrier to insight. If we are under-bounded in terms of cortical control, the disposition could be to withdraw from life by being scattered, erratic, jumping from one thing to another, never lighting on one thing long enough to make contact and have a real encounter. Another strategy, more likely for those of us who are over-bounded, is to focus so intently on one aspect of life, such as music or mathematics, that the rest of our inner and outer world is effectively screened out. Logical candidates for trouble at the tactile stage are highly sympathetic Kelly Type 1s since that metabolism makes us highly reactive to incoming stimuli and more likely to experience our world harshly, thereby disposing us to find a way to retreat. We who are disposed to withdrawal can put up a decent front for the world in many instances, acting in roles of mothers, teachers, etc. "as if" we really belonged and fit in. But, people consciously or sub-consciously experience a quality of non-contactfulness, confusion, or unreality when with us, and recognize a definite tendency for us to run in some way if the focus gets genuinely interpersonal. Consciously and/or unconsciously we have deep feelings of terror, rage, and a sense of not really belonging on this planet. Our predicament is like that of a parachuter left far behind enemy lines. We can exist just fine as long as we blend in and don't reveal our true identity. Possible strengths which can develop out of this predicament are that of being highly sensitive, possibly psychic, imaginative, and becoming innovative thinkers or artists. We tend to major in head functions that stay away from more threatening organic needs. Table 14. Comparison Chart of Characterological Terminologies The characterological presentation of this paper represents an integration of many sources which might not meet the approval of any particular source. The labels of Jane Loveinger are generally appreciated, though the descriptions found here don't correspond perfectly with hers. This chart is provided to compare languages, and for those interested in how the various systems go together, even when they are not precise match-ups, Paper Kurtz Loveinger Lowen DSM IV Withdrawn, Sensitive, Presocial Schizotypal Scattered Unfocused Avoidant Withdrawn Sensitive, Symbiotic Schizoid Schizoid Focused Analytic or Paranoid (*)Borderline Longing, Dependent Seeking, Endearing Impulsive Longing,, Self-Reliant Oral Dependent Compensated (*) Narcissistic Self-Protective, Charming Persuasive Seductive Self-Protective, Tough, Psychopath Anti-Social Commanding Generous Self-Protective Conforming Unresigned Passive-Aggressive Burdened, Conformist Masochist Conforming Enduring Resigned (*) Compulsive Conscientious Expressive, Reactive Clinging Histrionic Conscientious Industrious, Conscientious Rigid Active Over focused (Autonomous) (Integrated) ((*)Borderline people may be seen as flip-flopping back and forth between withdrawal and longing needs, not settling in on one particular solution. Narcissism can be understood as flip-flopping between longing and self-protective dispositions, compulsives between conforming and conscientiousness. These represent disorders where there is not enough self-leadership present to become settled in one end or the other of Lowens basic conflicts.) Since the basic issue here revolves around survival itself, the natural Theological World to match our experience would be World Five. A common illusion that sustains what in Christian categories would be termed our alienation, separation, or sin as withdrawn folks, is that of being a special person, perhaps a prince or princess in disguise who was adopted by our more common current family. The corresponding word of grace that this predicament calls forth are things like, "You are welcome here; I'm glad you are here; you are a child of God; you may be kind to yourself, befriending all that is within; befriending the Christ within." Of course these beliefs, which are most needful, are precisely the beliefs that scare us the most. The beliefs are attractive in terms of healing and wholeness, but our withdrawn strategy has been to organize our entire lives around running from them. We don't want to risk being burned again. How one actually accesses a defensive, rigid imagination in such a way that it is possible to reorient around a more Christ-like belief system is the subject for another volume. But knowing as much as has been outlined here can give a pastor a greater sensitivity and insight into why persons react and respond the way they do, why they would be attracted to certain church activities and not others, and in what general direction their spiritual growth needs to proceed. People with Withdrawn scattered dispositions are not often found in middle-class CHURCH situations except in mild form. Folks who are more Withdrawn and focused are sometimes church organists who are very business-like, formal and precise in their playing, or laypersons who are rigid in their routine of church attendance, avoidance of interpersonal group nurture situations, and are perhaps quite involved specialists in their secular occupations, such as dealing with computers or some aspect of science. The focus and specialization, of course, helps turn awareness away from the interpersonal and the organic which are so threatening. Table 15. Summary of Factors Related to Withdrawal Psycho-sexual Basic Kelly Type Cortical Character Designation Stage Conflict Jones Control TACTILE Existence One (U) Withdrawn-scattered vs. Need World 5 (O) Withdrawn-focused A cautionary not to keep in mind while reading characterological material is that persons rarely approximate pure types, something also true for the Theological Worlds. Most of us recognize some aspect of all the types within ourselves, while one usually stands out as a more major thrust. Also, while this outline is mainly in reference to early developmental crises which color later life, dispositions to such things as withdrawal can be engendered at later stages of life also as the work of Erik Erikson so clearly outlines. Imagine being thrown into a concentration camp for instance. People Disposed to Longing An implication of the goodness of God's creation is that it is nourishing, sustaining, capable of feeding. There is more than enough to go around. Consider the birds of the air, how well they are cared for, though they neither sow nor reap. Some of us become disposed to a deep distrust of this notion and a corresponding longing for it to be so. Developmentally the stages are successive, but not completely. Much goes on simultaneously, like eating solids and learning to stand. The next appropriate functions to integrate in terms of growing up are ORAL ones. Psychodynamically/Spiritually there are issues of giving and getting attention, nourishment, and support which need to be resolved for the child to move on naturally to stages of independence and self-regulation. Lowen speaks of the right to be secure in one's needing at this stage. Trauma such as lack of, or irregular physical and/or emotional feeding may lead to feelings of deprivation, weakness, fears of being abandoned and left alone. The conflict emerges between need and independence and disposes us towards Longing character stances. Those of us who are under bounded might develop a Longing and seeking approach to life. We continue to seek the nourishment we feel we never received. The underlying belief system which directs us says, "Nobody is ever there for me. I need. I can not become independent, because I didn't get the resources I should have, and nobody is going to give to someone who is independent and doesn't look like they need anything." So, we seek out company and support. When first meeting us a pastor may notice an urge to reach out somehow, to help, feed, give or encourage. Later in the relationship the urge may turn into aggravation, tiredness, a sense of being spent or sucked dry. And, as a matter of fact, the pastor's helping effort to somehow fill our empty plate has likely been for naught. For though, as longers, we have sought support and feeding, we have also doubted it when it was there and not let it in. We are folks who can be said to be starving in the midst of a banquet. Kurtz talks about a disposition to collapse and a barrier to taking in nourishment and satisfaction even when it is realistically present. An overbounded variation on the longing stance are those of us who have compensated for the lack in our lives by developing a belief system that says, "I better take care of myself, since no one else will." In addition to being involved in loner activities that require independent actions such as self-employment, long-distance biking or running, or mountain climbing, we compensated longers can be quite industrious in giving and doing for others. It is as if, in part at least, we are modeling for others what we would like done for ourselves. But one soon learns that we will deny our need and not be able to graciously receive ministry in return. We are nervous about allowing ourselves to trust it. Others might sense that we can use giving to others as a means of satisfying our own needs on some unclear level. The overall emphasis here on having needs, desiring company, needing to find affirmation and strength, and wanting to get beyond depression to celebrate life would easily make a World Three spirituality attractive. The strengths in those of us disposed to longing are those of being people oriented, verbal, easy to talk with, unthreatening and affectionate, wanting to cooperate and be a part of things. Our illusion or sin is that of seeing ourselves only as altruistic givers to others, who don't always receive in kind, denying the complicity of our own need in our actions. The word of grace for us is something like, "I'll be here for you. 'I am with you until the end of time.' 'Come to me, you who are heavy laden and I will give you rest.' God's creation is good and full and you can get what you need. You don't need to be weak for me to love you. Take up your bed and walk. It is OK to be strong." And, in the case of the compensated longer in particular, "It is OK to need. You don't have to do it all alone. You are a part of a larger body which can help. Your Father/Mother knows of what you need." Again, this good news is exactly what we who are disposed to longing find impossible to believe and have a hard time integrating. Those of us who are terrified to fall backwards into other people's arms in a trust circle are the longers, especially the seeking ones. At the level of core organizing belief we literally do not believe anyone will be there to catch us. They weren't before when it mattered. Table 16. Summary of Factors Related to Longing Psycho-sexual Basic Kelly Type Cortical Character Designation Stage Conflict Jones Control ORAL Need vs. 5 (U) Longing-seeking Independence World 3 (O) Longing-compensated We longers are attracted to the fellowship of the CHURCH even though it disappoints us in never quite giving what we want. We seekers will attend groups and possibly seek individual sessions with the pastor. We compensated ones can be quite industrious and faithful workers and assume leadership roles. Metabolically speaking, a mildly parasympathetic Kelly type 5 that experiences an above normal need for food and refueling is especially vulnerable at this stage, as are those who, for many reasons, might be inefficient in assimilating the nutritive value of the food ingested. People Disposed to Self-Protection Part of the goodness of Christian community is that, though it is not without leaders, it is characterized by mutual friendship. "I no longer call you servants," says Jesus, "you are my friends." There is an at-ease-ness between friends, a lack of guardedness. We don't worry about a friend trying to manipulate or get power over us. Within Christian community there is the liberating knowledge that there is no position or prize to jockey for, no up or down, important or unimportant positions. We all have the same status; that of children of God made in the divine image, welcomed-home-prodigals, those for whom Christ died. This description of community seems too good to be true for some of us. Though we may have no issues around feeling welcome in the world and secure in our needing, we have great difficulty in believing that anybody wants anything of us outside the realm of control, advantage, and manipulation. Neo-Freudians think of this predicament commonly developing in the ANAL stage which has to do physically with the movement and control of the voluntary muscles, especially in the eliminative and exploratory functions. Psychologically, the issues have to do with a growing sense of self and self control, of saying "no" and "yes," being independent and initiating actions. Lowen talks first of the right to be autonomous at this stage, that is not to be manipulated (key word) for the sake of the needs of others. If our primary nurturer is in fact seductive in trying to gain power over us and uses our feelings against us to gain control, there is a resultant conflict between independence and closeness. We move toward developing a Self-protective character strategy by adopting the philosophy, "I can be independent if I do not give up control and become vulnerable by letting people get too close. And I'll be on guard to insure that they don't use me by making sure I recognize the game and use them first." If we are overbounded and become counter-manipulative by blowing ourselves up, looking tough, powerful, and becoming the leader of any situation, Self-protective-commanding is an appropriate designation. If we are more underbounded, and accomplish the same aim by being seductive, engaging, and agreeable while effectively controlling, and persuading things our own way, then Self-protective-persuasive can be the term. Kurtz understands we who are disposed to self-protectiveness, to have a disposition to suppress such feelings as fear and longing, thereby suppressing those things which might make us vulnerable and give others leverage that can be used against us. We develop barriers to nourishment because of a fear it is not without strings, and to responding appropriately for the same reason. We often react impulsively, which is not always wisely, because to reach out and ask for guidance exposes us, and invites manipulation. We also prefer to wait for people to respond to our needs voluntarily, especially after having established a "bank account" on which others are owing through our having done something for them first. Even then we might be uncomfortable receiving, especially if we imagine any game being played that will end up costing us in the end. There is such a fine-tuned awareness of deception, game playing, and power moves in those of us with this disposition. If we do not become completely cynical, we could easily take our anger and our awareness of wrong to World Two causes which fight for the right in ways that could offer us some comradeship, but not require deep intimacy. Since we self-protective ones have learned to take the initiative, deny our own fears and vulnerability, and can only tolerate the closeness we need by being in an up, benevolently powerful position, our strengths tend to lie in the area of leadership. Though not necessarily the ones with the greatest skills or academic achievements, we can be charismatic, creative, speakers, leaders, and sales people, charming and entertaining, and cool under pressure. General Patton was perfect for the army and Marlon Brando became a great actor. As commanding types, in particular, we can be quite generous, sometimes to a fault, as in stopping our pickup when someone has a flat tire, offering to help, and giving our own spare with no guarantee of getting it back. But the generosity is always our free choice. If there is any ruse or intimidation present, we immediately sense it and mobilize around a power struggle we are determined to win. While being with us, others might feel captivated by our charisma and willingness to be of help. They eventually become aware that there is an underlying fear and power issue that allows us little room to entertain mature equality or mutual influence. Those of us disposed to self-protection are somewhat rare in CHURCH settings except for the minister himself or herself. If we are overbounded commanding we could naturally be expected to have some personal realm of leadership authority and control such as running the youth group, trustees, or some other area of church life. We would still be rare since there is room for few chiefs in most organizations and we shy away from the influence and intimacy of peer groups. However, it is possible we could enjoy the church for what it is, if it does not impose in an unacceptable way, and be content to center our leadership elsewhere. If a priest, minister, or rabbi ever gets into a power struggle with us on some issue or gets too close to us too fast through some crisis situation perhaps, we might either vanish quickly in search of greener kingdoms or become a formidable and obvious enemy within the congregation. As self-protective persuaders we are slightly more common in church, and fit in better because of our social skills. We are still rare because of our orientation around our own needs and plans, and our suspicion of external, idealistic causes and leaders. That is different, or course, if our personal needs are being met by leading or selling these causes ourselves. Our sin or alienation is maintained by such illusions as seeing ourselves as different and more powerful than others, as more benevolently interested in helping others, and seeing others as no-good at base, always deceitfully wanting something. We view life in general as a zero-sum game one must never relax from playing. The good news of grace for us, which we would have a very difficult time believing and integrating, are things like, "you are my friend. I respect and appreciate you. I don't want power over you. You can set the distance between us. You don't need to impress me or do for me. It is OK to be vulnerable and hurt as well as strong and courageous. I won't use them against you." Table 17. Summary of Factors Related to Self-Protection Psycho-sexual Basic Kelly Cortical Character Designation Stage Conflict Jones Control ANAL 1 Independence 4-5 (U) Self protective- vs. split persuasive Closeness (O) Self protective- World 2 commanding Peter in the New Testament is the clearest example of a biblical self-protective type. He is impressed by Jesus' power and wants to be around it, though he doesn't understand it. The way Jesus relates to him is a wonderful model. "I'll go anywhere with you Lord, I'll die for you!" "Peter, you don't really know who you are. By the time the cock crows you will have denied even knowing me three times. But when you have turned -- when your ego is crushed and no illusions are left, and you realize at a more profound level how deep my love for you goes, even and especially in your vulnerability, hurt, and destitution -- then go, strengthen your brethren. They will need you, and you will be able to feed them, realistically this time." People Disposed to Conforming Another theoretically healing quality of Christian community is that all people are accepted as they are. The love of God is unmotivated and uninfluenced by human action or intention. It is a free gift; a matter of pure grace. Nothing can separate us from the love God in Christ Jesus. So, there is room for everybody. Not only do we not have to be someone we are not to gain entrance to the Christian communion, it would be presumptuous and an affront to the gospel to attempt it. There are a number of us who believe at our deepest levels that this simply could not be true. Our sense is that the most axiomatic key to surviving in life is to conform to whatever the existing expectations might be. Relationships always have strings or conditions. They cannot or will not tolerate the true, total us. In the same psycho-sexual ANAL stage we have been considering, Lowen also speaks of the right to be independent by the child establishing its own self-assertion and identity in opposition to the parents. This does not imply parents should pull away necessary authority and structure for the child. However, if the primary nurturing figure is loving on the one hand and crushes our opposition, negativity, and self-assertion on the other, a Conforming character strategy can result. This is a tremendously painful and stuck position to assume. Our underlying belief system becomes, "I can become close -- and I do want to be close since I have tasted the goodness of affection and caring -- but I have to do it at the price of not being free, of not being myself with my own wants and needs, of being submissive as the price for intimacy." The conflict is between closeness and freedom with no good alternatives resulting in loathsome inner ambivalence and turbulence. "I can be free, but if I say who I am and what I feel and want, people will not accept me. They will not be able to tolerate my differences from them. They will attack and try to suppress me and/or they will leave me by myself without human company. I can insure companionship by conforming to the wants and opinions of others, but it is a terrible price to pay and I don't like it, and I can't even admit or express my dislike." The primary nurturers have often used a lot of guilt in the child raising process. We fear we will be hurting our loved ones' feelings terribly by going our own way. A Kelly type 2, an extreme parasympathetic, is a good candidate for fitting into this predicament because of being disposed toward needing, and being sensitive to such "mothering" tasks as feeding, physical contact, and affection. Conforming seems the best of the bad choices for this character. In the under bounded, unresigned version the ambivalence and turbulence is closest to the surface. We want company and to be a part of things, volunteer to help with something, start procrastinating and engaging in other passive-aggressive behavior as the underlying projections and resentments take over. We consciously or sub-consciously interpret the situation (though we volunteered) as another case of people only loving us for the hoops we agree to jump through. We often end up provoking angry accusations or criticisms from others which helps stimulate us to unload our own negativity to a degree, in a form of righteous self-defense. When with us, a pastor's own feelings often go from an initial nice sense of being with someone who is loving, loyal, unthreatening, and persevering (which are the strengths of this character), to a sense that there is something superficial in our niceness, something lacking in our integrity and substance. It can proceed to a genuine sense of anger and frustration that we are somehow stuck, spiteful, and undermining things (which are all good clues). There is obviously more freedom to be with and relate to us as unresigned conformers if a minister is not in a position of needing something from us, like carrying through with an instruction in counseling or an assignment on a committee. Kurtz comments on our disposition to resist; resist our spirits being crushed by totally conforming, resist being pushed to do things we interpret as conditions of love or companionship--though we will generally end up doing them anyway--but slowly. We fear the consequence of exclusion if we dont do them. As conformers we often have a difficult time deciding and knowing what we really want for themselves, since it is so hard for us to sort out our own desires from what we perceive the desires of others to be for us (parents, teachers, ministers, friends, employers.) Our barrier is getting clarity and insight to what we need and desire, and above all, to responding effectively by taking action to get what we want. There is great fear that exercising this authority will incur greater responsibility and guilt for going against the feelings of significant others. If we are a more over bounded resigned conformer, we have much less obvious charge on the underlying issues. Our conscious preoccupation, as Loevinger outlines, is with the appropriateness of our appearance and behavior, belonging, getting along, doing right, helping out and carrying our share, hoping to be appreciated but without great expectations, and rather intolerant with those who make their own rules and go against the system. We have trouble with leadership positions, taking risks, expressing emotions, asserting ourselves, and allowing our true talents and intellect to surface. We are the good, steadfast, loyal workers, family people, and followers who endure and provide the stable fabric of society. We comprise the majority of the people today both in the general culture and the CHURCH. The sketch we have of Martha in the New Testament suggests itself. Our sinful illusion has to do with secretly seeing ourselves as superior to those in leadership and authority roles. We can have an underlying contempt and negativity which is rarely experienced or admitted. It can show up as a self-righteous attitude that has made a virtue out of the necessity of our submission and loyalty while resisting and denying the notion of our bondage and spite. Since there is so much in this disposition having to do with unclean love, hidden angers, acting out, hoping for acceptance, needing to forgive and be forgiven, and such, the natural Theological World which majors in these concerns is World Four. Graceful words of release that we who conform long so desperately to hear, while running from the dizzying possibility of their reality, are variations on, "You are accepted and loved just the way you are, without any entrance fees or auditions, by grace, not works, all loving and hating, spite and care, freedom and stuckness considered--no strings attached. You are a good lovable person. It's OK to be who you are. You don't have to be anything you are not for me. You can speak your truth. Your life belongs to you. There is hope. 'You are worried overmuch; only one thing is needful.'" Table 18. Summary of Factors Related to Conforming Psycho-sexual Basic Kelly Type Cortical Character Designation Stage Conflict Jones Control ANAL 2 Closeness 2 (U) Conforming-unresigned vs. Freedom World 4 (O) Conforming-resigned People Disposed to Conscientiousness Not only do people know themselves to be loved in Christian community, they know themselves as called to serve others, to love as they have first been loved. Everyone is included and has a unique, valuable vocation in ministry. There is a rhythm to Christian life. It moves naturally between gathering to celebrate and scattering to serve, doing and non-doing, work and play. The work is urgent and important, but not obsessive or compulsive. The play is relaxed, nourishing, and has a quality of gratefulness. The whole process is undergirded by a sense of peace that God is graceful with us in the struggle, and goes before us into the promised future with hope. Those of us disposed to conscientiousness are ones who cannot enter into the organic rhythm of this life. We are always on the job because there is always one more thing to do. There is never time to rest, to savor the moment and reorient organically around the next emerging need. We can't let down and let go of competing or performing. Our hearts are restless, without an abiding peace. This predicament characteristically develops later in our growth as children. We who have been welcomed, nourished, and whose needs for independence and structure have been appropriately supported will have little trouble being free, standing on our own feet, and functioning with initiative. But, to surrender, to give ourselves wholly and unreservedly to another, to God, to the cessation of doing and the acceptance of being and resting, there are some prerequisites. There must be a sense of wholeness, peace, and lack of anxiety. There must be a sense of balance with no conflict between the freedom to do and the freedom to surrender to non-doing. We conscientious people developed a problem in relation to these prerequisites. Psycho-sexually, the issue is attributed to the GENITAL stage which involves issues of equal membership in the adult world, often represented in Freudian literature as equal rights to the parent of the opposite sex. At this stage, from age three to five or so, we are coming out of the primary mothering orbit and entering the larger world, traditionally represented in Western culture by the larger inclusion of the father. As children, we understand gender labels such as boy and girl by age three and realize that our personal gender is fixed by five. Studies confirm that the father has the most to do with our emerging gender identity. Lowen describes the basic right to assume at this stage as the right to want and to move directly and openly toward the satisfaction of these wants. There is the most basic want of love and closeness, and the closely associated wants of confirmation, recognition, inclusion, and encouragement. Our wants can be frustrated in a number of ways at this stage. For instance, our natural, child-like assumption that we should be included as an equal within the family meets with the reality of mother and father holding to each other in a way that definitely excludes us. It lets us know we not an equal partner. Our parents may be uncomfortable with the emerging sexual component of our energy and not be willing to engage in the same kind of touching and cuddling as before. "You're too big for that now." Our father may unceremoniously take the sponge from us as a clumsy toddler wanting to be included in washing the car. "You are just in my way." We run to our parents who are reading the newspaper, chopping wood, or ironing clothes with our 32nd consecutive art production, and bump into "Not now! Can't you see I'm busy?" As children, we may experience these rebuffs to our attempts to assume attention and acceptance in the adult world as literal blows to the heart, and stiffen, armoring our chests to protect our hearts. There can be a sense of betrayal since similar efforts at earlier times led to success. Now there is something wrong, and as a child we easily assume, "something wrong with me." Conscientious character structures can result in a basic conflict between freedom and surrender; surrender to love or surrender to rest and relaxation after a task is completed. We are restless and frustrated because we have experienced parental rebuffs as saying to us, "you are not quite good enough or important enough yet. I'll love you and include you when you are doing a better job or are more interesting." Kurtz outlines two main strategies we may choose at this point. If we have strong cortical control we may become disposed to action. We basically take up the challenge we feel, even though there is hurt and resentment. The philosophy of our belief system is something like, "I'll keep my freedom and protect my heart in the process by earning the love I need, by being a high achiever and engendering acclaim. Then they will want me with them." We orient around attempting to live up to expectations, to being good enough, to finding pleasure in performance instead of feeling good. Of course this can be a frustrating stratagem since parental expectations continually rise with our age and our own accomplishments. We are always living on the edge of our abilities, never totally accepted, and never quite able to rest completely. "You did great son. I'll bet next time you do even better!" So, we have this continual desire to get in there and prove something. "Ask me teacher! I know the answer." "Let me in coach. I can do it." Kurtz understands us to have a barrier to completion. There is always something more to do once one thing to accomplished; no time to rest, savor the moment, and reorient organically around the next need. This type of mobilization is quite adaptive in Western culture. We active conscientious children who center our lives around challenge major in strengths such as rationality, seriousness and a good work ethic. Sports and recreation are likewise serious competitive events. We grow up to be enterprising, competent achievers and overachievers who can handle high stress jobs. Although we have trouble with soft tender feelings, fearing the show of any weakness or stupidity, our strong individuality gives us a capacity for intimacy and developing strong attachments and friendships. When pastors are around us, they feel energized, stimulated, reality oriented, competitive and may wish there were a whole church full of us. We are the responsible competent doers and leaders a minister can count on. The CHURCH is not overflowing with us, however. Though it should not be a pre-requisite, a lot of us who have little sense of inadequacy, combined with a good sense of our own power and ability, choose not to go to church when that is a cultural option. A number of us who do go to church reveal a history that includes some incidents of pain and hurt that have shaken our conceptions of self-sufficiency. There is also an obsessive, highly moralistic variation on this disposition that has a good dose of conformity mixed in; people who lend themselves to the stereotype of the self-righteous Puritan. Since our basic needs have been pretty well met and we are struggling with a longing for more inclusion, a wondering if all our doing is going to get us what we want, and a corresponding desire to be, be whole, be fully welcomed home, and so forth, the natural disposition is toward the spirituality of World One. A second option in the conscientious predicament is to become disposed to reaction, especially perhaps for those with lower cortical control and/or stronger right brain dominance. Here the failure to get our wants for acceptance and attention filled, to not being heard, is met by upping the volume. There is a dread and fear that we are being ignored because we are lacking something or that something about us is unacceptable. The separation anxiety leads us to a renewed assault on the desired contact--this time with more: More of an air of crisis, urgency, drama, importance, and charged emotion, and perhaps less of whatever desire is thought to be suspect (sex, strength, competence, jealousy . . .) Those of us who take this path become very good at embellishing even trivial experiences, using superlatives, being theatrical, stimulating, interesting, warm, receptive, lavishing attention on others and making them feel important, all the while holding center stage. We seek full social schedules, and can become superb hosts and hostesses with an ability to handle many people effectively. Though we are normally conscientious and competent, as reactive people our thinking can decompose under interpersonal stress, become global, unfocused, emotional, and give rise to the response barrier associated with the stereotype of the hysterical female. Underneath the normal social graces and laughter is sadness and a longing to be accepted as we are without having to perform, and a fear of seeing in reality (insight barrier) that sometimes parents and others don't have time and quality attention to give us. Another variation stems from finding attention when we are sick or upset, but never when healthy and content. High quality friendships can be maintained through the years, but our love-lives are not always satisfactory. Though often active sexually, in fact or fantasy, the heart is protected and can be split off from sexual feelings. The classic example is one who may be married and doing sex as a performance with a person on one coast, while romantic heart attachments are safely placed with another on the opposite coast. There is a hunger for idealized relationships. However, the perfect mate who really measures up is never found. To sustain the energy and focus of the conscientious strategy it would be nice to be a Kelly sympathetic dominant type 4 or perhaps a balanced type 10. It is not that other types cant be formed conscientiously, but a heavily parasympathetic Kelly type 2 has a harder time taking refuge in action, as opposed to skillfully using personality to engage others in getting tasks done. In the CHURCH, as in the greater culture, those with reactive dispositions are more often female, though not necessarily so. They too gravitate toward World One, but with more interest in the participative aspects of the grandeur and drama of the liturgy, and more interest in the interpersonal aspects of church life. The characteristics listed above are mellowed into attractive, talented people that most pastors value highly, assuming they are not in conflict with them on some issue. All the conscientious variations have underlying anger for the conditional inclusion they perceive is theirs based only on adequate performance. There is a great capacity for hate and spite in some circumstances. Table 19. Summary of Factors Related to Conscientiousness Psycho-sexual Basic Kelly Type Cortical Character Designation Stage Conflict Jones Control GENITAL Freedom 4 (U) Conscientious-reactive vs. Surrender World 1 (O) Conscientious-active A common illusion of we who are conscientiously disposed is that we are very loving persons whose love is not appreciated. Words of grace to us, when they can get through our defenses, are things like, "You are perfect (OK) just the way you are, just the way God made you. You don't have to perform for me, to prove anything to me. You're lovable the way you are." To the active ones especially, "I'm on your side. It's OK to make mistakes." And to the reactives, "whatever you feel is OK. I won't push you away. I hear you. I believe you." Structural Dispositions It is quite clear in the Judeo-Christian tradition that existence is bodily existence, even in the resurrection. It is now commonplace to affirm a mind-body-spirit integration. It is not always clear how to go beyond this theoretical affirmation to indicate how the body-mind might be used in the praxis of ministry. The Hebrew scriptures, however, do contain the concrete suggestion that the structure of the body is actually molded by, and conforms to the inner spiritual-mental life of the person. This notion anticipated our modern, physiological knowledge that the voluntary musculature which affects posture is indeed under cortical control. The habitual, visible structure of the body (as well as corresponding internal physiological processes) reflects the inner configuration of one's core organizing beliefs. Sometimes the body reflects transient states and situations, as in our being somewhat slumped and down at the mouth because of the recent loss of a favorite uncle. However, when our structure is chronically aligned one way (a way which overrides the body's natural postural reflexes) -- our shoulders are high, neck tucked in, eyes bulged out -- whether we are getting up in the morning, having lunch, getting married, or going to play golf, then it is a good guess that we have some unconscious mind-set expressing itself in our posture. Maybe it is telling us that the world is a fearful place. Perhaps a part of us is braced against the possibility of something coming out of nowhere and hitting us at any moment. If we were in a group and the leader said, "Relax. Let the tension go out of your shoulders," we would relax, let out a sigh of relief, and possibly evoke laughter from the group when our shoulders remained a fraction away from our ear lobes. We don't know that we are still mobilized in an obviously un-relaxed way. Such muscular contractions are chronic and unconscious, just like the beliefs controlling them. It is important to underline the notion of "a good guess." By having a trained eye or by physically assuming the posture of another to see what it is like to live life in that kind of bodily configuration, a decent hunch can emerge about the mental-emotional issues required to bring a body into that specific carriage. However, there is no absolute correspondence between a displacement such as a head held forward and to the left, and some invariant psychological meaning. Any hunch about meaning always needs to be checked out empirically or held open for correction and modification as new information gathers. Plus, the possibility of any physical trauma needs to be considered. There is, however, a general, logical, organic connection between common core organizing beliefs and outer bodily manifestations of those beliefs. What follows are descriptions of the typical structural manifestations of the five main characterological dispositions delineated above. Of course, mixed dispositions would show mixed reflections in the body. The pictures produced in conjunction with the descriptions (Table 20.) show a progression of severity, or depth of the belief system, from a fairly normal body on the left to one demonstrating striking, classic embodiment of the characterological disposition on the right. The descriptions follow closely Kurtz's outline, which in turn owes a debt to the work of John Pierrakos, Alexander Lowen, and Wilhelm Reich. We who have Withdrawn dispositions are difficult to picture. There is not a main structural distortion as such. Rather, there is an overall tenseness or contraction revealed especially around our joints, diaphragm, eyes, and back of the skull. The more severe, the more uncoordinated or unintegrated our bodies appear. Even if we are a professional dancer, we will reveal a quality of mechanicalness, or programmed, precise learning as opposed to a more free, organic, natural type movement. Our face may appear somewhat blank, vacant, mask-like though our eyes may be tense and protruding, giving the impression we are alertly keeping track of what might be coming at us. The overall tension, which may result in an inflexibility or hyper-flexibility of the body, reveals our psychological strategy of withdrawal based on our belief that the world is not a place that welcomes our natural needs. The tension cuts us off from our own feelings and organic impulses, which have led us into trouble in the past. It keeps us alert and defended against forces in the outer world as well. It is hard to give shorthand handles that describe all of the above. For charting purposes (Table 22.), the withdrawn characterological dispositions most closely approximates what Thomas Hanna describes as a condition of somatic retraction in his book The Body of Life. The holding pattern is one of holding together against the threat of annihilation from inner and/or outer forces. The body is expressing a fear of falling apart. As withdrawn persons, we may literally panic if we relax and let go of our tension and holding. Table 20. Postural Correlates of Characterological Dispositions Structures of People Disposed to Longing Structure of Males Disposed to Self-Protection Structures of People Disposed to Conformity Structures of People Disposed to Active Conscientiousness Structures of Women Disposed to Reactive Conscientiousness _________________________________________________________________ Source: Ron Kurtz, The Body Reveals (New York: Harper & Row/Quicksilver, 1976), 129-134. If we have Longing dispositions, the body often slumps downward and is sometimes, but not always, thin. The head is forward, chest sunken, and knees locked. The overall impression is that we are somewhat weak, tired, dependent or undernourished. If we are more compensated, the locked knees and forward chin still usually give a clue to how we are organized. The rest of the body gives more of an overall impression of trying valiantly to pull itself up by its own bootstraps. Kurtz offers the image of a "gunslinger's" body, with feet spread wide, for the compensated variation. Our thrust forward head reveals the need to reach out for the nourishment we feel we were previously denied. The rounded shoulders normally have to do with a sense of hopelessness, and a lack of aggressiveness for moving toward what is wanted. The sunken chest and tension in the abdomen holds deep sadness and loneliness, blocks feelings of emptiness, and helps prevent the possibility of good energy flow by interfering with deep breathing. The locked knees are used to hold up the body because it is felt the normal musculature needs reinforcement. In reality the locked knees actually cut off the energy flow that is possible, thereby reinforcing our belief in being needy. Everyone who goes into military service is told not to lock the knees while standing at attention, in order to prevent feinting. In Hanna's system this is a manifestation of somatic collapse. Lowen points to a pattern of holding on against a fear of abandonment, of falling behind and being left. In Self-protective dispositions our entire body is mobilized and expanded upwards. This results in our upper body looking quite massive and overdeveloped in contrast to a narrow waist and thin legs that really don't look like they were meant to support so much superstructure. We often have accompanying tension in the head, neck, pelvis, and legs. The overall postural impression we give is of ones who are mobilized and prepared to protect ourselves, regardless of whether our immediate affect manifests smiling or scowling. The overall swelling up, or blowing up reveals our self-protective need to assert our strength, minimize our vulnerability, and head off the possibility of being manipulated. The tension in the pelvis and lower stomach help cut us off from organic needs as well as the capacity to be soft and tender. The tension in the head and neck reveal our belief that we need to be continually thinking and strategizing in relation to constantly perceived power plays and struggles of will. There are other variations in the structure of a self-protective body depending on what particular image of power it is conforming to; "beauty queen," "Greek god," jock, "jazz musician," "street fighter," "university man," "new age person of peace," etc. The configurations come closest to Hanna's somatic fixation, revealing an inability to face life directly, openly, flexibly. The body is holding up against the threat of dependency and being used. The fear is of falling down in a position of need, under the control of others. The bodies of those of us who reveal Conformist issues appear compressed. Tension in the flexor muscles roll the shoulders forward and down, along with the upper body, making the front part of the body shorter than the back. The pelvis is tucked up and under, making the buttocks flat and pulling the body back as well as down. The overall impression is that we are somehow stuck, carrying a heavy weight, burdened, or perhaps resisting an imagined force that is pushing us from behind. The sometimes heavily built, rolled forward shoulders, shortened front, and curved forward upper body reflect our inner sense of hopelessness, resignation, defeat and sadness. It effectively imprisons our feared anger and resentment, and the impulse to want to stand tall and proud. Our tucked in pelvis reveals a classic fear of being whipped, and a decision to follow orders. Our neck which is often shortened and pulled into the shoulder girdle also reflects a fear of "sticking one's neck out" and taking chances. Our jaw may be thick and tense, revealing effort and holding on. Hanna's somatic fixation is again the closest designation because we also have difficulty facing life realistically, and effectively responding to meet felt needs. We are generally holding things in because of a fear of being crushed or crushing others if we let it all hang out. Likewise, our fear is of the bottom falling out, resulting in our repressed spite, superiority, and desire to resist being moved leading us into disastrous confrontations and consequences. If we are Conscientious folks, we have come through the early developmental period in relative good shape and our bodies don't reveal obvious distortions. In the active variation we simply display a general overall tension, more pronounced in the extensor muscles, that curve our bodies slightly backward. At the same time we are often leaning slightly forward overall (resulting in chronic lower back pain for some) with our pelvis and buttocks held out and back. Our neck and shoulders are often held stiffly and the chest tends to stay inflated. The overall impression we give is of those who are mobilized around being ready, at attention, good soldiers, slightly frustrated, or challenging an imaginary force in front that is preventing us from going forward. A strong jaw often reveals determination and assertiveness, plus the ability to hold back fear and the impulse to cry. Broad shoulders, thrown slightly back, plus the overall tension or readiness which includes the neck, indicate our willingness to assume responsibility, be a (grown up) leader, and maintain the aggressiveness required for consistent achievement. Inflated chests hold sadness and longing, especially for tenderness, while giving the outward impression of pride, strength, and independence. While our buttocks are often well rounded and proportioned, showing a capacity for physical pleasure, the pelvis can be locked in that back position, frustrating us sexually because of an inability to yield in this area to free flowing, spontaneous movement. In the case of the reactive version of the conscientious predicament, which most often applies to women in Western culture, the main structural manifestation is an upper-lower body split. The bottom half of the body is larger and more developed than the rest of the body from the waist up. The impression given is of a doll-like or girlish quality above the waist, with a full sensual womanly quality below. Many men are attracted to this type of woman, and artists such as Titian and Renoir have preferred them as models. The upper part of the body which is tight around the shoulders and chest area is often meant to protect the heart from the possibility of emotional hurt and rejection. The pinned in arms prevent them from expressing anger and hurt, as well as reaching out for the love and acceptance that is both desired and feared. The wide ample pelvis compensates for the blocked heart feelings, providing the capacity for warmth, womanliness, and mothering. What Hanna calls somatic lateralization, which involves an over development of one aspect of the personality, fits the conscientious character configuration. The holding pattern is back, against the threat of betrayal, rejection, or ridicule if we let go, surrendering to the vulnerability of love or the foolishness of spontaneous, joyful action. The fear is of falling forward; uncontrollably, spontaneously into the abyss of an unknown, un-guaranteed response in a relationship. Sometimes it is the fear of falling on our face in relation to some task. Interactions and Implications for Ministry Interactions The various metabolic and historical dimensions outlined above can be viewed as factors that dispose us toward various characterological strategies in life. The structural manifestations that evolve are factors that cement in or help to keep our world views stable and disposed in a consistent direction. It is very difficult to assume a posture that blows us up, with stomach, chest, shoulders, and head all mobilized upward, and say convincingly, "I'm a nobody." That posture more easily supports and projects the image of being a somebody. The structure of the body as well as internal tensions and physiological responses provide feedback loops which inform the imagination that old circumstances are still in play. Although there are proponents who can persuasively argue the contrary view, the position taken repeatedly in this paper is that it is inappropriate to point to any one disposition and maintain that it is the central and/or singular causative element which should be given top billing in a therapeutic regime; whether metabolism, intra-psychic conflict, body armoring, family dynamics, or social factors. Each determinant disposes a person in a certain direction and the interactions can be quite complex and non-linear. Wilbers four-quadrant analysis remains the most satisfactory, clinically and theoretically. For instance, highly sympathetic dominant Kelly type ones, who have a fine tuned sensitivity that magnifies all external inputs, are disposed for this reason toward experiencing the world harshly, and perhaps developing withdrawn character strategies. Or, they could be treated quite fairly and evenly while growing up. With the proper intelligence and training their unusual energy capacity could be channeled into creative work that has them heading their own businesses at an early age. If a person has a charged sympathetic dominant metabolism which ends up supporting an active conscientious character strategy with a corresponding rigid structural armoring, it does not mean the person is predetermined to never fall in love or learn to relax. It just means the noise level is up in the system, and the signals of such needs as rest and romance have a lot of static interference to get through. A person may yet become heart-sick, cash in their stocks and bonds, and head out on a sailboat around the world with their spouse, or become a contemplative hermit. Seeing a pastoral psychotherapist, making a move, having a close friend die, changing diets, receiving therapeutic massage, having adrenal functions collapse, or all of these together, might contribute to the change. The interactions are unpredictable, and lead to non-determined emergent qualities. As we have been maintaining, we are creative agents when we organize (even though largely unconsciously) all our dispositions into a unified way of understanding and operating in the world. When the need arises, we retain that creative capacity of heart or soul from being made in the image of God, to use in re-organizing ourselves along more satisfying, grace-full lines. This capacity is generally in bondage to some kind of fear, but can be accessed and empowered through grace for synergistic cooperation with the movement of the Spirit. Spiritual direction, in general, can help us slow down, switch into non-ordinary states of consciousness in order to discern both how we are enslaved through our habitual patterns, and what direction God wants to lead us in. It should be noted that growth beyond characterological rigidities which organize out real possibilities in life, could all be done in the service of the individualistic self-realization associated with the triumph of the therapeutic, which circa 1970s pastoral care was criticized for being at the mercy of. Whether this growth were done in the service of self-transcendence would depend on whether the Spirit was invoked in the therapy and whether the persons inmost self (Paul, Romans 7) was accessed and mobilized in a way that supported the move from the image of God to the likeness of God within a community of faith. Again, more about the how of how a grace-centered therapy aimed at self-transcendence might look would be the subject of another effort. The next chart labeled "Dispositions to Character" arranges various dispositions, considered in the logical manner they naturally fit, in terms of how they would reinforce each other in a maximal way. That they would line up in a congruent way, of course, is a mythical assumption which has to be checked out empirically with each person. The psycho-social developmental scheme of Erik Erikson and the separation-individuation scheme of the Object-Relations school are included, even though they have not been mentioned in the text, because of their familiarity to many in the pastoral theology field. It should be noted that the dispositions dealt with in this section all highlight metabolic imbalances, developmental fixations, and structural distortions. While we have been emphasizing the normality of the whole process, it still might look like there are no good choices when shopping among the dispositions. Even Loveingers Autonomous and Integrated characters, which go off the chart, have problems of their own. So, although we can identify to a certain extent with all the dispositions, it is good to remember that there is also a condition of relative metabolic and spiritual balance. And , it is possible to come to the place of making peace with our various characterological dispositions to imbalance. Again, the tradition affirms that we can seek God, even as we are being sought, no matter what our condition is. People far off of balance such as Jacob, Moses, Judith, Peter, Martha, Paul, and Boisen were all used in powerful ways by the Spirit, though this does not constitute an excuse for not seeking to grow in grace. As noted earlier, when we do grow in grace, it is never a cause for boasting, and never gets us closer to the Divine. We are simply cautioning here again against the dangers of getting caught in pathological thinking. Implications The subtitle of this section could well have been "Why be an imperialist?" If the premise is accepted that character is multiply derived and maintained, then clearly it is to the benefit of anyone seeking healing and growth to be worked with on multiple levels at once. Unless a clergy-person or religious practitioner is incredibly multi-talented, and also refuses to live in community with others, this implies that working cooperatively with an inter-disciplinary team is a first choice. To give an example: A parishioner might be involved in a complex of factors that reinforce a longing-seeking character strategy that is interfering with her spiritual quest for self-transcendence. She has a low-grade, ongoing depression, and appears unable to take in the interpersonal-social nourishment that is realistically available to her. While, the previous section on interactions simply assumed individual therapy issues were evident, the clear implication of our four-quadrant approach, however, would be to always include a cultural-social analysis of external factors, before moving to work with individual ones. It is unethical to simply start working with an individual with the unchallenged, uninvestigated assumption that it is solely or predominantly an individual issue. This would be a pure and simply, conscious or unconscious, move to support the status quo, which any comprehensive type of spirituality would not assume to be in congruence with the realm of God on earth. For instance, is this person depressed because: she is an immigrant from Afghanistan where there is a cultural disposition to not grieve; a person over fifty who just lost her job to someone right out of school; a Native American woman who has been forced to move from a reservation to the city; a black woman recently promoted to a level which stretches her abilities in a basically all-white company; a mother of three whose children are all through college and out of the home; a single mother of two who is both working full-time and running a household; a former farm woman who was forced off the land by urban sprawl and is now sitting behind a computer; or any other of a number of scenarios. All of these scenarios imply significant cultural-social (IC-EC) factors that need to be sorted out, named, and evaluated before any individual work proceeds. It could well be that individual work is quite helpful in the context of relating to these larger considerations, but which dispositions are affecting the person in which ways needs to be carefully acknowledged. Otherwise, the work proceeds under the hypnotic suggestion that any and all progress has to do with the individuals autonomous growth and power, an assumption that clearly denies the holonic character of life-in-community. Also, if this longing person were in a relationship with a self-protective spouse who encourages dependency, the couple would need to be seen conjointly or risk the future dissolution of the marriage when the basis for their original togetherness shifted due to the therapy. There might also be larger family dynamics impinging on the nuclear family that need to be dealt with. If part of the reason the spouse has developed a self-protective stance is that he is a member of an oppressed minority, or ethnic immigrant group, that cultural issue with all its ramifications would need to be addressed. Since the person is a woman, there are political, economic forces impinging on her simply by virtue of being a woman in America. She might need to become part of a political action group that strives to make structural changes in society as part of both her healing and that of the culture. If a person is a member of a faith community, specific ways of strengthening her connections with that communion, and perhaps the use of healing rituals might be appropriate. On the social level, it might also be good to encourage the person to become part of support, and service-oriented groups where there is a measure of mutual give and take in the context of increased community. On the intra-psychic therapy level of right belief, once it is clear that that level of work is appropriate, a pastor would ultimately like to help her access that level of consciousness where core organizing beliefs control the way she perceives and responds to life. This is the level of basic faith. In the case of one with a disposition to longing, it might be the level where she realizes affectively and cognitively that she does not believe anybody is there for her in life. The pastoral therapist then wants to help her develop a more Christian imagination, to help her "be transformed through the renewal of their mind." This might entail helping her reorient around the more nourishing, realistic belief that there is support available in this life, from at least some people, some of the time; like the minister at that very moment, for instance, as well as from a variety of trustworthy persons within the congregation. On the spiritual level she would also be exploring the reality that Jesus is Immanuel, God-with-her-and-for-her, even and especially, in the depths of her brokenness and pain.  It might be helpful if she could cultivate the feminine aspect of the Spirit being with her as Presence, Counselor, Friend. It would be much easier for this parishioner to go in these new directions if her diet were not pushing her into alkaline slumps or sugar depressions that physically reinforce feelings of tiredness, weakness, and a lack of strengthening resources. Metabolic doctors, technicians, nutritionists, etc. can be consulted who can help identify offending foods and develop more acid residue diets and appropriate supplementation programs that give new physical energy and vitality. In a similar way, longing coping patterns manifest structurally in slumped chests, locked knees, hanging chins, etc. Various body workers might do manipulations and deep tissue work that help this person free up the movement of the chest so that there is better breathing. The increased oxygen available through this means and through various movement and exercise therapies also has an acidifying effect metabolically. This would give her more energy and dispose her in a direction away from feeling undernourished and helpless. Feldenkrais work would also be good since it frees up bodily grace and movement as well as makes people think and analyze how they organize their movements in satisfying or non-satisfying ways before they move. This might serve to strengthen the cortical control sometimes noted to be weak in longing personalities. The overall point is that it is important to persons experiencing alienation, pain, bondage, and sin in Gods world that multiple factors receive adequate, fair, and coordinated attention in healing communities and regimens. The Spirit is only fully honored by attempts to specifically bring grace of bear through four quadrant approaches to healing which address a persons full humanity. This, of course, would be utterly impossible within the confines of a private practitioners solitary consultation room. The God of All Creation: Expanding Circles A character or an individual is, as we have maintained, a holon. This translates into being a living organic system composed of a number of sub-systems (atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs) which exists within the context of a number of supra-systems, (family, church, community, nation, world, universe.) Each sub-system is dependent for its life on its surrounding systems, while each system has, within limits, a measure of independence from both sub-systems and supra-systems, a mind of its own which has the capacity to be self-directing and self-correcting, as we have established in line with Wilbers twenty tenets. The bad news is that there are more factors and more complexity than any one pastor or community of faith can hope to deal with. The Realm of God is far off. The good news is that changing just one part of the system can have profound reverberations (or causation) upward or downward throughout the interdependent mesh of systems. For instance, a father who is miserable, and helping his family be the same, is treated for hypoglycemia when it is discovered (just after the last examiner recommended a psychiatrist.) He goes on to finish a doctorate, has good energy for his family, and makes some profound contributions to society. The bad news is that every situation is unique and cook book recipes for making grace specific in a mechanical way can not be relied upon. The good news is that the healing community in this world can learn more and more from its members about the universal factors which create separation and distress within our lives, as well as identify the individual differences which make each situation unique. We can at least have confidence that it is good to move in the direction of encouraging specific grace for healing and growth. The best news is that though we need to be responsible, we do not need to worry overmuch. We are not in absolute and/or ultimate control. The witness of the tradition we have traced is that there is a larger, grace-full Spirit at work throughout the long sweep of history, as well as in the micro-processes we engage in that persuades things in the direction of healing, the direction of the spiritual quest for increased agency-in-communion. Throughout the never-ending, multi-contextual pastoral task of making grace specific, from sub-systems to supra-systems, we celebrate grace, listen for its leading, and benefit from the discernment of the local, world-wide, and history-long community of faith which lives by it. An Empirical Comparative Study A comparative study has been initiated to assess the correlational thesis between Jones five Theological Worlds and the five ways of viewing the world characterologically. A World View Self-Rating Inventory (Appendix D.) was created to give numerical ratings for the five characterological worlds which can be compared with the ratings on the Theological Worlds Inventory (Appendix C.) More study and research needs to be done to assess validity and reliability, and more data needs to be gathered from people willing to complete both inventories. A preliminary study with mostly white, female Americans with college degrees promises to yield a mild correlation. As suggested earlier, this would be expected since there is no absolute causation between personality organization and cultural choices, and because doing a more comprehensive study would involve inventories from the behavioral and social quadrants as well. Asking for gender, age, educational background, and ethnic heritage and/ nationality yields some data (Appendix E.). Much more would be needed to assemble a more complete array of dispositions. TABLE 21. Dispositions to Character A. HISTORICAL CONSTITUTIONAL Psycho- Psycho- sexual social Basic Conflict (Separation- A N S Cortical Stage Stage Individuation) Dominance Control TRUST (U) TACTILE Highly vs. EXISTENCE VS. NEED (autistic Sympathetic attachment) Type 1 MISTRUST (O) (symbiotic differentiating) (U) ORAL Mildly para- NEED VS. INDEPENDENCE sympathetic Type 5 (O) (practicing) (U) ANAL AUTONOMY Split (1) INDEPENDENCE VS. CLOSENESS Type vs. 4-5 (rapprochement crisis) (O) SHAME & DOUBT INITIATIVE (U) ANAL CLOSENESS VS FREEDOM Highly para- (2) sympathetic vs. Type 2 (O) (object GUILT constancy) (U) INDUSTRY GENITAL vs. FREEDOM VS. SURRENDER Mildly INFERIORITY sympathetic Type 4 (O) (Identity vs. Role Confusion) (Intimacy vs. Isolation) (Generativity vs. Stagnation) TABLE 22. Dispositions to Character B. PREDICAMENT STRUCTURAL WORDS OF GRACE Disposition to Holding (Barrier) and Pattern Character Theological Hanna (Fear of Designation World Type Falling) WITHDRAWN, (W,s & W,f)="You are welcome Scattered here; I'm glad you are here; you withdraw Somatic Together are a child of God; you may (insight) Retraction (Apart) be kind to yourself, befriending WITHDRAWN all that is within, befriending Focused World Five the Christ within." LONGING, (L,s & L,c)="I'll be here for you. Seeking 'I am with you until the end of collapse Somatic On time.' You can get what you need. (nourishment) Collapse (Behind) You don't have to be weak to LONGING, receive." (L,c)="It is OK to need. Compensated World Three You don't have to do it all alone. SELF PROTECTIVE, (SP,i,c,& p)="You are my Persuasive friend.' I respect and (or impulsive) suppress Somatic Up appreciate you. I don't want (nourishment Fixation (Down) power over you. It is OK to & response) be vulnerable and hurt as SELF PROTECTIVE, well as strong and Commanding World Two courageous; I won't use them against you." CONFORMING, (C,u & C,r)="You are accepted Unresigned and loved just the way you are, resist Somatic In by grace not works. You don't (Response) Fixation (Out) have to be anything you are not CONFORMING, for me. Your life belongs to you. Resigned World Four There is hope." CONSCIENTIOUS, (CS,r & CS,a)="You are perfect Reactive (OK) just the way you are, just the action- Somatic Back way God made you. You don't have reaction Lateralization (Forward) to prove anything." (CS,a)=I'm on CONSCIENTIOUS your side. It's OK to make Active (completion) mistakes. World One (CS,r)=Whatever you feel is OK. I won't push you away. I hear you; believe you. Nancy J. Ramsay, Pastoral Diagnosis: A Resource for Ministries of Care and Counseling (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998). We are also in the spirit of Frank Lakes Clinical Theology here. It was unfortunate that his work was ignored in the sixties in part because of his use of standard psychiatric categories, even though he approached them in a thoroughly evangelical Anglican way with high-level compassion, as opposed to clinical distance and objectification. Today, with the omni-present DSM IV, his efforts are worth another look. See Jennings, Introduction, 148ff. Boyce, "Pastoral Theology Today," 31-41. Scharfenberg, "The Babylonian Captivity, 125-134. See Johanson, "The Psychotherapist as Faith Agent," 71ff. See Oden, Grace. See Oden, Care of Souls. Again, since it is true for both pastor and parishioner, client and therapist that we all organize our world in unique ways, the implication for a healing relationship is that it be approached in an intersubjective way that assumes this truth. See Stolorow, Psychoanalytic Treatment. Ramsay, Pastoral Diagnosis, 201. It is always dangerous to make a generalization such as "issues we all go through." In America we have been highly culture-bound when discussing development and therapy. It is good to keep cultural issues in mind through studying such books as Augsburger's Pastoral Counseling Across Cultures and Derald Wing Sue and David Sue's, Counseling the Culturally Different, Luis A. Vargas and Joan D. Koss-Chioino, eds., Working with Culture: Psychotherapeutic Interventions with Ethnic Minority Children and Adolescents (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992), Monica McGoldrick, John Pearce, and Joseph Giordano, Ethnicity & Family Therapy (New York: Guilford Press, 1982), and the others referenced in footnotes above. See Ephesians 4. See articles on "Sin" and "Grace" in The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, (New York: Abingdon Press, 1962) or the Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1964). Paul Watzlawick, Ph.D., John Weakland,., and Richard Fisch, M.D., Change: Principles of Problem Formation and Problem Resolution (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1974), 1. Paul Watzlawick, Janet H. Beavin, and Don D. Jackson, Pragmatics of Human Communication: A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies and Paradoxes (New York: W. W. Norton, 1967), 232-236. Watzlawick, Change, 22. Watzlawick, Change, 9ff. Watzlawick, Change, 24. See Theodore Millon, Disorders of Personality DSM-III: Axis II (New York: John Wiley, 1981), 6ff. Kurtz, Body-Centered Psychotherapy: The Hakomi Therapy. See Michael J. Mahoney, Human Change Processes: The Scientific Foundations of Psychotherapy (New York: Basic Books, 1991). Lawrence LeShan's caution should be observed here, that no mechanical model of a human, computer or otherwise, is adequate to express the essence of humanness. See his The Dilemma. Richard Byrne, C.S.P., "Beyond Arrival and Survival," A Seminar Paper for the 17th Biennial of The American Theological Field Educators, January 1983, San Antonio, Texas. Two other interesting approaches are Jerome Kagan, How We Become Who We Are, Family Therapy Networker Vol. 22 No. 5 (September/October, 1998): 52-63, and Robert Kegan, The Evolving Self: Problem and Process in Human Development (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1982). Again, what follows in relation to the basic scheme of relating metabolic, historical, and structural aspects of character is derived from and dependent on the work of Kurtz referenced above in Body-centered Psychotherapy: The Hakomi Method and also in his previous work The Body Reveals written with Hector Prestera, M.D. for Harper and Row, 1976. However, within the overall schema, I have adjusted the names, positionings, and relationships of some variables in accordance with my own experience and study, and for use in translating the concepts into a pragmatically useful form for Christian ministry. Kurtz therefore should not be judged for any shortcomings in the final arrangement of the chart "Dispositions to Character." Karl R. Popper and John C. Eckles, The Self and Its Brain (New York: Springer International, 1981). See also Barbara Englers discussion of traits and various kinds of dispositions in her Personality Theories: An Introduction, 3rd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991), 278-281. One deciding factor for choosing characterologies to draw from in the historical dispositions section, is that they were historically-developmentally based. If a characterological disposition is formed at least in part through historical circumstances, the implication is that it can be modified in the present. Thus, the popular and helpful Jungian types in the Myers-Briggs test are not used because they represent more genetically hard-wired aspects of our personality. We are more or less born with dispositions to introversion and extroversion. It would be interesting, however, to map in these factors along with the others dealt with, but that is not done here. Likewise, the influential work of Theodore Millon is not referenced since he uses more of a philosophical grid to come up with his personality types, as opposed to a developmental logic. Here I am thinking of the egalitarian notion that everyone is born equal with the same basic endowments and opportunities in these United States of America; also, the strong influence of behaviorism represented in Watson's claim that he could take any child and make him/her into a thief or a president. Add the strong moralistic strain that sees everyone where they are because they have chosen to be there and should be obliged to live with it. Kelly was working out of the International Health Institute in Dallas, Texas but is now retired. His work is now centered in the office of Nicholas Gonzalez, M.D. 737 Park Ave., New York, NY 10021 (212) 535-3993. Kelly is used here for illustrative purposes. There are numerous approaches to metabolic typology. For instance, Deepak Chopra, M.D. has introduced the types of Ayurvedic Medicine to Westerners in his many works. For another approach to the metabolic basis of personality see Jean-Didier Vincent, The Biology of Emotions (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990). William Sheldon developed a system of physical measurements which systematized three dimensions of body constitutions which gave clues to corresponding general temperaments. Viscerotonia was associated with extreme endomorphy, a predominance of gut tissue; somatonia with extreme mesomorphy, a predominance of muscle tissue, and cerebrotonia with extreme ectomorphy, a predominance of nervous system tissue. Perhaps the time has come to resurrect Sheldon who did a tremendous amount of research but fell into disfavor when his system did not yield the precision in predictability initially hoped for. Even if he did not delineate the "one and only" dimension of character, he might be seen as having researched one dimension that has its importance in an overall scheme which recognizes character as multiply derived. See especially his Varieties of Delinquent Youth. Creative underlining, bolding, etc. will be used in this section to make it easier to track the repeating issues which will appear in Tables 21-22. Frank Lake, Tight Corners; Al Pesso, "The Effects of Pre- and Perinatal Trauma," Hakomi Forum Vol. 8 (Winter 1990); Stanislav Grof, The Adventure of Self-Discovery, (Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, 1988), and others point out that the origin can be intrauterine. See the section "A Characterology" in Lowen's Bioenergetics found in the chapter Pleasure: A Primary Orientation," (New York: Penguin Books, 1975). For greater depth see his Physical Dynamics of Character Structure put out in paperback form as The Language of the Body (New York: Collier Books, 1958). Here, and throughout this discussion of basic dispositions to character, the assumption is that whatever conditions gave rise to a persons way of organizing experience, that they are no longer omni-present. It is assumed that the person is not able to recognize a new situation as new, that they need grace in order to receive new eyes to see, and to escape the bondage of compulsively repeating old, now outdated patterns. The intent is never to take away any valuable lesson or defense a person has learned, but to expand agency-in-communion through integrating newer, wider, deeper connections. If the original conditions still pertained, the intent and dynamics of pastoral care would change considerably. Do consult, Body-centered Psychotherapy by Ron Kurtz for a graceful, paradoxically powerful approach to characterological therapy for religious or secular practitioners. Grace Unfolding by Johanson and Kurtz offers a non-technical understanding of what can be done written from the a counselees point of view. There are many other fine approaches: The Psychomotor Movement of Pesso and Boiden, the Internal Family Systems approach of Richard S. Schwartz, the Process work of Arnie Mendell, the Focusing movement of Eugene Gendlin for instance. For those wanting to read more character material, the following provide an array of perspectives that support the general point: Kurtz, Hakomi Therapy; Lowen, Bioenergetics and Language of the Body; David Shapiro, Neurotic Styles (Basic Books, NY, 1965); Theodore Millon, Disorders of Personality; Jane Loevinger, Ego Development: Conceptions and Theories (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1976); Sheldon B. Kopp, If You Meet the Buddha on the Road, Kill Him! (Ben Lomond: Science and Behavior Books, 1972); W. Hugh Missildine, M.D., Your Inner Child of the Past (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1963); Erik H. Erikson, Childhood and Society (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1950); Roger A. MacKinnon, M.D. and Robert Michels, M.D., The Psychiatric Interview in Clinical Practice (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1971); Wilhelm Reich, Character Analysis (New York:, A Touchstone Book, 1963); Althea J. Horner, Object Relations and the Developing Ego in Therapy (New York: Jason Aronson, 1979); Margaret S. Mahler, Fred Pine, Anni Bergman, The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant (New York: Basic Books, 1975); Stephen M. Johnson, Characterological Transformation: The Hard Work Miracle (New York: W. W. Norton, 1985); Wayne E. Oates, Behind the Masks: Personality Disorders in Religious Behavior (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1987), and Vaughan, Pastoral Counseling and Personality Disorders. See his seminal work Childhood and Society. Characterological theories based purely on the influence of the first seven years or so cannot predict how a person could be normal in every way and come back from Viet Nam with a series of serious problems. Erikson's work which sees development occurring throughout a lifetime and places the solidification of identity right around military draft age does a much more satisfying job. Whether one conceptualizes it in terms of spiritual formation or psychological character development, the same phenomenon is occurring in terms of coloring the imagination. The interface of religious and psychological therapies is at the point of healing the imagination as is outlined in my "The Psychotherapist as Faith Agent." Although it is a worthy effort to keep psychology and spiritual formation separate to discourage psychological reductionism, the way we color our imaginations is crucial to faith ministries, and must be addressed in every way possible. That those disposed to conforming are the majority within the churches is changing according to some observers. The WWII generation who lived through the depression and were raised more coercively with corporal punishment, but at the same time with closer family and neighborhood relationships, were part and parcel of a culture which supported a good deal of conformity. However, today parents have in many ways switched physical coercion for psychological manipulation, applauded the expression of power and pride, been absented from closer connections with their children through increased work responsibilities, and more often than their own parents, have left children in non-invested and/or electronic baby-sitting situations. This is a culture more likely to breed self-protection than conformity, and to not entertain church membership as much in the first place. Again, there are cross-cultural cautions here. In some traditional African cultures, it is not the father so much as the elder brother. See E. Mavis Hetherington and Ross D. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint, 2nd Edition, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1979), 581-586. In an ultimate Biblical sense people are perfect and OK just the way they are. Their sin has to do with a denial of the goodness of God's creation in them which leads to attempts at being their own god and re-creating themselves and their world more to their comfort; justifying themselves by works This is not OK. So, the popular adage, "I'm OK, you're OK", is both true and subject to great falsity. See especially Hans Walter Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1974) as well as Rudolf Bultmann, Theology of the New Testament (New York: Charles Scribners, 1951), paragraph 17 "Soma", paragraph 22 "Flesh", and 23 "Flesh and Sin". The reader can experiment with the reality of the mind-body interface by voluntarily stiffening the neck and tensing the chest muscles overlaying the heart. Then check inner awareness to determine if it now seems more natural to be compassionate and understanding, haughty and unforgiving, or something else. This experiment in awareness moves from the body to the mind. Reverse it to go from the mental organization to the bodily manifestation. Take two different attitudes such as, "Life is a fight you had better be prepared to win," and "Life is a wonder to be enjoyed." Notice that it takes different structural mobilizations to support and make believable one attitude over the other. Those interested in more about body psychology can see Ron Kurtz, The Body Reveals (New York: Harper & Row/Quicksilver Books, 1976); Ken Dychtwald, Body-Mind (New York: A Jove Book, 1978); Stanley Keleman, Your Body Speaks Its Mind (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1975), Christine Caldwell, ed., Getting in Touch: The Guide to New Body-Centered Therapies (Wheaton: Quest Books, 1997), Gay Hendricks and Kathlyn Hendricks, At the Speed of Light: A New Approach to Personal Change through Body-Centered Psychotherapy (New York: Bantam, 1993), and Michael Murphy, The Future of the Body: Explorations Into the Further Evolution of Human Nature (Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher, 1992). The pictures are produced courtesy of Ron Kurtz who first developed them in conjunction with his book The Body Reveals. Thomas Hanna, The Body of Life (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980). Holding patterns and fear of falling are Lowen's concepts found in Bioenergetics and other of his books. The fear of falling certain directions is both symbolic and literal. This description applies to average Caucasians in America. A number of African-Americans carry this posture genetically, and not because of a psychological overlay. Cross-cultural perspectives should always be kept in mind. Rodney J. Hunter, Moltmanns Theology of the Cross and the Dilemma of Contemporary Pastoral Care in Theodore Runyon, ed., Hope For the Church: Moltmann In Dialogue with Practical Theology (Nashville: Abingdon, 1979) argued that in the late 1970s certain basic and widely accepted principles of modern pastoral care (p. 83) simply assumed a simple faith in the natural order (p. 87) which promoted what we have termed a World Three limited approach to healing and wholeness in terms of self-realization. Ministry was less one of eschatological hope against hope than a ministry of natural process. (p. 88) While pastoral care and counseling students were taught an exquisite sensitivity and openness to the moment, Hunter says the question became whether our openness functions in a context of openness to God--the crucified God who is coming to live and reign through the power of the Spirit. (p. 88) This is precisely the problem of contemporary pastoral care. Our very creed of openness to human experience either incorporates the divine into the human and the natural, making God the idolatrous extension of the human ego, in our own image, or abandons any concern about God whatsoever--or at least concern about Gods Godness, or otherness, over against our experience. Thus we have a ministry of the church falling victim to every fad and fancy of the psychoculture, from psychoanalysis to psychodrama, from TA to touch-feely forms of encounter--all of which may offer something valuable to ministry--but non of which necessarily constitutes a ministry of faith. If pastoral care is to find its true identity, it must find its true God, the God of the cross and the resurrection, and conduct its ministry in the situation of the crucified God in the power of the Spirit. (p. 89) By Hunters analysis it would be at least a debatable question whether such efforts as Paul E. Hopkins, Pastoral Counseling as Spiritual Healing: A Credo, Journal of Pastoral Care Vol. 53 No. 2 (Summer 1999): 145-152 went beyond the limitations of seventies pastoral care or not, even though the word spiritual is being invoked in a sincere way. See Edward P. Wimberly, African American Pastoral Care, (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1991). See Augsburger, Pastoral Counseling Across Cultures. See Dorothy E. Smith, The Everyday World As Problematic: A Feminist Sociology, (Boston: Northeastern Univ. Press, 1987). See Malidoma Patrice Some', Ritual: Power, Healing and Community (Portland: Swan/Raven & Company, 1993), and Elaine Ramshaw, Ritual and Pastoral Care. See especially the work of Frank Lake, Clinical Theology. For feminist perspectives and sensitivities in pastoral care see Elizabeth A. Johnson, She Who Is, Valerie M. DeMarinis, Critical Caring, and the many other references above. Following are a listing of some of the therapies that the writer is aware of that have been beneficial to himself and/or others. A cautionary note to keep in mind is that any individual practitioner regardless of credentials or lack thereof, must be checked out individually for competence and helpfulness, as hard as this may seem for those who feel they are not qualified. Metabolic Therapies: Kelly's work through the Gonzalez NYC clinic has already been referenced above. Regular M.D.'s might or might not have an understanding of diet and supplementation possibilities. There is a better percentage chance that they will if their name is supplied by the American Wholistic Medical Association, Route 2 Welsh Coulee, Lacrosse, Wisconsin, 54601. Local chiropractors, naturopaths, nutritionists, etc. may also be consulted. I personally check out chiropractors to see if they have had additional training in nutrition and have been through such courses sponsored by the International College of Applied Kinesiology, 542 Michigan Building, Detroit, Michigan 48226. I also seek out Doctors of Osteopathy who have more than the usual interest in nutrition and who have been trained through the Cranial Academy, 1140 West 8th St., Meridan, Iowa 83642. Structural Therapies: Tragering is a hands on body therapy where the client gives over the movement of his or her joints to the practitioner. It is a nice gentle, non-violent approach that seems to somehow confuse the nervous system and free the body from putting restraints on where the mind and spirit wants to go. Trager Institute, 300 Poplar, Suite 5, Mill Valley, CA 94941. Feldenkrais is another wonderfully gentle, mindful, non-violent approach through either movement exercises or hands on tissue work that can have profound healing effects both on direct physical problems and mental life. The Feldenkrais Guild, 1776 Union St., San Francisco, CA 94123. Rolfing is a form of deep tissue work that literally changes the structure of the body. The psychological changes that accompany the work can be both powerful, fast, and scary. My own prejudice is that Rolfing is best undertaken when the practitioner or another counselor can help process the psychological material evoked. Mind-Body Therapies: Hakomi therapists use the body as well as verbal material to help people access core organizing beliefs. Some practitioners are also schooled in direct body work techniques and some refer to others when such work is indicated. See Hakomi Institute referenced above. Lomi therapists combine direct deep tissue work with Gestalt and other psychological methods. Lomi Foundation, PO Box 4127, Boulder, CO 80306. Psychological Therapies: There are endless numbers of psychological therapies that pastoral counselors and other mental health professionals employ. The best thing that is happening in the counseling world today is that the rigid walls between various schools of thought are coming down and some very good practitioners are emerging who have benefited from training in a variety of therapies. For good discussions of systems theory see Buerlein, Schwartz and Kune-Karrer, Meta-Frameworks, A.C. Robin Skynner, Systems of Family and Marital Psychotherapy, (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1976); Gregory Bateson, Mind and Nature; Linda Olds, Metaphors of Interrelatedness; and a host of others on the market. See May, Care of Mind, Care of Spirit, for a World One perspective on this, Leech, Spirituality and Pastoral Care for a World Two approach, and so on. The reader is free to use or pass on to others the Theological and World View Inventories in Appendices C. and D. in any way desired. If you, the reader, are a clinician familiar with the characterological material outlined within, you are invited to participate in the ongoing validity study of the World View Self-Rating Inventory (Appendix D.) by using the Validation Study Worksheet in Appendix E. If you, the reader, or anyone else you know would like to contribute data to this ongoing study through completing both inventories in Appendices C. and D., please use the Inventory Taker Data Information & Summary Score Sheet in Appendix E. Any and all results and comments can be forward to Gregory J. Johanson, c/o Drew Graduate School, Madison, New Jersey 07940.     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