ࡱ> #` bjbj ;kT'zzzL<@M@M@M8xMMbpNN"NNNWWWViXiXiXiKi l o$qhszpz]5U\Wz]z]pNNWphhhz]2NNVihz]Vihhh NN FCģ@MeDhhl2p0bphsgpshsh WsYXhZ[WWWpp`h^WWWbpz]z]z]z]D@M@M  CHAPTER X SUMMARY REFLECTION ON THE RECENT DIALOGUE OF SPIRITUALITY AND PASTORAL CARE Spirituality rejoices in the interdependence of all things. In fact, spirituality . . . may be defined as the art of making connections; connections not only between individuals, but also between communities and nations. Its raison detre is for the celebration of unity in unimaginable diversity; of a transcendent meaning that holds all things together and gives us hope; of what the old theologians would have called the divine coinherence. The process of caregiving can be sacred ground. The care giver and the one cared for can become channels of grace for each other. By being with others in their pain we can stay in touch with our own struggles. In such settings we can see the breaking of Gods grace into our lives. Although often limited by me, I see my role as a caregiver as being a facilitator and supporter of Gods grace. . . . Ultimately, healing and survival depend on existential categories: on vision, for example, on hope, on the imaginative capacity, on a response to challenge that treats crisis as opportunity for growth. This is not a technique; it calls for grace and love. Review When writing began on this essay, there was no dissertation listed in Dissertation Abstracts with both spirituality and pastoral care in the same title. There was no book-length manuscript offering a critical and historical overview of what had become a respectable bibliography relating spirituality and pastoral care in the period 1970-1990 (see Appendix A.). The effort seems overdue, or at the least, timely. Writing of spirituality in general and in the academy in particular, Susan Schneiders says: No attentive observer of the contemporary cultural scene can fail to recognize the breadth and power of the spirituality phenomenon in virtually every part of the world. In the West various theories have been adduced to explain it. Some see it as the natural and even necessary culmination of the psychoanalytic movement inaugurated by Freud. Others attribute it to the final disillusionment with the Enlightenment ideal of progress generated by the wars of the 20th century. Others think some believe it is the proper name for the wholesome breeze that entered through the windows opened by Vatican II. But whatever its cause(s), there is no denying its grip on the contemporary imagination. Although the interest in spirituality sometimes produces superficial, unhealthy, bizarre, and even evil manifestations, it represents, on the whole, a profound and authentic desire of 20th-century humanity for wholeness in the midst of fragmentation, for community in the face of isolation and loneliness, for liberating transcendence, for meaning in life, for values that endure. Human beings are spirit in the world, and spirituality is the effort to understand and realize the potential of that extraordinary and paradoxical condition. Looking at the world of more specialized pastoral care and counseling, in 1976 Harville Hendrix addressed the annual convention of the American Association of Pastoral Counselors. He observed that the discipline of pastoral counseling was in search of a new paradigm. He noted that pastoral counselors were beginning to shift away from defining the human problem only in terms of intrapersonal and interpersonal difficulties. Rather, the human problem was beginning to be defined in terms of alienation from the transcendent. However, the first empirical study of how pastoral counseling training centers define pastoral and integrate pastoral-spiritual elements into their trainings, reported in 1993 by Marv Gardner, demonstrated that the search or desire for a new paradigm had not yet manifested in the majority of AAPC approved training centers. The study focused on twentysix of the thirtyone centers and had a response rate of 70 percent from 900 theoretical participants. The general results were as follows: By and large, students and faculty are dissatisfied with the level at which they perceive the essential pastoral elements being taught in their programs. . . . Respondents have a desire to more meaningfully relate psychotherapy training and spirituality both personally and theoretically as well as in the counseling process. Respondents have a particular concern to be able to address client issues of personal meaning-making, including client moral dilemmas. . . . Spirituality and personal religious concerns are more emphasized by students, women, Catholics, and laity. . . . Students, while constituting a 67% majority of program participants, have minority power when contrasted with the faculty as program decision makers. . . . It is striking that faculty are no more satisfied with the pastoral integration of their programs than are the students. This finding reflected the opinion of Albert Outler who thundered from without that for all the vaunted attempts during the 1980s to rediscover the roots of pastoral care in the churches historic practices, most especially those having to do with the fostering of spirituality, that the care of souls in the churches still threatens to be overwhelmed by the mental health professions in general and their blatantly heteronomous attempts to gain and maintain control over all the accepted and acceptable norms for helping and healing people. Margaret Kornfeld, writing from within the specialized ministry of pastoral counseling, observes that things are definitely different as we enter the new Millenium. Her recently published book Cultivating Wholeness has been received well by many as a text for pastoral counseling that integrates spiritual perspectives and the power of faith communities in healing. But, as she reflects back to a period fifteen to twenty years earlier, she acknowledges that neither she, her colleagues, nor the pastoral counselors she used herself employed spiritual language to make meaning of life experience. But something has happened since then. We have been absorbing the reality of a paradigm shift. I believe that God is still creating us and the universe and that our growing interest in Spirituality--and our availability to the Spirit--is the gift of God who is continuing to make the New Creation. Table 23. Dissatisfaction with Pastoral Counseling Training Elements Dissatisfaction Element Ideally Included in Training Program with Level Taught? YES Desire to integrate ones personal spiritual journey and counseling YES The counselor pursues personal spiritual development YES The counselor strives to own and transcend gender/racial/cultural bias in all relationships YES The counselor is concerned to be prayerful and centered YES The counselor has the ability to articulate a call (vocation) to pastoral counseling YES A course in the relationship of spirituality to psychotherapy YES Integrating theological and clinical diagnosis YES Theological reflection concerning the client YES Theological reflection in counseling theory ____________________________________________________________________ Source: Gardner, Integrating the Pastoral Dimension Into Pastoral Counselor Training Programs, Journal of Pastoral Care Vol. 47 No. 1 (Spring 1993): 59-62, adapted. As she reflects on the paradigm shift that has blossomed from the sixties on, and the incredible new excitement in spirituality throughout the culture, she realizes that she was not simply unaware of these developments. She participated personally in a number of them. This leads her to wonder: Where have pastoral counselors been in all this? Shouldnt we have been out there on the cutting edge. . . . Why have we in AAPC waited until the 90s to speak of spirituality and healing journeys at our meetings? She argues that this is not something to deny. We have to acknowledge that it has been hard for us to be open to spirituality. Jesus knew that it was especially hard for the religious professionals of his day to be open to the life of the Spirit. Kornfeld finds her answers in the dynamics of being a religious professional. Simply put, the issue is heavily developmental. AAPC is relatively young. It was born out of a dissatisfaction that not only was traditional, church-based religious preaching and teaching, as it was known in the period between the two great World Wars, not demonstrating notable effectiveness in human growth and healing, but was associated with actual pathology, unhelpful moralism, and tangible resistance to leading people to the fullness of God-created humanbeingness. At the same time, the thread had been broken which wove through a rich tradition in pastoral theology of thinking deeply about the nature of humans and their care going back to Nemesius and beyond. Or, if more classical thought was still engaged, it was not clear how to bring it to helpfully to bear in peoples lives. So, seminary trained persons, discontented with the religious status quo, went to the psychiatric disciplines to learn the best healing methods available, which had at the time so much popular prestige, hope, and hype going as supposedly non-repressive, life-centered, scientific healing modalities. But, these pastors down-played their own theological expertise as Paul Pruyser and the Menningers noticed. Kornfeld muses that in those earlier days, she simply needed to become a specialist: to know what doctors knew. And, she believes from her long association with the movement that her experience is a holographic parallel . . . [with what] was happening at the same time to the greater pastoral counseling profession. So, why werent pastoral counselors first in line at the time of the momentous spiritual awakenings? We, as a group, werent ready. We were just becoming. First we . . . and our profession . . . had to become integrated and more whole. To use the language of developmental psychology, we had to differentiate before we could integrate. I believe that because we are becoming more secure in our professional, personal and spiritual identities, pastoral counselors can now become significant, effective members of the holistic, healing network. Writing in 1997 Kornfeld says, I think at this time in which spirituality is being treated as a commodity, when spirituality books, workshops and training programs are becoming big business, it is important that we be sensitive to our need for spiritual discernment. Since this volume has been such an attempt at discernment, this is a good place to review what has been attempted and what has been gleaned to this point. This effort began with the subjective intuition and observation that something new was growing and developing within the field of both specialized and parish-based pastoral care and counseling from the late sixties-early seventies to the current time. It had to do with a more explicit, self-conscious integration of spiritual themes and practices, including specifically theological and moral concerns. This intuition found objective concurrence in a wealth of new literature, course listings, institutes, workshops, and the demands of theological students that their seminary educations include more of an emphasis on spiritual formation, as well as more attention to the congregational-communal context they would be working in. As one result of this lobbying, there are numerous reports of mainline seminary professors beginning their classes with prayer, something simply unheard of thirty years ago. In some ways, this new development looked hopeful in terms of bridging the long-standing split between those concerned with individual evangelism and conversion, and those concerned with social action ministries. A thesis was proposed that the field was moving beyond its concern for self-realization which Holifield had noted it for at the end of the sixties, to a new concern for self-transcendence in a self-consciously spiritual context. This concentration on self-transcendence included attention to individual conversion and/or consciousness, but also an inseparable concern for service to the community to bring it into closer congruence with the realm of God on earth. However, most evident was that the word spirituality was being used fast and loose, and was nearly unintelligible because it could refer to virtually anything. So, this study was begun to attempt bringing some initial critical-historical perspective to what was happening in general, and to flesh out the thesis of the movement within the field from self-realization to self-transcendence in particular. It is a study addressed to both the secular academy and to the practicing church community. Within the academy itself, spirituality has been developing as an academic discipline of its own, but not without the concern for praxis that is inherent to all forms of spirituality. Thus, this exploration has from the beginning has had one eye on academic issues, and one eye on the practice of pastoral care with the church. Since the philosophy of science and linguistics are currently two important questions in the academy, dialogue was begun there. Ken Wilber and Juergen Habermas were used as a way into the philosophy of science. Here, Arthur Koestlers notion was adopted that the most fundamental unit of life, material or immaterial, is a holon, a whole-part, a whole made up of parts which is likewise part of more encompassing wholes. Wilber, in concert with Habermas, built on Koestler by noting that every holon can be viewed in terms of the classical philosophical categories of the Good, the True, and the Beautiful, which means there is an I, We, and It dimension to everything in life (the big Three), something which earlier Enlightenment rationalism and Newtonian science attempted to reduce to the realm of the It (the big One). Further, there is an inner and outer aspect of every holons necessarily individual (micro) and social (macro) existence. Therefore, there are four basic, crucial quadrants representing the intentional, behavioral, cultural, and social aspects of holonic existence, each with their own appropriate validity claims. Additionally, each holon is a compound individual. Human holons are compounded of what Wilber terms the physiophere, the biosphere, the noosphere, and the theosphere. Development is always by envelopment, and takes place according to twenty basic tenets of evolutionary science. However, since these tenets cover the lowest as well as the highest levels, they are necessarily the most fundamental of all propositions and simultaneously the least significant, since they can tell us little about love, service, and higher consciousness related to the Sacred. The tenets do tell us there is a telos built into all levels of being, which suggests creative intelligence or a Spirit beneath all of life expressing or manifesting itself through every aspect of existence. Spirit demonstrates itself in evolutionary movement toward increased complexity. This increase in complexity is understood as an increase of agency (self-contained wholeness)-in-communion (expanded partness). More of life is embraced and integrated within the holon. The Self is enlarged as it transcends previous boundaries to inclusion. It increases in both consciousness and compassion, and thus becomes a measure of spiritual growth--not more spiritual in the sense of being closer to Spirit (which is in and through everything equally), but more conscious of expanded elements of the life of Spirit. This growth is subject to empirical confirmation or disconfirmation and thus meets the verifiability criterion of contemporary science. In Christian terms, Christ as Gods creative Word present at creation, which brought into being everything that is, can be viewed as the ultimate It. Christ as Body can be understood as the ultimate We, and Christ Within as the ultimate I. Christians throughout the tradition have witnessed to growing up into Christ, into that mind which was in Christ Jesus, which gave them both an unspeakable sense of being one with God and a simultaneous non-egoic sense of being in love with all of Gods creation--thus, an ultimate sense of agency-in-communion. Discussing the meaning of what higher or more inclusive states of consciousness or Christian experience might mean lead the discussion into dialogue with contemporary linguistics where the main point of the contextual nature of knowledge and meaning was accepted. Since the multiplicity of contexts which impinge upon any one person is highly unique, it is important that a person designate as clearly as possible the multi-level-four-quadrant context they are speaking from, and refrain from making their own viewpoint truth, and therefore privileged power, for others who live out of the uniqueness of their own matrix of contexts, (thus the multi-page Preface naming a number of the authors contexts.) Iit was then affirmed that contextual knowing has two ramifications for Christian growth,. Persons must delve as deeply as possible into the particularity and localness of Christian knowing through first hand, four-quadrant immersion in Christian thought, behavior, values, and structures, both contemporary and historical. Agency must be enhanced so there is definition, boundaries, substance, an identifiable form and content. Then, increased communion can be pursued as it is realized how great and encompassing is the God of Christ, the Father/Mother of Jesus, the one maker of us all, as aspects of the larger world are engaged. The good news was noted that there is a built-in Eros in life, a desire to ascend to greater spiritual knowledge or inclusion in the life of Gods Spirit. A corresponding good news is that more unity or communion with God leads to more Agape or love which wants to descend or live in compassion with all of Gods creation. The best news is that these two movements want to happen together, and need to be nearly simultaneous. There is also bad news. Eros unintegrated with Agape can be driven to repress and dissociate from the creation and seek the Creator through what Wilber terms Phobos. Likewise, Agape unintegrated with Eros can be driven by Thanatos to repress and dissociate from the Creator and regress to the creation, becoming arrested, and fixated on it. Thus, there is built into life cosmic-based forces of inclusion-exclusion, communion-separation, good-evil, life-death. Within this overall drama for Christians and non-Christians alike it was established that every individual as a holon was not just a whole made out of a random collection of parts, but an organized whole where the parts manifested organic connection with one another, and a corresponding inner wisdom that is self-organizing, self-directing, and self-correcting, according to the sciences of complexity and living organic systems. Within each human holon there is a decider subsystem which controls the organization of experience. For Christians this has been called many things including the Inmost Self by Paul and the Heart in Eastern Orthodoxy; namely that in us which is made in the image of God, capable of consciousness, reason, and growing toward the likeness of God which is perfect love. The words soul and spirit often come into the conversation. One thing which was discovered and affirmed about the human heart is that it is creative. However, there are large areas of its creativity which are unconscious. The heart learns to symbolically transform the givens of experience before they are made available to consciousness where there is an everyday ordinary awareness of perception and expression. It was determined that part of what programs the transformer are imaginative symbols related to core organizing beliefs about life. These are the meaning-full beliefs which serve as guides or plot-lines for the narratives, memories, and hopes which constitute our lives in passionate, historical, concrete ways. These beliefs are enormously powerful. What a gene is to the biospheric aspect of our lives, these memes (beliefs and narratives) are to the individual-social noospheric and theospheric aspects of our lives. It was emphasized that like a gene, a meme functions to replicate the system. Psychologically and spiritually, we humans have strong compulsions driven by survival-based Phobos and Thanatos to repeat, replicate, or selectively find ways to confirm the basic beliefs we use to understand our lifes meaning. According to the biblical imagination this fear-based self-definition puts us in a state of bondage or sin which separates us from the new life Gods Spirit would lead us into. Again, biblically speaking, it was affirmed that this level of stuckness and/or blindness is so severe that even though humans are made in the image of God, it requires the gift of a transcendent grace to free us from our fears and allow us to grow through reorganizing around increased levels of agency-in-communion. Grace was adopted as the short-hand description for Gods loving involvement in human life and history which seeks to make the captives free. In discussing Theodore Jennings views of the imagination in general, in religion, and in Christianity in particular, it was affirmed that God or Spirit was the given, the assumed referent, the reality to which we cannot help relating, behind the signification of Word-Events which gracefully rupture old organizations of experience to allow reorganizations around larger possibilities, resulting in new affections and metaphors. As the Christian imagination organizes and reorganizes us, it functions to represent, orient, communicate, and transform our existence in relation to the Sacred within Christian community. Here the symbols and narratives of the scriptural canon are primary for such mediation. They are what objectively establishes the community of faith (EC) and its general ethos (IC). Biblical, historical, and systematic rational theology is always a secondary reflection that studies how the sacred was mediated by the Christian mythos in their respective periods or areas. It was observed that pastoral theology joins with this general thrust of all theology to reflect and elaborate on the Christian mythos in an effort to make it available to contemporary consciousness in a transformative way. Pastoral theology does have a special focus on pastoral functioning within the community of faith, and works with a higher degree of specificity as it deals with more particular, less abstract levels of concern. Local pastors are the resident, effective theologians of the church whose special charism is to be builders of the community which carries out the ministry of the Spirit in that indigenous Body. As Albert Outler expresses it: But pastoral theology, the good shepherds considered thoughts about God and the human scene, is not a different kind of theology from all the other kinds. It is, rather, all the other kinds of theology focused on the pastors total task, their convergence on one point: the pastor enabling people to think and feel and work as Christians, to rejoice and hope in God, to live abundantly, and to die triumphantly, as members of the body of Christ. It was also noted that pastoral theology as it is conceived here could easily include Simon Chans proposal for a spiritual theology. Chan also agrees that theology in general promotes Christian spirituality as a lived reality. However, Protestantism has been plagued for so long by an overly wordy rationalism and empty activism. It is good in our post-modern situation where we can no longer assume that theology is doxology or living into God, and where people value passion, authenticity, and immediacy, that we have a pastoral-spiritual theology which specifically attends to the process, practices, or injunctions which grow the subject in community to an experiential appropriation of the developmental signifieds which correspond to the signifiers used in the biblical, historical, systematic, and practical theologies. Through reflecting more on clergy functioning, pastoral theology was broken down into component parts with specific uses of language. The pastoral task in general was conceived of as facilitating the self-transcendent spiritual quest for increased levels of agency in communion through the hermeneutic and agogic moments of transformation. This work is often done in terms of making grace specific to those splits or barriers which impede the prevenient grace of God which is always present. Both individuals and corporate bodies can and should grow in grace. The pastor must also help to solidify new growth through the rituals, disciplines, and community of the church so that radical affections and metaphors develop into chronic or stable nurturing ones. More specifically, the pastoral task was broken down into four sub-tasks. The one that provides the largest umbrella is that of spiritual formation understood in terms of making connections which encourage communion, and promote movement from the image of God to the likeness of God. This communion and growth is understood in terms of the primary biblical problematic of fostering right-relationships of peace, justice, and mercy throughout the entirety of Gods realm on earth. Underneath this umbrella of essential spiritual formation, pastoral psychotherapy was conceived as having to do with right-belief, dealing especially with those limited beliefs which cut a person off from connection with important aspects of their God-given inner and outer worlds. This deep level of characterological change normally requires working in a non-ordinary state of consciousness. Pastoral counseling, by contrast, was thought of as taking place in ordinary consciousness and addressing itself to matters of right action, of working with present levels of awareness to connect or help bring someones doing and being into the best possible congruence. This level can entail advice giving, problem solving, envisioning the future, discerning spiritual intuitions and actions, didactic teaching, solution focused work, and more. Pastoral care, in this system which puts everything under the shield of spiritual formation, becomes a technical term having to do with right being; with a grace-full, Christ-centered presence which should thread its way through all pastoral activities. This quality of presence is capable of being with persons in the midst of all their experiences, however joyful or sorrowful. It is a care exemplified by both pastors and members of the larger community of faith. It was acknowledged that thinking of spirituality in terms of the quest for increased levels of agency-in-community was an abstract meta-theory that still must deal with a myriad of other definitions phenomenologically present in the tradition near and far. However, it was a definition that had a measure of clarity in both the academy and the church, and could be used as a foil or reference point for exploring the other historical manifestations of spirituality. A brief look at extensive periods of Christian history was then undertaken. It was specifically to study the vicissitude of grace and the self-transcendent spiritual quest as they evolved in the Western, American and pastoral contexts over time. The historical look also fostered increased clarity about those past events whose effects have been carried forward to inform the context for undertaking the pastoral task in our day and time. Though nothing can be ultimately isolated from anything else, the major focus of the historical material was on the social quadrant (EC). It attended to those events and structures that are important to the common life, the cultural values (IC) which were in play, and how pastors went about their basic task in relation to individuals and the larger society (EI). Starting with the largest context of Western culture, we followed Wilber, following Whitehead, who agree that much of Western culture is a series of footnotes on Plato. It was noted that it has not always been appreciated that Plato, as Plotinus after him, embodied a full spirituality of ascent and descent that sought to transcend the Many to find the One and having found the One, embrace the Many as the One. Wilber argues that most footnotes to Plato are seriously fractured. The church participated in the fracture by fostering a truncated form of ascent for over a thousand years. The Enlightenment then unleashed a counter period of fractured descent, or uncritical immersion in the created order. The end result of Western philosophy was a stand-off between absolutizing agency, or the ego, as in Fichte, or absolutizing communion, or the ecosphere, as in Spinoza--both options displaying an un-whole, unholy brokenness, with no one able to integrate them. In Western economics special note was made of the transition from a feudal-manorial to a free-market economy and the concomitant rise of utilitarian individualism. More specifically, in the history of the church, Justo Gonzalez schema of the three major traditions to come out of the patristic period guided an understanding of which theological memes were in force during different periods and places. For instance, the God-in-the-Law and God-in-the-Truth memes combined in a powerful way to help pastors bring literal community and civilization to a Europe which had been living out of a warring tribal mentality. It was the God-in-History meme birthed in Asia Minor by Ireneaus and others which most closely approximated the spiritual quest as conceived in the essay. This generally Eastern Orthodox tradition included both an emphasis on agency through growing from the image to the likeness of God, and an emphasis on communion through cooperating with the Spirit to bring about Gods new creation on earth. Looking at the history of the self-transcendent quest through a four-quadrant, full-spectrum lens highlighted a number of lessons. For instance, the spiritualist movement attempted to empower lay persons and transcend the limitations of the cultural-social repressions of their day through encouraging direct knowledge of the divine, unmediated by ecclesial structures (II). However, by and large the spiritualist mystics did not provide practices which could help others attain their level of insight. Plus, they paid little attention to structures (EC) and values (IC) which might organize and instruct followers in order to support them in making substantial differences (EI) in the world. An outstanding exception, however, was George Fox whose attention to issues in all four quadrants led to a substantial world-wide movement of Friends or Quakers who survived the death of his personal leadership, and lived out unique Christian counter-cultural values and behaviors. An examination of American history showed the country as a whole going through various spiritual phases, as well as its religious citizens. The Puritan settlers obviously carried some independent agency with them in migrating to a new country. But, they came with a strong sense of theocratic community in unquestioned connection with British rule. Various events, aided and abetted by the First Great Awakening led to the Revolutionary War and the establishment of radically new freedom and agency as an independent nation. As McLoughlin and other historians outline it, the period of the Second Great Awakening led into a reaction to balance the new agency and extravagant independence with heavy boundary setting which included a number of exclusionary moves. Within these new boundaries that gave enhanced definition to community was an affirmation of the individual part. Here, the individual was free before God, but could, and would with the proper persuasion, help the whole through participating in voluntary societies in the service of society. However, the bloodthirsty, costly Civil War and the fast developing problems of increased industrialization with colossal corporate power and fast urbanization led to a Third Period of Crisis and Awakening which recognized the limitations of relying on the part, the individual to solve the nations problems. Reformers began concentrating their logic and efforts on the whole, the large concerns of public society. The post-WWII period divided the world into two basic camps with free market capitalists upholding the sanctity of the part--the person, and Marxists-Communists-Socialists upholding the sacredness of the whole--the people. The sixties brought radical moral-spiritual crisis within America, opening a new era in which great doubt was cast on whether the American Dream meme which had been continuously redefined since colonial times could find the New Light necessary to guide the country into a new period of awakening and consensus for the 21st century. The crisis of the sixties evoked a serious hermeneutics of suspicion that called into question whether proclaimed institutional values really translated into congruent behaviors. Confusion was high. It appeared that utilitarian individualism, privatism, moral relativism, and an increasingly corporate market economy with a fixed mentality for short-term profits encouraging unprecedented materialism and consumerism, were leading the nation into an ungovernable circus of private interest groups and lobbyists. They had no way of dealing with serious issues of war, poverty, environmental sustainability, overpopulation, and such. The democratic Carter administration made an appeal for Christian-civic self-sacrifice on behalf of the whole. The republican Reagen administration reasserted the old blending of utilitarianism and biblical religion in an appeal to free the part, the individual from all possible governmental interference and restraint. In the nineties the democratic Clinton administration, with key republican party support, fostered a more centrist, balanced concern for the part-in-relation-to-the-whole. Evaluating the condition of pastoral care and counseling as it was taught and practiced at the end of the sixties, showed that it was not well-prepared to deal with the crisis begun in the sixties, or bring New Light and grace to bear on the public realm. The movement in general had sympathies for how certain societal structures could contribute to the harm of individuals. But, the basic response of the movement was to do what Leech refers to as ambulance work with those hurting individuals who came to them. As Gerkin pointed out, those interested in the psychologically informed pastoral care of persons at the turn of the 20th century never made a workable, fruitful connection with those interested in the sociologically-politically-economically informed prophetic care of society. Pastoral care and counseling actually contributed to the status quo of utilitarian individualistic dominance through its orientation toward self-realization, even though individuals were encouraged to take care of themselves in relation to dehumanizing institutions. The movement had drunk so deeply at the well of the new psychological sciences, that it had become nearly reductionistic in that regard. There was little room for talk of theological, moral, spiritual concerns, or how to use the fullness of Christian community in the service of healing. For their part, the churches were partly defensive toward some help they could definitely use, and not helpful overall in finding ways to integrate and support these new specialized ministers. So, armed with their psychotherapeutic sophistication, many pastoral care specialists tended to go the way of disguised or not-so-disguised private practice in competition with secular counselors. The movement was ripe for serious changes of one kind or another, although it was not clear what they might be. Looking back, reconstructively as always, it is now clear that pastoral care and counseling needed to do what it has been slowly doing, namely integrating more of an awareness and concern for; its ecclesiastical context along with increased attention to theological and moral dimensions; its social-political embededness with increased attention to feminist and liberationist concerns; its white, male Protestant American hegemony with increased attention to multi-ethnic, cross-cultural, and global concerns; and its psychological captivity with enhanced attention to religious experience per se, the wisdom of the tradition, and spiritual self-transcendence. The rise of interest in spirituality in the general culture, secular psychotherapy, and the academy was traced. It became evident that pastoral cares interest in integrating spirituality followed, or piggy-backed, as opposed to leading the integration. Some of the key, influential writers and books were identified through a variety of means. A basic bibliography of books, essays and articles relating spirituality and pastoral care was developed. The great variety of ways in which the concept of spirituality was employed was likewise noted. To make sense out of the diversity, the Theological Worlds typology of W. Paul Jones was outlined and recommended as a way of organizing the various contributions through recognizing their overlaps of meaning which lead them to similar theological worldviews and common schools of thought. The typology also made clear a number of theological issues related to Christology and atonement that are often implied, but not explicit in the pastoral care literature. Influential writers integrating spirituality and pastoral care were then reviewed who demonstrated a high level of congruence with one or another of Jones worlds. Each of Jones worlds, and the corresponding works in spiritual and pastoral care, were analyzed in terms of how they fostered the self-transcendent quest for increased agency-in-communion. While it was affirmed that each approach to spirituality majored in some valid aspect of the Christian experience and tradition, it was also noted that limiting the tradition to the ways of one world alone would amount to heresy, that is, an unacceptable limitation of the tradition that organizes out a significant measure of Christian experience on the part of others. Each of the approaches to spirituality and pastoral care needs the others to complete it. While individual congregants or academic writers cant be expected to always have such wide awareness, it was affirmed that pastors, as the theological leader of a local congregation, and the minister of the congregation whose gift is that of being a community person, should have as wide an understanding as possible in order to do the leadership work of balancing and harmonizing the various members of the one Body for effective, collective service. Jones typology of theological ways of being is also quite helpful to pastors in the work of making grace specific because it outlines the functional lived questions people develop which drive them in search of corresponding lived answers or at least the promise of answers. Another chapter on characterological ways of being went more deeply into the genetic, developmental, and structural factors which lead people to organize their experience in certain ways and dispose them toward attraction to particular theological worlds. A presently ongoing study was referenced which is empirically testing the correlation hypothesized between the characterological and theological worlds. At this point it is good to ask if this work, which has offered an overall integration of pastoral theology materials in the process of developing its thesis of a movement from self-realization to self-transcendence since the late sixties, has any New Light to bring to the present period of crisis in America, and any implications to lay out for the future of white, mainline Protestant pastoral care in America. Two things can be said concerning the thesis itself,. On the one hand, the thesis appears well supported. End-sixties pastoral care was centered in issues of self-realization, which many took to be inherently relevant theologically speaking, but then evolved from there to a more self-consciously spiritual emphasis on self-transcendence on the part of a number of writers and practitioners. On the other hand, taking a long view, spiritual evolution has simply been opportunistically and persuasively working its way through historical circumstances under various names and guises, sometimes emphasizing increased agency, sometimes increased communion. Within this longer view, Gebsers and Wilbers thesis was explored and essentially supported which sees growth over the millenniums and centuries, moving from the mythic-rational of classical Greek times , to the rationality of the Enlightenment, to more contemporary signs of vision-logic consciousness--with the caveat that this growth works through the ever-present dialectic of love and fear, good and evil which has generated monumental human suffering and holocaust, and requires immense grace from the heart of God to move it forward. So, seen or unseen, invited or unasked, supported or resisted, as mystics including Jung have witnessed, the Spirit moves through individual hearts and communities to establish an ever-expanding embodiment of Gods will for compassionate right-relatedness. New Light for the American Dream? Turning now to consider New Light for the American Dream meme, there are also some lessons and implications of pastoral theology as public theology. These will be outlined in reference to older elements of the American Dream because, as William McLoughlin argues, new visions and possibilities for our life together as a country can unquestionably incorporate newness, but it is most likely done in dialogue with our own cultural past. Revitalization and revival are by definition syncretic; self-renewal does not begin de novo. There are many elements in our mythology that can be revitalized. Ernest Borman says something similar in The Force of Fantasy, where he offers a historical survey of mass persuasion in American history using the rhetorical critical method of fantasy theme analysis. The most effective fantasy themes have been ones which feature a restoration to the founding truths of the country, but reinterpreted at crucial places to account for contemporary experience. This sense of New Light gives both hope for the present and renewed confidence in old basic truths. When evil crept into the social, political, and economic life of the country and many found themselves in here-and-now conditions which they felt were unsatisfactory, an impulse toward a reform movement or revolutionary effort evolved. When many suffered economic hardship and fantasized their plight as resulting from exploitation by others, or when many felt guilt because of what they interpreted to be injustices and inequalities visited upon others, or when many felt that nature was being exploited by evil forces and people, then conditions were favorable to counterfantasies which contained motives to destroy the established arrangements of society. Historically, such moments of rhetorical tension have appeared regularly in America. . . . When the moments of crises came, the restoration fantasy type allowed a rhetorical vision to evolve which was both a means of reform and a means of revitalizing faith in the basic structures of society. Even in the case of Lincoln, whose vision was an impossible dream, and such a vision is always dangerous, for disillusionment can destroy the community that shares it. However, the restoration theme can save the high and noble ideals and discharge the guilt of falling short of their achievement at the same time that it gives to the vision a new reality. The first, most essential, far reaching lesson of this study which could be woven into a new vision of restoration has to do with the relationship between parts and wholes. From the beginning of colonial America, a central element of our light on a hill was to build a community around the belief that freedom [agency] and responsibility [communion] would perfect not only the individual and the nation but the world, because they are in harmony with supreme the laws of nature and of natures God. This was a way of saying individual effort and freedom are essential, and that they mean nothing outside of life in community. Psychology is always also sociology. We are many members of one body. We are all in this together. What you do affects me and what I do affects you. This is an element of the Old Light which can still stand by itself. What is new is that we now have over 300 years experience of dealing with the relative balance of importance between individuals (parts) and the communities (wholes) they participate in. What seems crystal clear from this study is that the old debates still current among Republicans and Democrats, championing either the preeminence of the individual or the society, are totally dated, inappropriate, circular, and unhelpful. We need a new meme with new metaphors and a new voice which will capture the imagination of the American populace and communicate the abstract truth of holonic existence, namely that what is crucial is not the part, not the whole, but the part-in-relation-to-the-whole. Perhaps, since all Americans by and large have knowledge and acquaintance with teams, the principle could be communicated as the team-meme for the 21st century. Teams can and do have individuals who excel, who are superstars, who distinguish themselves on the field and as entrepreneurs, but they have no meaning or existence apart from their teams. In whatever sport it is, even individual sports like bike racing, tennis, or track, there are back-up or support teams. The individual or group team has no existence outside of a league, which has no meaning if there are no fans and sponsors, who have no way of participating without certain political, economic supports, which is all impacted by global and environmental issues. Thinking in terms of parts-in-relation-to-the-whole has massive implications for how government is run, how factories are organized, how relationships are structured, and more. Without going into those implications here, this pastoral theological essay simply poses the question of what would happen if the values and rhetoric of this country made this slight shift--which is continuous in so many ways with the best of its tradition--and started asking persons making proposals in school, church, voluntary organizations, business, and government, to state the following: How would this proposal benefit them individually and what affect would it have on the multiple teams in which they participate; the family team, neighborhood team, religious team, educational or recreational team, community team, corporate team, national team, global team, or earth team? There is no easy way out of the tension between individual and collective needs here. But, values and rhetoric based on an understanding of the team-meme would function to legitimate each end of the polarity so that both are deemed worthy of consideration. What is short-circuited and changed is any easy answer that obviates a struggle such as you have to sacrifice everything for the good of the team, the whole, or I just have to do whats good for me and my little part. The hope is that a team-meme discussion would keep options open longer and lead to decisions which are perhaps more just overall, and at least recognize realistically the relative merits of a decision in terms of its affect on multiple levels of interconnected systems. It would be interesting to see what kind of creative solutions came out of such discussions if the value-based principle of the team-meme were existentially embraced. A team-meme does hold inherent tensions and paradoxes, which hopefully the general populace is realistic and ready enough to embrace at this end-Millenium date. Moral issues are one area of paradox. If we take seriously a four-quadrant understanding of what it means to be an individual with both an inner and outer reality who is only an individual in relation to a community with its own internal values and external structures and constraints, then there is also cause to quit running in circles with old, outdated arguments revolving around whether the individual or society is responsible for a persons actions, especially anti-social actions. Yes, social forces and structures, parental relationships, peer pressure, economic pressures, forms of discrimination, metabolic dispositions and more impinge upon persons, impact them, dispose them, and condition them in palpable ways. And yes, individuals are responsible for how they handle the forces which affect them. Thus, the paradox that persons are both inevitably dependent and ultimately responsible. John Cobb expresses it like this: Although we are products of societies, including the nonhuman one, we are not merely products. Just how we constitute ourselves out of the many societies to which we belong, just what weight we give to each, just what new synthesis we achieve out of the complexity of influences upon us, all of this is finally decided by ourselves, individually, moment by moment. Changes in societies change the individual members, but these changes can be initiated by subtle novelties in just these individual members. Freedom and creativity are real. Here are found the locus of real religion and morality and the justification for the cherishing of personal freedom. So, relating to crime, for instance, through the filter of the team-meme would imply a failure on the part of both the individual and the society. Therefore, the individual must be accountable for his or her actions. The society must attempt to do whatever it can to reevaluate its ways, and to rehabilitate, not just administer retribution against the individual. Perhaps a team-meme would push the entire legal code more in the direction of maritime law where each party in a collision gets 10% of the responsibility just for being there, and then judgments are made about relative percentages of culpability after that, but it is not a 100% guilty or innocent verdict. The team-meme or parts-in-relation-to-the-whole mind-set implies connection and communication, something necessary for any type of organism according to the sciences of living organic systems. As noted in the above history, for the general public this presents the thorniest of problems, since so much of political-economic decisions go on over our heads, outside our awareness. This was something the public was willing to live with earlier in the century as a trade-off for believing the decisions were being made by professional, scientifically-informed bureaucrats with no political IOUs, who essentially guaranteed a smoothly running country with economic opportunity for all. Since the sixties, this assumption and arrangement of modernity has lost the publics confidence, though it still continues. Again, John Cobb believes that in a postmodern situation people must go from having virtually no influence on the decisions that determine most of what happens to them, to new forms of realistic participation. Community is in fact society in which participation is realized. Of course, participation is always a matter of degree. The term society puts the accent on the way the individual is constituted by the influences of others. The term community accents the extent to which the decisions made by individuals can be taken up by the other members of the society, at least for consideration. Such participation in community is possible only where individuals transcend social formation. Community presupposes the element of freedom in the members of the society and gives that freedom a positive role. This positive role requires economic, political, and other social structures that encourage freedom, personal expression, and ways in which individual contributions can be appropriated by others. How to encourage citizen participation in such a mammoth, complex system from which people have already turned away in despair of ever being able to effect any influence, is a first order problem. However, the very advances in technology that have led to such complexity might be able to simplify the situation and open up the system. It is not that hard to imagine our elected representatives in county, state, and national levels working on legislation, alerting the parties most affected, presenting a team-meme, parts-in-relation-to-the-whole analysis electronically to thousands or millions at once, alone or in group settings, and then receiving instant electronically mediated feedback. It would be a step beyond the common practice now employed in television of having viewers make phone calls to register Yay or Nay votes on numerous issues. In this New Light vision Cobb also makes the point that participation will play a larger role than that of justice. The problem with justice, as crucial a principle as we affirm it to be, is that pragmatically speaking it too often degenerates into a debate about individual rights in opposition to those of others, sometimes within a system that is destructive of community without challenging the system itself. For Cobb, the goals envisioned in the appeal for justice will be better implemented as people have a chance to take part in the decisions governing their lives. Cobb is also sensitive to how a team-meme informing postmodern social theory would need to point to the importance of global coordination of the innumerable patterns of society which are jointly constitutive of individuals . . . [which] would entail a further relativization of the nation-state. Nation-states are in fact being relativized in the postmodern period by world-wide, non-governmental, voluntary organizations such as the church, but most directly by certain corporate concerns in general, and by multi-national corporations in particular. At this point; as much as it bothers and frightens many to envision a single homogeneous mall from one coast to another so that it is not clear what makes one town different from another; as much as people might resent that there are only two basic books stores, electronic stores, furniture stores, hardware stories, etc. to choose from because all the small, independent businesses have been unable to compete; as hard as it hits at old cherished images of American rugged individualism as nine out of ten people work for someone else--still, it must be acknowledged that corporations have been taking over more and more of American life since the laws were passed that allowed general businesses to incorporate and compete as individuals against literal individuals, and they will continue to become more important. General attention as well as specific forms of pastoral care must now be focused on corporations as the main places where we work, socialize, and grow, and where the most significant decisions are made concerning life in America and around the world. Corporations have already been struggling and experimenting with various aspects of a parts-in-relation-to-the-whole understanding. The reorganization of the American car industry when they were losing badly to Japanese imports in the seventies, as described by David Halberstam in The Reckoning, is one example where the team-meme has implications for the quality control of assembly lines. More recently corporations have been experimenting with labor relations through downsizing, cutting pension and health benefits, hiring part-time employees, encouraging people to look out for themselves in life, and counting the cost of the resultant lack of loyalty on behalf of their work force. Here, that original aspect of the American Dream meme which embraced a strong Protestant work ethic, and sense of work as sacred vocation which would correlate with divine blessings of success if given unfettered opportunity, is being severely reevaluated and rethought. In the same context, the place and importance of leisure, play, art, and music is being reevaluated. The philosophy or value behind the team-meme is already in play in the tension and debate within those who have a personal investment in mutual funds important for their future well-being, and concerns that corporations do the right thing in relation to the people they hire, the areas they work in, and the environment. Here it is clear that there must be national and international teams or judicatories with legislative authority over corporations. Many corporations want to do the right and just thing in relation to various aspects of their business, but are not ready to do it alone, put themselves at a competitive disadvantage, and risk their own dissolution. In the above historical discussion it was already noted that the necessarily short-term, profit-maximization thinking of corporations makes them literally unable to do long term investments in infrastructure or not carry through with immediately profitable decisions sure to bring long-term (more than five years away) disadvantage to all. Thus, larger public governing bodies, with the consent and approval of widespread civic participation, including corporate representatives themselves, need to pass laws which all corporations would be required to heed equally, and therefore willingly, since competitive advantage is not being lost. In general, the New Light expressed in the team-meme is consistent with the original vision of America centered in the belief in constitutional as opposed to absolute monarchy; a desire for more democratic-republican institutions with balances of power. But where are we at now in terms of the original sense of being a chosen, covenant people led to a promised land of a New Eden unspoiled by old, corrupt institutions, a nation set on a hill, destined to show the world the divine way of living in right relationships (Type C transformative emphasis)? The issue of being chosen or special is highly ambiguous as we enter the 21st century. On the one hand, we have learned a great deal of humility, and no longer qualify as a New Eden. We know we have our own problems. We do not want to rule the world and be responsible for everyone elses problems. However, since the Iron Curtain came down, we have become the one remaining Superpower on earth, with perhaps China developing in the wings. We are at the center of the corporate-capitalist-free-market world economy and bureaucracy. We are the prime power behind NATOs or the United Nations ability to go into a country like Kosovo and say, no, ethnic cleansing is not acceptable in the world today. If we are uncomfortable with the older, privileged, religiously-specific image of a Light to the Nations, we must still accept that we are undeniable a Leader in the Nations, in a land capable of generating new promise, which is how so many in other nations in fact view us. It remains to be seen whether we employ that leadership to promote a version of the team-meme which would eventually benefit all people, or use our power to lead things toward our own advantage, which according to history, would be following the path of eventual self-destruction. And if we are more hesitant to claim being chosen as we enter the 21st century, do we any longer feel that we are in a holy covenant with the Divine to bring about some form of right-relatedness within our own life and the life of the world around us? Here again, it is ambiguous. While the sixties shook up religious life in America, it was nothing compared to what happened in Europe where the churches were severely questioned, discounted, and crippled. Europeans and others still look with amazement at the vitality of Americas religious life. Atheism has simply fallen away under the weight of its own irrelevance and dissatisfaction. Ironically, as the twentieth century approaches the finish line, the concept of Gods existence is almost a given. More than 95 percent of Americans believe in God or a universal force. Eighty-four percent characterize God as the heavenly father of the Bible who can be reached by their prayers. Eighty percent believe God works miracles today, with an almost equal amount reporting, There are spiritual forces that we cannot see but that effect the material world in which we live. Significantly, baby boomers outpaced any other generation in this belief. But Americans are not just settling for belief. Eighty-eight percent report that they pray. And increasing numbers are reporting other types of spiritual experiences, including those categorized as paranormal. Thirty-three percent of Americans report having had a particularly powerful religious insight or awakening that changed the direction of their lives. In a 1985 Gallup poll, 43 percent of Americans said that they had been aware of or influenced by a presence or a power that was different from their everyday selves. By 1991 that percentage had risen to 54 percent. However, all this spiritual affirmation is not necessarily good news to the churches. While it is true that we are unquestionably more spiritual than ever, it is also true that we are less religious, less Christian, less Protestant, and less likely to believe that true spirituality is to be found in institutional churches, synagogues, or mosques. The majority of Christian churches, both mainline and evangelical, now officially consider the United States a mission field, and are frequently using missionaries from third world countries to do evangelistic work here. Paradoxically, the New Light of the 21st century might need to go back to our Native American heritage, which we once severely discounted. We are too pluralistic and diverse to feel comfortable saying with one voice that we are one nation under God, because God here is associated too closely with the Judeo-Christian tradition. As a country, not as a member of a particular faith group, we might need to claim and affirm the truth our vast spiritual heritage, background, and grounding by saying we are one nation under the Spirit, or what Native Americans call The Great Spirit which is called by many names. Even though many religious organizations will still feel called to evangelize or communicate their revelation of divine truth to others, virtually every church has some way of affirming that there is a covenant with God or Spirit to establish peace on the earth among all the children of the Spirit, and between the human children and the life of the earth itself. As noted above, the team-meme included both the world team and the earth team, and could easily be integrated under the banner of one nation under the Spirit. This redefinition of the nations religious life also retains the original preference for independent presbyterian or congregational forms of local church government; a vision of individuals with direct access to God. What is missing from the Puritan vision is the importance of a community organized according to particular Judeo-Christian biblical values. Aspects of Christian thought, such as Pauls body theology that understands every individual as a member of an interdependent body would express well the team-meme, but would have to enter into ecumenical dialogue with other ways of understanding to find agreement on values with which to organize community. This is a tremendously important time to be seeking ecumenical inter-faith dialogue and agreement. In a world of nuclear weapons, bombing and armed invasions of areas such as Kosovo to stop unacceptable practices must be seen as dangerous measures of last resort. At some point, to break eons-old cycles of hurt and revenge, political leaders will need to turn to ecumenical religious leaders and ask for million man/woman marches of spiritually mature persons capable of listening to, and praying with, all combatants equally. And finally, what of the understanding of the original American Dream meme that God both transcendentally corrects his people through chastening failures, and imminently sheds New Light in renewed and perfected covenants to guide those new generations open to his will? Again, there is ambiguity here. Certainly, Americans as a whole do not, will not, trust the Word of God for our time to be channeled through self-appointed white, male, Protestant television preachers, or the resolutions passed at denominational meetings. However, there is unparalleled readiness to believe in and to practice ways of listening to the Spirit in our individual lives. It is not a big stretch to believe that we have spiritual lessons to be learned from what is going well and not-so-well in our life together, lessons that are grounded in the spiritual reality of the universe. It is a situation ripe for some cultural leader(s) to emerge and ask us to reflect on our life together, to take ourselves under observation. This would include an invitation to be receptive to the various revelations of the Spirit we receive, and to offer our willingness to come together and work through differences of perception to discern mutual spiritual agreement on the shape of a new covenant with one another. It is a commonly held, ecumenical belief that the Spirit speaks and reveals itself to those who open their ears to hear and eyes to see. New Directions for Pastoral Theology? The same death knoll should be sounded for pastoral theology as for the general society. Arguments between old conservatives and old liberals about whether conversion of individual hearts is necessary as opposed to the transformation of social structures should be declared over and done, dead and buried. In holonic existence personal consciousness and social realities are both necessary and inseparable. We can debate whether particular expressions of either are pathongenic or salugenic, but there is no question of legitimacy on either score. Tilden Edwards expresses this spiritually, weaving together the elements of ascent and descent, in saying: We are not on earth solely to find our way back to an original unity [enhanced agency], but we are here also to carry forward a liberating process of unfolding toward that which has never been. The Garden of Eden is not the same as the kingdom, the fully realized Reign of God [enhanced communion]. Miroslav Volfs recent After Our Likeness offers an ecclesiological study of parts-in-relation-to-the-whole. Volf dialogues with Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox positions, and then suggests a viable understanding of the church in which both person and community are given their proper due. Rodney Hunter also enters into dialogue about the individual in relation to community. He believes, given our postmodern context, that it is a needful and propitious time for the relative distance between the pastoral care and counseling movement and institutional church community to be bridged for the sake of both parties. He gives a nice four-quadrant look at four issues that would have to be negotiated to accomplish this rapprochement, namely membership (EC), belief (IC), devotion (II), and lifestyle (EI). A problem Hunter has in terms of the argument of this essay, which is representative of the problem that the general field of pastoral theology could have if it is not careful, relates to language. Actually, it is not even Hunters language. He appears to be the victim of the general milieu he is working in when he is misquoted in the editors introduction to his article as saying, the urgent need of the hour is to shift our basic understanding of pastoral care and counseling from a dominantly therapeutic orientation to an ecclesial one, that is, a primarily social and cultural model. His article does not include the underlined portion, but the danger of this not uncommon oppositional language is to foster a new and different fracture in the field which simply trades an emphasis on the interior-individual quadrant (II) for one on the cultural-social quadrants (IC-EC). The force of this essay would be to encourage pastoral theology to self-consciously adopt a four-quadrant focus and analysis, as suggested in Table 24, as the most holistic, inclusive, appropriate, and helpful way to approach its work. It is much more comfortable with Hunters language where he says: Table 24. A Four Quadrant Analysis in Pastoral Theology  INTERIOR-INDIVIDUAL (II) EXTERIOR-INDIVIDUAL (EI) INTENTIONAL BEHAVIORAL * _____________  * . _____________________________ * _________________________  * * * .  * * * ___________ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * _____________________________  * * * . ________________ * * * . * * . __________________________  *  * _______________________________ * .  * ______________ * * . * _______________________ ________________________________________________________________________ . global-environmental nation political-economic system work environment educational system community church neighborhood family  . . . CULTURAL SOCIAL INTERIOR-COLLECTIVE (IC) EXTERIOR-COLLECTIVE (EC) I hope it is clear that I am not simply rejecting the clinical principles and values that have shaped our field for the past half century. Rather my aim is to critique and expand our understanding of what the ministry of care requires under current conditions and invite us to devise methods and theories by which our clinical identity and heritage can be enabled to speak to these new needs while broadening its own self understanding and practice. Likewise, Table 24 acknowledges the multiplicity of contexts we live in. Certainly, pastoral theology needs to strengthen its home-base in the church context where Hunter is correct that many church and denominational leaders see our field as over specialized, over therapeutic, and institutionally unhelpful, which in theological education is leading to an apparent decline in the number of pastoral care courses, professorial appointments, and tenure track positions, and the implied devaluing of pastoral theology as an academic discipline. However, the other side should also be acknowledged that many white, mainline local church pastors and church officials are so caught up in survival aspects of parish life that they have little time, patience, or energy for attempting to integrate anything that does not immediately preach for them. In doing so the churches cut themselves off from valuable resources which can help follow up on what is preached to see if what was taught was actually caught. Here is a place where Wimberlys discernment model can help build a bridge of understanding and practical cooperation between specialized pastoral care and counseling and the churches. His discernment model which integrates prayer, pastoral counseling, and spiritual direction underline the themes of our argument as it relates to narrative theology and therapy, and making grace specific through working at the barriers. Pettit writes: Wimberlys model begins with the assumption that God is the source of all healing and that prayer enables a person to cooperate with what God is doing to bring healing. Through the use of prayer and narrative theology, the pastoral counselor helps the client to 1) discern Gods story unfolding in their life just as Gods story unfolds in scripture, and 2) to remove emotional and interpersonal obstacles which block their ability to cooperate with the work of the Spirit in their life. Like Gerald May, Wimberly argues that pastoral counseling and spiritual direction embody two different intentions, bases of knowledge, and skills though they have areas of convergence. He writes: Persons in spiritual direction are learning to discern the Spirits leadership in their lives under the guidance of an experienced spiritual guide. Pastoral counseling is the process of helping persons clear up those emotional and interpersonal blocks, rooted in past relationships, that frustrate the persons ability to discern Gods work and presence in their lives. Spiritual direction and pastoral counseling converge when the Spirits leadership is discerned to be actively addressing those poor and present relationships and the inappropriate growth-blocking stories that are damaging peoples lives. The concern for keeping spiritual direction from being reduced to traditional psychotherapy, and the reverse concern for keeping the counseling process uncontaminated from inappropriate, moralistic, or disruptive prayer and theological indoctrination are both valid. Wimberlys position suggests that spiritual directors turn to pastoral counselors when a person bumps up against barriers to discerning or opening to the Spirits leading in their lives. However, the thrust of this volume has been to argue that growing in grace, enlarging ones heart and consciousness, reorganizing experience around more inclusive core beliefs, and such, often happens through making grace specific to precisely those barriers that block the Spirit from encouraging communion with a wider range of Gods life. If spiritual direction does not deal with barriers which arise, it remains at a level of education in ordinary consciousness, which could be fine; just as spiritual formation through liturgy, bible study, fellowship, and service are more than fine. In practice though, a number of church-based spiritual directors and/or pastors understand themselves to be working at deep levels where the Spirits healing does address splits within the personal, interpersonal, or communal realms. This essay would recommend the benefit of spiritual directors and pastoral counselors being more and more fully trained in each others disciplines so that Spirit-lead healing and growth is most continuous. It is disruptive to move back and forth between two different practitioners, with the movement hypnotically suggesting a split between spirit and psyche. It is also an insult of sorts to local pastors to think of them primarily as focal points for referral to real experts. Specialized pastoral care should not only be more integrated into normal church settings, but much more continuing education should be offered at reasonable costs to pastors and involved lay persons alike to empower them in their ministries. In addition to taking seriously models such as Wimberlys discernment one, this closer connection between pastoral care and the churches would be fostered through adopting two of the main lines of argument of this essay. One: All ministers, generalists and specialists alike, are about the same basic task of theology, that of interpreting and applying the various canonical images, symbols, parables, narratives, etc., to their particular, historical day and time, attempting to make them available to contemporary consciousness. This is true whether the pastor is counseling somebody one-to-one or preaching on Sunday morning. The methods may differ, but the task is the same--that of cultivating, eliciting, reminding, or healing the imagination of persons whose fundamental way of experiencing and expressing themselves is either underdeveloped or has become distorted. This process of mediating grace concerns both the hermeneutic moment of understanding and the agogic moment of transformation that Firet outlines in his Dynamics In Pastoring. Two: Spiritual formation can be affirmed by the church as one way of expressing its fundamental ministry of encouraging right-relatedness through the Spirit of Christ. It can also be affirmed by specialized pastoral care and counseling as expressing that element which distinguishes it and gives it its uniqueness among other mental health professionals, who are also coming to recognize the spiritual as a necessary dimension of holistic, truly systemic care. Therefore, spiritual formation should be the overall umbrella which contains under it the sub-categories of pastoral psychotherapy (right belief), pastoral counseling (right action), and pastoral care (right being). Returning to Table 24, pastoral theology would do well to claim its model of multiple contexts. The church must be our closest, most fundamental context, but pastoral theologians need to keep the other ones in play also. Theoretically, the church has in view the other contexts from family and neighborhood to the global and environmental, but can be tempted to collapse back into immediate institutional concerns and lose sight of the larger picture. Pastoral theologians should stay alert and aware of the full array of dispositions that affect persons in the church and world with their implications for making grace specific. They should also remain committed to a Type C affirmation that all of life on earth is claimed for the coming reign of God on earth as it is in heaven. They can help the church remain true to the biblical visions of the Divine which say the Spirit has concern for the least of these who may not be within the church, and for those who will come from the East and from the West for the eschatological banquet. If the basic thrust of the four-quadrant approach of Table 24 is accepted, there is another implication. The Table points to an interdependent, participatory universe in which everything is connected to everything else, with multiple relevant sciences, each with its own claims to validity. While it is quite possible and necessary to affirm the appropriateness and value of each quadrant, it should be abundantly clear that no individual could possibly have any depth of expertise in all quadrants. Therefore, an adoption of a four-quadrant approach should bring everyone to their knees in humility as it becomes obvious that we must all work in an inter-disciplinary way, dependent on the expertise of others to fill out our knowledge base and/or our ministry. Working in an inter-disciplinary way, of course, is a highly counter cultural endeavor in a day of extreme sub-specialization. This is true for theological education as well as the academy in general. Herbert Anderson writes: As the distinctiveness of the disciplines increased and was supported by professional organizations promoting each particular perspective in the practice of ministry, the unity of pastoral or practical theology decreased. . . . Even when they were housed in the same department, there was very little conversation among these disciplines of ministry. As a result, preparation for the practice of pastoral ministry in a theological context was increasingly fragmented around specialization. Anderson believes we need an accessible pastoral theology comprehensive enough to hold the various ministries of the church together in a systemic whole. Certainly, within a seminary setting which prepares persons for ministry (as opposed to a graduate school of religion) pastoral theology would be a logical candidate for being that field which seeks the integration of the other disciplines and encourages inter-disciplinary dialogue and teaching as it all comes to bear on the actual practice of ministry. If then, pastoral theology acknowledges the importance and interdependence of all the quadrants, and seeks their integration and balance in theory and practice, it could free the field to also affirm without apology how much expertise it has developed over the last hundred years in quadrant one issues and dynamics, and offer that to the ministry of the church. It is not a given that pastoral cares involvement with psychology needs to result in its losing its soul. Aside from the immanental theology that sees all truth as Gods truth, David Lyall writes: In his search for that which was most truly human, in his work for civil rights, in his dialogue with Christians who were not Catholics and with monks who were not Christian, [Thomas] Merton did not cease to be who he was: a Christian, a Catholic, a monk and a priest. His spiritual, world-affirming journey did not deny that identity. In its engagement with the secular psychotherapies, neither does pastoral counselling need to lose its Christian identity as care offered in the context of a community of faith. Set free from the compulsion to be religious, it has a genuine freedom to point beyond the secular to the One who is the source of all healing. There are three areas of expertise that will be highlighted here in particular because they lead into what could be a significant contribution of pastoral theology to our contemporary predicament in ministry. The first area is the ability to recognize and deal with barriers. Clinically trained pastors have been taught skills in being able to track what a person does with some input, how they organize around it. This tracking ability then feeds into a capacity to contact the person, connect with them, let them know their experience is understood, and help them get curious about it, help them take themselves under observation. Thus, the barriers that arise within people to accepting or integrating various forms of grace can become grist for the mill of discovering the more specific grace they need to heal or to open themselves to more of the new life the Spirit offers. Secondly, in this kind of work, and in all the contributors to the spirituality and pastoral care literature referenced in all five worlds above, there is also demonstrated the ability to manage states of consciousness. This is a crucial skill. The reason Watzlawick, Ericksonian hypnotists, NLP practitioners, strategic family therapists, and many others work through paradoxical techniques or other methods outside of normal awareness is because they believe consciousness is the problem. As we have outlined above, the organization of experience can be so rigid and defensive that it replicates itself through selective perception. We assimilate everything into what we already know instead of accommodating ourselves to larger realms of experience. It becomes no small task for the grace of God to function as a Word-event, rupturing the organization of experience to make room for expanded affections and metaphors. The importance of finding ways around the caughtness of ordinary consciousness is not a new insight. The need to cultivate a different, non-ordinary consciousness is something that the church and counselors have recognized intuitively for aeons. We go to a sanctuary, office or retreat site set apart. We are provided with a different setting, a silence, a type of music, practice, or task, designed to help us get out of normal gear into a more neutral state. There our minds and hearts can be more easily accessed, more receptive, more open to the surprises the Sacred might have for us. In the history of the church this state of consciousness has been termed prayerful, meditative, or worshipful consciousness. In contemporary and Eastern counseling it is sometimes called experiential or witnessing consciousness. By either name there is a quality of openness that is missing from the ordinary consciousness we normally mobilize to go to the grocery store. There is also a quality of curiosity and of mystery which offers a willingness to explore our felt, present experience in an open-minded way without agendas or judgments to prove; to allow it to be whatever it is and teach us more about itself. Going the other way, it is deadly in a church service if a minister gets up to preach on a familiar parable and the response is, Oh yeah. I know that one. Heard it a thousand times. Or perhaps the minister has been there over a year and the response is, Oh yeah. Here he goes into his routine again. There is then no sense of mystery that could open the door to the minds being colored with new possibilities. Similarly, if a counselor brings someones awareness to an area by commenting, A little sad, huh, and the response is in an ordinary conversational vein Oh yeah, well, I always get a little sad toward the end of the month when bills are due, there is not much possibility of new insight. We have also learned over the long haul that accessing someones core organizing beliefs through encouraging such an opening of consciousness requires that the setting embody a high degree of trust, safety and security. In a word, the pastor, the group, the worship setting, must embody the right being of the grace-full presence of Christ. The ability to recognize and work with states of consciousness is a key skill, thirdly, in being able to encourage growth in consciousness, which is not simply a pietistic endeavor in the service of individualism or privatism. As Wilber, Cobb, and others above have pointed out, growth in consciousness, moving from the image to the likeness of God is absolutely essential. There is an overabundance of evidence for anyone who has eyes to see that there are life-threatening, species threatening difficulties to be addressed in relation to the environment, overpopulation, war, economics, and so forth. The problem is that we do not have an overflow of people who have eyes to see, who care, who have that compassion of Jesus to be moved in the guts to empathically do something. Who can really embrace and follow the team-meme, the truth of parts-in-relation-to-the-whole, who lives out of a tribal identity in mythic-rational consciousness? It is absolutely essential to have ways of growing the subject. Part of this can be intellectual exposure to differences, but it must go deeper than that to affect the heart-level organization of experience. Socially speaking, it is true that it is easier to encourage growth in agency-in-communion if more of those around us participate in the quest and support it. Until the culture reaches those plateaus (as in certain periods in Tibet for example), it makes it more difficult to be going against the grain. Right now in America it appears there is a lot of spiritual ferment that would support growth, but it is not so evident how to go about it. Earlier, Albert Outlers agenda for pastoral care was outlined as a need to hallow life, to find the holy in the midst of all life. He wrote that this is the only way I can think of--or have ever seen verified in human life and history--to get beyond a materialism that degrades human life, a moralism that shackles it, a nature mysticism or pantheism that finally negates selfhood to a true Christian humanism in which our participation in the holy and in the hallowing of life [in all four quadrants] is also our joy and happiness and peace. This hallowing implies a non-ordinary state of consciousness in itself. Outler specifically talked about the importance of going beyond normal, habitual, everyday awareness. He wrote that there is a distinctly human need for ecstasy, rapture, expanded consciousness. Further, we need our minds blown from time to time; we need reminders that the world is wonder-full. We need mind-stretching heart-lifting episodes; or, alternatively, time of profound relaxation and inner quietude. The hallowing of life, finding the holy in all of life, in all our human occasions, includes the hallowing of our highest and deepest experiences, those outreachings that pass beyond our normal ranges of consciousness and meaning--inward, upward, outward (all spatial prepositions that only faintly suggest transcendence, ecstasy, rapture, reverence). . . . Transcendent mystery and love are actually [so] immanent and encompassing, that they suffuse the whole range of our awareness and yet exceed that range at both ends--of rational clarity, at one end, and of ecstasy at the other. The hallowing of expanded consciousness obviously has to do with Word-events which rupture our normal ways of organizing experience and result in radical affections and metaphors, once we begin reflecting back on the experience. Outler deals with the matter of chronic, sustaining affections and metaphors which also need to mediate experience in a live way through the concept of reverence. Reverence is our habituation to the holy, our habitual response to its manifestations, the sense of awe that is neither terror-stricken nor ecstatic. For ecstasies, raptures, trips come and go. Reverence may become the steady disposition of a life, the inclinatio of a human spirit. It may be a sense of awe in the most ordinary experience when properly attended; it may be an awareness of mystery in great occasions; it may be the still center of a busy and distracted life. But always it is love: love of God and love of Gods creatures. Reverence has little to do with solemnity and nothing at all with humorlessness. It can be jaunty or serious, lighthearted or earnest, indignant or serene. But always it is loving, always hallowed; therefore, always supplying all lifes events with their meaning, interest, and final value. The pastoral ability to work with barriers, manage states of consciousness, and support expanded states of consciousness, reflected in the spirituality and pastoral care literature, in particular, could easily be combined with further schooling in spiritual direction to help further the teaching and integrating of concrete spiritual practices. Practices which experientially nurture the spiritual quest for increased levels of agency-in-communion are crucial in our day in which spiritual seekers no longer will tolerate learned rational reflection on hearsay experience as the basis of their quest. At this point it would be appropriate to expound upon the distinct nature of the self which has been hinted at all along in this essay, which would help flesh out more of an understanding of the agency which impels this quest for spiritual immediacy. James Loders The Logic of the Spirit would be a good resource. He writes about the impact of grace on the human spirit [which] is to awaken it to a true sense of its freedom to be itself as image restored to its original. Likewise Kierkegaard has much to say about the self as a self-transcendent being, as a relation that relates itself to itself, and the infinite realty the self gains by being conscious of existing before God, by becoming a human self whose criterion is God. However, this too is the subject of another volume, and the emphasis here will remain on the possibility of pastoral theologians taking the lead in encouraging specific spiritual practices. This theme was named earlier when we noted Robert Wuthnows thesis that we have moved in the post-WWII period from a spirituality of dwelling through the sixties to a spirituality of seeking, and now are in need of a spirituality centered around concrete practices. An emphasis on spiritual practice is also a way of retrieving balance in the contemporary debate over the future of American democracy. For some, the solution to contemporary social ills is to chastise U.S. culture for its individualism, calling for a return to an idealized community that encourages loyalty, self-sacrifice, and civic responsibility. For others, the solution has been to assert the priority of fairness, rights, social justice, and strong institutions capable of protecting individual freedom as well as minimizing the human costs inherent in any complex system of economic exchange. The one solution errs in demeaning the individual and in valorizing largely unworkable notions of community; the other overemphasizes rationality and social programs. Spiritual practice invokes the tradition of hard work, individual initiative, and responsible civic participation that has served the United States in the past and that is still widely shared at present. In emphasizing the need to reflect and to deliberate on the ultimate sources of ones moral commitments, this tradition denies that either communities or legal systems have all the answers and insists that effort must be devoted to questions of value if one is to live more than a mediocre existence. The facile shopping for quick-fix solutions to spiritual problems has not served the United States well nor has the hope that people could simply settle into a spiritual community that would solve their problems. An important part of what must be done, therefore, is to recover an understanding of both the value and urgency of spiritual practices. One other of Wuthnows theses needs to be recalled before making a concrete suggestion for pastoral theology. This is his research into American communal life which reveals the drastic differences in forms of community since WWII, and also that Americans have proved themselves quite adaptive in finding new forms of community through what he terms loose connections. Americans still care deeply about their communities and make efforts to connect with other people. However, these efforts generally do not take the same forms as they had in the past because of the increased diversity, fluidity, interdependence, and specialization of contemporary life. The main difficulty in generating greater civic engagement is not some moral malaise but rather a profound change in the character of our institutions. We have had to invent new ways of being involved in our communities. More specifically, porous institutions favor civic activities that are more loosely connected. Instead of enduring membership organizations, we now see a wide variety of activities that involve short-term or sporadic commitments and task-specific relationships that bring together individuals and organizations from different sectors of the community. This is a hopeful note which partially antidotes the dismay many have felt in relation to the breakdown of community in the industrialized West. Todays loose connections are real and substantial. Even though they may be more sporadic or span greater distances than in the past, they do link people together in a community of interest. Even though it is still true that many Americans do not know their next-door neighbors and live alone or in blended families, most do have friends and associates who care about them, and with whom they interact in meaningful ways. One additional point from Wuthnow mentioned earlier on was that in this day of high suspicion and distrust of institutions in general, the church will have to present itself to the public as interested in fostering the empowerment of individuals in service to the community, as opposed to seeking members for the self-serving purpose of supporting in-house institutional concerns. If we put all this together; one, the need for a spirituality of practice; two, the reality of new forms of community based around loose connections; and three, the ability of pastoral care persons to work with barriers, manage states of consciousness, and support expanded states of consciousness in the context of learning and teaching specific spiritual disciplines; the time seems right to build on the strengths of specialized pastoral care and counseling through offering a program termed something like clinical spirituality. It would embody certain lessons of 12-step programs. Clinical refers to the human context of real-life issues and barriers, spirituality to the knowledge that Spirit is the ultimate dimension of meaning which needs to be integrated into all aspects of our lives. This would in no way undercut the concerns of Hunter, and many others that parish pastors be more highly trained in specialized pastoral care, and that specialists themselves become more closely related to a local faith communities. It is also remains true that small, tight, committed communities are ultimately necessary to support more expansive church ministries. Local churches, with the support of pastoral care specialists, should be doing all in their power to shore up their band of resident aliens, and to offer seeker friendly points of contact with their communions. A strong recommendation of this work has been that self-consciously adopting and employing the wisdom of Gonzalez Type C theological tradition is the best option for strengthening the church while integrating the finest contributions of Jones five Theological Worlds. However, in a society where droves of spiritual seekers are not seeing local church membership as a viable option,  to begin with at least, and are culturally supported in their non-commitment, developing a nationwide network for clinical spirituality could be an important outreach which affects both church and community. Part of the beauty of 12-step programs in this transient society is that anyone can find a meeting anywhere in the country, simply drop in with relative anonymity, feel perfectly welcomed, and immediately join in a familiarly structured program. Hi, Im John, a spiritual seeker who wants to deepen my practice. No matter which church or organization sponsors the meeting space, there is no assumption that membership in that particular venue is at all required. This would be important for spiritual seekers in a day that is characterized by heavy-duty pluralism, although 86 percent of people in America still identify with Christianity in general. Tilden Edwards speaks of the possibility of working with pluralism without rescinding the particularity of our beliefs: The Reign of God is growing, and at the same time it is eternally present and full in our midst. The goal is at the same time both a return and advance to the fullness of this holy truth. God is equidistant from the beginning, the middle, and the end (as Augustine inferred), yet what unfolds is always fresh, unique form and possibility . . . . Such capacity for expecting the coincidence of opposites in the Mystery of God is particularly important in our pluralistic society and delicately interdependent planet today. One of the great strengths of American society has been its amazing capacity for religious pluralism along with outbursts of polarization. That pluralism at its best acknowledges a shared Transcendent Reality that catches up our differences into complementarity. Interestingly, many people within a community of faith would also welcome the anonymity and pluralism of a clinical spirituality meeting. There is an inherent difficulty of sharing deeply about things most personal: spirituality, sex, politics, money, etc. The difficulty can be magnified when talking with those who are most close. We might be quite committed to our local church, seriously wanting to deepen our faith and practice, but still be reticent to share deeply with the pastor or people because of the intimacy and multiple relationships among those whom we know too well, and have too much history with to feel absolutely safe. Thus, the increasing popularity of Emmaus or Cursillo weekends where the reality of grace is generally encountered among fellow seekers from other faith fellowships. It would not be hard to come up with a workable format of varying degrees of involvement: Perhaps large group meetings where everyone is encouraged to talk about how their spiritual practices are going, assuming they are the worlds expert on their own experience, and where a particular form of spiritual practice is taught each meeting; an optional smaller group meeting where more specific attention is paid to barriers the practices have evoked; and optional personal interviews with the leader or with approved peer guides. There are a wealth of spiritual practices already in print by Bohler, Wuellner, Foster, Willard and others which could be worked into appropriate literature for a clinical spirituality, providing the basis for the practices taught. It would not be a large stretch to train clinically grounded pastoral care persons in clinical spirituality. In addition to their clinical training, they would have to be committed to their own spiritual growth, of course. Beyond that, there are many who could readily learn basic differences in theological traditions (Gonzalez, Jones, etc.), moral styles of evaluation (Tipton, etc.), basic differences in personality, ways to run groups, and skills in introducing the practices as well as discerning their use by persons. Interested pastors and spiritual directors could be trained in the requisite clinical skills, so that approved leaders could feed in from both the clinical and the spiritual direction sides. It would be a good, ecumenical opportunity for churches in an area to come together and agree on how to support clinical spirituality in their locality, as Wuthnow suggests, they (who are not mega-churches) should also come together in cooperation around other specialized ministries such as those addressed to youth, singles, young adults, single parents, the divorced, blended families, business persons, families with young children, couples with grown children, retired persons, those who have lost spouses, those with AIDS, Interfaith-Hospitality for the homeless, cooperative food pantries, area wide revivals, namely all those things small congregations struggle with by themselves. Certainly any interested pastor in an area should be briefed on the various practices being taught, so that they know what some of his/her congregants are learning. It would also be crucial to keep clarity about the boundaries of a clinical spirituality, namely that is was indeed an attempt to met the present culture in terms of its predilection for loose connections. It would be clear that clinical spirituality did not pretend to provide the more in depth opportunities for worship, pastoral care, education, participation in a particular tradition, social concerns ministry and so forth that a local congregation could provide. Clinical spirituality leaders themselves would be expected to be active members of local fellowships, and to be able to name in non-judgmental ways the further benefits of local congregational life as participants found themselves ready to hear such input. It would come up naturally, as the inherent limitations of clinical spirituality became apparent. Theoretically, those churches who were supporters of the movement, would get points for sponsoring a no-strings-attached outreach ministry, and also being ready to receive inquirers when they knocked. On their part, seekers directed to more committed forms of religious community through clinical spirituality would have to understand that they cant do so without expecting to get their hands dirty; without being in community with real human beings who are the agony and the ecstasy, and who do have to attend to concrete institutional concerns at times to float the ship. Spirituality of all kinds should help us learn that the Spirit is available to help us with the difficult work of living in community with others; others who are so easy to just leave in our individualistic, privatistic culture. It should also be understood by any leader or guide of spiritual practices, that it is not a matter of commanding or manipulating the Spirit. Albert Outler put it this way: Charismata and all paranormal experience [are] divine gifts rather than . . . achievements. They may be prepared for, expected, appreciated with gratitude and joy and love; but they are not self-induced, or if apparently so, not ultimately. The holy is in us and with us and for us, but not at our beck and call. Spiritual techniques and exercises, transcendental meditations, yoga, prayer, and worship are all available means in our quest for lifes highest, deepest, fullest meanings. But their common aim must always be to put ourselves at the Spirits disposal and not to program Pentecost. Writing from within the field of pastoral counseling, Richard Dayringer expresses the same principle through referencing Bonhoeffer: Dietrich Bonhoeffer . . . suggested a penultimate form of ministry that is meaningful to the pastoral counseling relationship. The penultimate includes all the things that aid in providing the route over which God travels in coming to people. . . . The preparation of the way to divine-human encounter is known as a preparation only in retrospect. Gods self-sufficiency, self-initiation, and self-revelation serve as the main reasons for adopting a penultimate form of ministry. . . . Ministers do not bring Gods word to others. Perhaps they prepare the way, but God comes on his own initiative. Leaving now the possibility of new initiatives from pastoral theology such as clinical spirituality, we turn back to the 1993 study of AAPC certified training programs referenced above by Marv Gardner. Table 23 documented the Dissatisfaction with Pastoral Counseling Training Elements which Gardner discovered. The positive recommendations which came out of his study are as follows: Programs should clarify their criteria for faculty selection to assure that selection is related to pastoral identity as well as competence as a counselor educator . . . faculty who are personally and professionally sensitive to issues of spirituality, gender, race, and ethnicity. . . . Faculty should embody the process of pastoral and clinical integration they are called upon to foster in their students. . . . . Faculty decisions about program design should take seriously both faculty and student viewpoints and needs from a pastoral perspective. Clinical development which takes place without conscious concern for pastoral integration may be at the heart of the dissatisfaction with pastoral integration by faculty and students. . . . .Training programs should make sure that their curriculum and educational process focus on what they consider the essential pastoral content as well as essential clinical content. Only pastorally focused intentionality can empower programs to improve their integrative potential. . . . . Training programs should utilize training methods which focus upon integrating five interrelated developmental processes in each student: faith journeying, spirituality, theological reflection, clinical supervision, and personal pastoral psychotherapy for the student. These recommendations echo the results of other studies, such as one done at the large pastoral counseling program at Loyola Maryland associated with Robert Wicks. This is a Catholic university, but with a large number of Protestant students. It was discovered that the largest proportion of students in pastoral counseling programs are now non-ordained lay persons, the majority of whom indicated that a spiritual experience/call drew them to the pastoral counseling program. . . . The spiritual component of being called to a pastoral counseling program cannot be ignored. This study points to the spiritual dimension as an integral component for lay and ordained pastoral counselors and hence the need to address the spiritual lives of pastoral counselors within the pastoral counseling curriculum. Pastoral counseling programs often address the psychological aspect of the pastoral counselor by mandating personal counseling during training. Our data support making a case for advocating spiritual direction as an integral part of pastoral counseling training as well. Granted that the lived spirituality which a counselor brings to a session is crucial, internal, and difficult to measure, John Kwasny adds that one external way of tracking whether a renewed spirituality is finding its way into pastoral or Christian counseling is to empirically check whether specific spiritual practices are employed or not. Appendix G contains a brief suggestive list that could be the basis for such an evaluative instrument. Writing from an international perspective, but one highly conditioned by western, white, Protestant mainline pastoral care training, Rod Burton also recommends reformulating the field under the more general umbrella of spiritual formation, and renaming pastoral psychotherapy to make this clear. If these observations are valid, pastoral counseling as a unique form of therapy has no real place of its own. . . . We therefore propose renaming this ministry therapeutic spiritual direction. . . . Therapeutic spiritual direction is thus characterized by being rooted in the Christian tradition of spiritual direction, whilst being particularly attendant upon the counsellees need for healing. . . . Whatever healing is experienced is recognized as a gift from God, and the result of grace. The relationship established between counsellor and counsellee is conceived of as being trialogical, deliberately and consciously including God in the process, rather than being simply dialogical in nature. Therapeutic spiritual direction is consequently more concerned with discernment than it is with mere decision-making, when responding to the counsellees problems.. The means of grace, and traditionally Christian disciplines and forms of ministry are used as primary resources in helping counsellees to co-operate with God in bringing about this healing. It is recognized that the environment in which therapeutic spiritual direction takes place is of fundamental importance. . . . Particularly important aspects of this environment include its locus within the Christian community, and the resultant opportunities for participation in worship, prayer and acts of loving service. Because of his global viewpoint, it is good furthermore to quote Burton on that subject: Increasingly, ministry happens in a multi-cultural setting. Wimberly has drawn attention to the way in which a return to a theological focus in pastoral counselling makes that ministry more accessible to Afro-Americans. We believe that therapeutic spiritual direction, by its very nature, has greater potential for benefit in the growing number of cross-cultural contexts in which it must be practiced than does contemporary pastoral counselling, with its Western-dominated emphasis on individualism, its dependency on abstract conceptual and decision-making skills, and on advanced levels of literacy. . . . . . . There is a world-wide trend to take human spirituality more seriously. This trend impacts on all forms of ministry, including that of counselling. Transpersonal psychology, which includes, inter alia, aspects of Taoism, Buddhism, Yoga psychology, contemporary Sufism, the Christian mystical tradition, magic, alchemy, and the Cabalistic tradition, is currently at the cutting edge of this counselling practice. We suggest that therapeutic spiritual direction . . . could not only better address the current problems and frustrations experienced in contemporary pastoral counselling, but could also place the Christian church at the forefront of counselling, globally. Let us return now to Harville Hendrix at the 1976 AAPC meeting where he intuited that the field was moving toward a new paradigm which was beginning to shift away from defining the human problem solely in terms of intrapersonal and interpersonal difficulties, but also in terms of alienation from the transcendent. That beginning, which was birthed in the early seventies, has continued through the nineties up to the current moment according to this work. However, it would still have to be characterized as a beginning. Spirituality is everywhere, inside the movement and without, but there is not a common agreement about its meaning or the values it embraces (IC). It is not supported in any significant structural way (EC) that goes beyond the voluntary exploration of one more option within a pastoral caregivers personal preferences in a highly pluralistic, open field. Little attention has been paid, as Ken Wilber and other observers have noted, to concrete practices, injunctions, guides, or programs (EC) that could help promote a level of experiential signification for those seekers who want to understand the abstract signifiers so easily tossed about. There is not a coherent research project surrounding it and relating it to the other traditional concerns of the field. Hopefully, this exploration has added some clarity to how spirituality might be conceptualized for both the academy and the church in terms of agency-in-communion, how it has become grounded historically, how Jones typology can helpfully sort out the varieties of spirituality being offered, how interdisciplinary research with other fields might be joined, and how pastoral theology might be strengthened by looking seriously at the implications of the blossoming of spirituality and pastoral care materials from 1970 to the present. In many ways this essay has been an integrative effort which self-consciously wanted to demonstrate and build on the rich dialogue possible within the field on these issues. Edward Thornton, for instance, is one of the pioneers who identified the specific need for pastoral care to rework the theology of sanctification or spiritual journey . . . [which] cannot be done adequately apart from transpersonal and contemplative psychologies. He wrote that the pastoral emphasis on the spirituality of service needs to be complemented with a spirituality of sainthood. When God-consciousness and the consciousness of your true self are at one, you find center for pastoral care as well. Pastoral identity does not take root in role or pastoral office alone, or even in the pastoral function of caring. Rather, it is rooted in the human capacity for God-consciousness. The ground of pastoral identity is the ground of human identity and of Christian experience: the ground of being created in the image of God, and of being transformed from one degree of glory to another into the likeness of the Lord who is the Spirit (2 Cor. 3:18). Thus, Thornton suggests that we reshape pastoral care and counseling around the central task of awakening transpersonal consciousness. That is a nice way of expressing the importance of raising quadrant II, World One consciousness which deepens the compassion necessary for World Three personal change and World Two social change, brings into play the sense of forgiveness necessary for World Four, and grants the World Five peace which passes all understanding that allows endurance and survival with integrity. Certainly, the thesis of this work that pastoral care is moving from a concentration on self-realization to one of self-transcendence so that it should now be subsumed under the broader category of spiritual formation would agree with Thornton. It would be quick to add and emphasize that this move be understood and cultivated within Wilbers four-quadrant matrix. It is true that it all starts with consciousness (II). But, that consciousness must be appreciated and shared within a community (IC) that is so structured as to support the consciousness (EC) and encourage its behavioral implications (EI). A Reality Check But, while it is lovely to find those others who support my own prejudices, how realistic a wind of change is spirituality within pastoral care? Doing oral interviews with some of the pioneers, professors, and practitioners of pastoral care gave an opportunity for a reality check. The interviews were done on the whole after the methodological and historical research had been done, but before choosing the influential writers for the typological work. Some questions (see Appendix B) asked for opinions on the strength and meaning of the spirituality and pastoral care developments, as well as key figures and books. Other questions asked for opinions about where the future of pastoral care seemed to headed. Taken together, the questions provided a window into the field through some experienced eyes. What follows are highly condensed clips from the often hour-long conversations which in no way represent the depth or breadth of the interview. Many people referenced similar information or made related points. Taken together, the various quips and clips are meant to represent the gist of the viewpoints as a whole. Edward Thornton, who was last referenced above, does not see a highly demonstrable change in the way spirituality has affected the field since the early seventies. Of course, where he taught at Southern Baptist Theological Seminary with Wayne Oates there was already a lot of integration happening. Thornton notes that some parts of the clinical movement are still finding their way out of the old T-Group influenced psychodynamic model which somehow related all issues of integration to ego-strength. He reports receiving some good natured ribbing and resistance from colleagues when he first broached transpersonal issues, but this seemed natural since he himself had a lot of skepticism until he actually experienced this dimension. In addition to Jung and Assagioli the addictions field, of course, has spotlighted the reliance on a higher power, but many practitioners tend to use standard psychological methods in their work, unless spiritual concerns are broached with those who seem to have sound ego-integrity and overall maturity. Likewise, Thorntons colleague Wayne Oates only foresees spirituality having a moderate influence on specialized pastoral care and counseling, though he too has been a force behind pushing for a sound spiritual dimension. One reason is the many influences competing for attention such as licensure, third party payments, relation to the church, and more. Spirituality would also have to be considered more of a chapter than a movement within the field since there is no particular organization behind it. For those who already consider themselves spiritual guides and not just psychotherapists, the theme simply runs through the system. Oates made special mention of Frankl, Buber, C. S. Lewis, and Nouwen in terms of forerunners of the emphasis on spirituality. William S. Schmidt was a student in the SBTS doctoral program, and now teaches at the Loyola Institute for Pastoral Studies in Chicago after a number of years in Canada. He reports being well-grounded in transpersonal or contemplative dimensions of pastor care through the SBTS faculty which included Thornton, Oates, Albert Meiburg, Andrew Lester, and Samuel Southard. However, he would describe the field today in general as fragmented with no spiritual renewal across the board. Some programs are being pushed in the opposite direction through the need to justify their services with empirical, evidence-based methodologies. While a scientific approach doesnt necessarily mean a program is selling out to societal concerns for the sake of survival, it raises a question of how pastoral-spiritual identity is to be retained. Schmidt recalls Martin Israel, Frank Lake, and Evelyn Underhill as feeding into the emphasis on spirituality. He hopes the present ferment is a genuine movement of the Spirit, which should become clear from its fruits. Part of the impulse toward unitive experience is a concern for a fuller authenticity, and an equality which will break down gender, racial, and inter-faith barriers. Glenn Asquith, currently at the Moravian Theological Seminary, was another SBTS student during the seventies. In terms of practice, he notices that during the eighties hospital nursing programs began asking for spiritual assessment materials in their effort to provide holistic patient care, something which bridged over into CPE as well. He makes special mention of Boisen, May, Gerkin, Fowler, and Nouwen as spiritual influences in pastoral care. A desire to rediscover traditional practices as well as explore New Age possibilities has fueled the movement more than denominational concerns. The spiritual emphasis is probably here to stay in the broad sense of holistic concern for the whole self or soul. He named Clinebell, Kornfeld, and Wicks as current contributors to the emphasis. Howard Clinebell himself is more aware of continuity than discontinuity from 1970 since he has always held an immanental view of progressive revelation discovered in all the sciences, and always maintained an ongoing connection to the local church. He notes that there has been a growing appreciation of the under-emphasis pastoral counselors have put on what makes them unique among mental health providers, namely being the only ones trained in systemic moral-ethical, meaning-of-life questions. In recounting the origins of the pastoral counseling movement in a reaction against the hurtful moralisms and theological reductionisms of earlier years, he still thinks more work remains to be done in terms of clarifying pathogenic from salugenic religion. He notes that a new development is the current opposition of spiritual and religious. Also, for some the word spirituality has negative connotations of New Age excesses. Neo-Fundamentalist Christian Counselors, who Clinebell expects will continue to thrive in the coming years, generally avoid the word spirituality also. Along with others, Clinebell is happy to see the current president of AAPC is both a seminary professor and a clinician, which provides hope for the closer cooperation of pastoral care theory builders (who generally attend Society for Pastoral Theology meetings) and pastoral care practitioners (who generally relate to the AAPC). Carrie Doehring, at Boston University, also mentions the split between the academy and specialized practitioners. She notes the movement in the seventies on the part of theorists to go beyond an emphasis on individual psychology to pick up on contextual issues of caring including new developments in the psychology of women, gender issues, feminist studies, class issues, narrative theology, and the church context. But, it is not clear how much of that has filtered into the work of AAPC practitioners, many of whom tend to keep more abreast of the psychotherapeutic literature. AAPC in some ways still retains its historical ragged edge with organized religion. She names such writers as Gerkin, Browning, Couture, Poling, Graham, Hunter, and Ramsay as anchoring the field today to a theological grounding. She notes a growing emphasis on spiritual formation in theological education, but one that isnt always tied to pastoral care departments. She considers spirituality more of an influence in the field, as opposed to the stronger words of a chapter or movement. Again, it is a diverse influence where the methodologies for critiquing it and the theologies it embodies are not always impressive. Roberta Bondi, however, is a good historically grounded writer she recommends. Doehring, among many others, cites the work of AAPC president A. J. Hans van den Blink in fostering spirituality in the field. For van den Blink spirituality surely constitutes a new chapter in the field when compared to the late sixties. He remembers many practitioners who were ambiguous about their religious origins, but not ready to quit the church, and for a number of personal professional reasons identified themselves primarily as psychotherapists. Then things changed as the limitations of psychotherapy became more evident, as secular therapists became interested in spirituality and founded such things as Common Boundary, as Pruyser came out with The Minister as Diagnostician, and more recently as licensing and managed care have put pastoral counseling more on the defensive to claim its identity and make a case for itself. The new emphasis on spirituality definitely has an experiential bias toward authentic encountering of the holy. But while Thayer, Leech, and May have written clearly, much spirituality is anti-intellectualist, warm fuzzy, individualistic, more related to self-actualization than communal social action, and with no clear theological undergirding. There is a clear need for more authentic spiritual direction that is therapeutically informed, as well as knowledgeable of a persons embededness in larger contexts. Carolyn Bohler of United Theological Seminary also affirms the new chapter. For her, both spirituality and pastoral care have grown more holistic and therefore have grown towards each other and in a parallel direction. Perry LeFevres book on Understandings of Prayer, Clinebells work, more inclusive feminist theology, her own books on prayer and meditation along with Johansons books on preaching and pastoral care all fed into the new emphasis. While there are many divergent currents feeding into spiritual sensitivity with people of many faiths, a global awareness, an appreciation for ancient insights as well as New Age developments, there is a commonness in affirming the divergence. For William H. Willimon, now at Duke, there is little doubt that spiritual formation, biblical, or theological factors had minor functions in his early seventies CPE experience. When he first went to teach at Duke in 1976 there was a lot of student interest expressed for courses in spirituality, but the faculty mostly resisted what they considered an odd interest on the part of the students. Yet, a decade later, he notes, hardly any mainline seminary could get by without a number of such courses. His own book Worship As Pastoral Care was a beginning look at some of these issues, joined with the efforts of Nouwen, John Westerhoff, Ann and Barry Ulanov, to mention a few others. In some ways it has become clear how pastoral care, as it has been captured by psychology and psychotherapy can be greatly at odds with spirituality; especially the notion of a spiritual director with authority, or having notable respect for the tradition of the church. On the other hand a lot of spirituality can be mushy, lack a grounding in historical, biblical insights, and end up as a sort of free floating, generalized subjectivity. But overall, the earlier generation of pastoral care specialists so enamored with psychotherapy is phasing out, and a new more psychologically balanced and/or skeptical group is coming in that should insure the spirituality dimension will be a permanent aspect of the field. Rodney Hunter at Emory, who has been much quoted throughout this extended dialogue, comments that spirituality is not so much a dominant thread, but an open interest in the field. Given the recent emphasis on social-cultural issues of marginalization, exclusion, social empowerment, globalization, and so forth, there is concern that spirituality could subvert social concerns in support of a privitistic status quo. Feminists, or those with a healthy hermeneutics of suspicion, might be the ones to best develop and bridge a responsible spirituality into pastoral care. Factors that are feeding into the spiritual impulse include interest in meditation and deepening the inner life, religious resources for healing, the role of lay caring in ministry, congregational studies of how to implement communal caring, inter-faith cross-cultural dialogue, retired persons with long life expectancies asking questions of meaning, and the non-reductionistic writing on faithful religion by such psychologically sophisticated people as Fowler, Meisner, and Gerkin. David Switzer, who retired from Perkins School of Theology in Texas a few years ago, can see in his own experience the cycle of renewal of spirituality within pastoral care. When he attended seminary in 1947 there was still an emphasis on prayer, worship, and bible study, but no clinical courses available. Those who developed the clinical work at the time were often antagonistic to the church, and there was a mutual suspicion of such pioneers on the part of a number of parish pastors. Today there is a better, clinically-informed appreciation for the church and religious resources. Pastoral care specialists can now easily ask open-ended questions such as Where do you see God in all this? in contrast to thirty years ago when that was quite uncommon. Still, there is no particular structure to accommodate those who want to integrate spirituality and pastoral care. Looking back, it seems clear that pioneers like Clinebell and Oates, for instance, maintained strong relationships with the church, but trained a number of students without a similar commitment. It has also been hard to find Ph.D.s capable of publishing in the academy who have significant parish experience to fill seminary teaching positions. In any case, it seems good to be training and supporting local pastors to do good pastoral care, as opposed to pursuing the contradictions inherent in state regulated pastoral counseling professionals in private practice. Richard T. Frazier is an AAPC Diplomat who has published in the field. From his perspective spirituality, ethics, and theology have all become more equal dialogue partners with psychology since the late sixties. The work of Hauerwas, Nelson, McFague, Wink, and feminist writers have been influential. On the psychological side, object relations theorists such as Winnicott who talk of transitional spaces and the creative uses of imagination have opened up more dialogue with religion. The increased attention to ritual, sacred space, threshold experiences, meditation, and healthy religion in the writings of Eliade, LeShan, Thich Nhat Hahn, Nouwen, May, and Native American authors has fueled the exploration of spirituality. Another current impetus to a deeper religious longing is the entertaining preaching in todays mega-churches directed towards seekers which offers little tension or depth in relation to a persons actual life dilemmas. Edward P. Wimberly, as noted above, has made a career out of integrating spirituality and prayer into pastoral care and counseling. Although he has written out of the African-American church tradition, his books have sold well, and been utilized throughout the broader movement of pastoral theology. He recalls being encouraged in the early days by William Hulmes Pastoral Care Come of Age which legitimated God language once more. Likewise, Clinebells Basic Types included the possibility of more active, directive engagement in counseling. This was more appropriate for a variety of church situations including the black church where a pastor is strongly symbolic as Gods representative, and is encouraged to join solidly with someone in their predicament. Wimberlys efforts were also given credence by the failure of modernity, the critiques of pastoral counseling as non-confessional, and the rise of feminist and liberationist theories of the self-in-relation. His own work joined with that of Lester, Capps, and Gerkin has made narrative approaches to pastoral theology, combined with sensitivities to cross-cultural and intergenerational issues, more central to the field. Wimberly is one of a number who believe that the managed care-licensure-third party payment issues will drive specialized pastoral counseling back into the churches as the place for private practice recedes. David Augsbuger, of course, has done much since the late sixties to heighten the cross-cultural sensitivities of western pastors who have been so greatly culture bound, both socially and therapeutically. He also feels a definite change from the late sixties when a fairly flat or horizontal universe was in play with a little of process theology and Tillichs correlational method thrown in. Rogers and the psychoanalytic model held sway, and pastoral care students oriented around the DSM. Things began to change when clinically competent people like James Hillman and Paul Pruyser affirmed spiritual realities. Today, having a firm theological grounding is a strength as opposed to a liability. Theology does not need to be bracketed. There is a naturalness to being able to discuss Gods presence-absence in a session. Both Merton and Nouwen helped legitimate the way into deeper explorations of spirituality Eugene Robinson is the current Director of the Georgia Association for Pastoral Care. He sees a shift, though not a monumental one, from the late sixties to the present. It parallels in some respects the opening up of psychotherapeutic paradigms. End-sixties pastoral counseling was heavily influence by Carl Whitaker, Tom Malone, and the Atlanta Psychiatric Clinic whose emotionally confrontive psychoanalytic approach was effective, as Karl Menninger writes in his Theory and Practice of Psychoanalytic Technique, in helping people regress and become undressed, but not always so good in reversing the process. Now, family systems work and other approaches have taught that there is more than one route to understanding and healing. Today CPE groups show much more interest in spirituality and Clinebells book on Counseling for Spirit-Centered Wholeness is quite popular. The spirituality is basically non-denominational and non-dogmatic. One of the benefits of current CPE groups is that students are brought together from very dissimilar backgrounds and begin to discover that they attach significantly different meanings to the same language. White, middle-class, suburbanites bring different questions to the spiritual quest than some black students who have had to deal with more survival issues in their lives. When Pentecostals talk about the Spirit moving, they bring a much more high energy, passionate meaning to it than the more subdued rationality of their Episcopal and Presbyterian colleagues. Robinson agrees it is much harder to get around global and ethnic issues today. However, he notices that a number of caucasian peers are using the correct language while still not being experientially impacted by the gifts and graces of others distinct from themselves. Carrroll Saussy is recently retired from Wesley Theological Seminary in Washington, DC. She brought to her teaching a background as a religious who did a Ph.D. at the Graduate Theological Union, closely related to the spirituality program at San Anselmo Theological Seminary pioneered by Roy Fairchild. So, the issue of spirit was always there, although today spirituality is considered by many as too eclectic, too New Age, and too much associated with aromatherapy, crystals or whatever the latest fad is. The largest changes from her point of view have been the incorporation of contextual issues and social analysis, largely by feminist writers such as Neuger, Orr, Bohler, Doehring, Greider, Couture, Marshall, McLemore, Ramsay, Gill-Austurn, Harris, and Carol Christ. This has led to a more democratic, relational, equalitarian approach to spirituality. It shows up, for instance, in the classes she taught utilizing meditation, journaling, writing reflections at the end of classes--generally staying in touch, and encouraging everyone learning from each other as a community. Likewise, the newer emphasis on congregational studies incorporates more of the emphasis on healing community and fostering healthy relationships. It also is demonstrated in the meetings of the Society for Pastoral Theology which are wonderfully egalitarian. Larry Kent Graham at Iliff Seminary in Denver likewise affirms the new sensitivity within pastoral care theorists to contextual issues of social location and political consciousness. While there is an openness to spiritualities which could support efforts to confront social injustice, there is a corresponding suspicion that some approaches are individualistic and immersed in male images of God and power inappropriate for women and marginalized peoples. While theological concerns have gained increased strength within the pastoral care movement, spirituality for Graham is more centered in practices, too often associated with naive theologies where everyone is their own expert, and there is little critical, reflective engagement. There seems to be little or no research in spirituality that could relate it to personality theories and provide a place to put data. Therefore, Graham characterizes the relationship between spirituality and pastoral care as parallel concerns that sit down beside each other on occasion. Those occasions are being spurred by a number of factors: the interest in the health field in research on prayer outcomes such as Larry Dosseys work; the interest of secular therapists in spirituality such as the Harvard conferences on spirituality and healing; the need of pastoral care to demonstrate positive outcomes of religious interventions to justify itself to managed care; the writings on special topics such as spirituality and or the spirituality of . . .sexuality- liberation-gay and lesbian support groups-addictions-aging, etc. Again, pastoral care seems to be following, more than leading the integration. Graham also notes contributions of pastoral-spiritual writers influenced (but not captured) by Jung such as Jean and Wallace Clift. Marie McCarthy also brings a Catholic background to her teaching, and to her therapeutic work through the Center for Religion and Psychotherapy in Chicago. For her, speaking out of a thoroughly Catholic soul, the seventies did not spawn the spiritual because from the beginning there has always been an essential spirituality of the heart. She does recount the birth of the pastoral care and counseling movement as a reaction against a stifling, restricted religiosity that could not enjoy or promote the fullness of the human potential. Plus, the Protestant tradition has always tended to be more left-brained and biased against mystical impulses. Nevertheless, even though the Spirit has always induced a hungering for the more, there is today a heightened awareness of the hungering. Plus, there is more explicit use of spiritual language in counseling, less inhibition and embarrassment about broaching religious concerns, though it is still probably harder than talking about sex. One of the liberating forces has been the increasing popularity of comparative religion studies such as the work of Jacob Needleman. McCarthy is concerned about the utilitarian use of spirituality as an add-on, such as employing centering prayer to lower blood pressure. She believes practices need the context of a full tradition, stronger as opposed to looser connections, for meaningful spiritual engagement. At the same time, the need to concentrate on particularity must be kept in tension with global and pluralistic issues. John Patton, currently at Columbia Theological Seminary after many years with the Georgia Association for Pastoral Care, sees all experience as spiritually and theologically informed on some level, so talk of spirituality seems to be more of the latest rubric under which such things are discussed. The question is how does it relate to pastoral care. For Patton, it comes in specifically through the emphasis on narrative theology, especially when the story someone is living is having a problem relating to the larger stories of the tradition. He also sees the increased demand for spiritual assessment tools in the field, especially in hospital work. He mentions a number of people who are dealing with such issues today: Bob More, the Clifts, Tess Darby, Robin Kinard, and Mary Ann Broechert. Patton also points out that the clinical pastoral movement has always been essentially ecumenical, which means it embraces a general understanding of spirituality. Thus, there is always a balancing, for instance, between Christian spirituality versus a more open, general revelation, a tension between the particularities of someones specific religious tradition and larger possibilities, all of which can seem mushy to those who have more specific ideas about such things. David Seamands, who has been retired for a few years from teaching pastoral theology at Asbury Theological Seminary, sees the changes since 1970 through the eyes of the evangelical community. The American Association of Christian Counselors has recognized himself, Crabb, Dobson, and Collins as pioneers in integrating biblical truth with the insights of clinical psychology. His own roots were from the mission field in India where he met Frank Lake and E. Stanley Jones, and from learning the healing of memories work from Agnus Sanford. Generally speaking, Seamands describes his undertaking and accomplishments as being driven by the pastoral need to relate to the distress of people who came to him for help. He was continually going back and forth between these real situations, and the books, colleagues, and trainings he could find, learning more and more about the dynamics of healing grace through his actual experience. Likewise, he recounts how the emphasis on prayer and the Holy Spirit in counseling was driven by counselees who clearly indicated that insight was not enough, and demanded that transcendent power be brought to bear, thus forcing a number of counselors into more specifically religious work, sometimes with their heels dragging all the way. Today the evangelical counseling community has a wealth of literature dealing with virtually every issue people struggle with. The word spirituality, however, is rarely used since it can refer to virtually anything. Andrew Purves currently teaches at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary. He sees the new interest in spirituality as given impetus in America by Merton, Nouwen, and Leech. He is also aware of how this, combined with the new interest in theology and ethics, is creating tension in the field as it encounters the still dominant Hiltnerian model carried by Hiltners old students, who are now the senior leaders in pastoral theology. Purves himself represents some of the newer people in the field, such as Eugene Peterson, who came a different route, namely through theology and the pastorate into pastoral theology. Purves was trained as a Barthian in Edinburgh, Scotland, and is concerned that a stronger Christology is needed in ministry than the one of Jesus as model, so common in the current perspective. As others have noted, he sees a strong desire on the part of students for classes in spirituality, but those offered might or might not be tied into the pastoral care departments. In some schools it is still trying to gain entrance with older faculties who have continued to resist student pressure. For Purves, there is a great hunger for God in the general culture. Within ministry there is a corresponding desire for God, which is not met by addressing the psyche alone. He finds great responsiveness in on-line pastors to teaching from the classic tradition on the nature of church, word, and sacrament, on the pastoring God, and the priesthood of Christ which pastors participate in. Looking to the future, he believes the interest in the dialogue with the tradition will continue, and that some of the more entertaining aspects of seeker-friendly worship will wear thin as they reveal their lack of depth in relating to the substance people are seeking. Bonnie Miller-McLemore is currently at Vanderbilt, since moving from Chicago Theological Seminary. She doesnt see the new emphasis on spirituality as having the same magnitude as the shift into specialized pastoral care and counseling contrasted to the pastoral care of the 20s, 30s, and 40s. For her, spirituality has gone hand in hand with the increased emphasis on broader theological concerns since the 80s. Clearly today, there is more honesty in pastoral counselors overtly broaching faith claims. Recent seminary surveys reveal courses in spirituality outstripping ones in counseling. Writers such as Liebert, Ramsay, Underwood, and Gill-Austern uphold spiritual emphases broadly conceived in pastoral care, and specifically related to the community of faith, as opposed to individual pietism. Part of the renewed interest has been a resurfacing of spiritual hunger that psychology has not proved to be an adequate substitute for, combined with the realization of psychologys inherent limits. The future of pastoral care will undoubtedly continue its emphasis on inclusivity in relation to marginalized feminist, womanist, African-American, and post-modern voices, where spirituality could have a greater or lesser role depending on how it is conceived and presented. For James Loder of Princeton Theological Seminary, the Spirit is, and must remain, central to pastoral care and counseling. As with the work of Deborah van Deusen Hunsinger, pastoral counseling must be set in a theological context to prevent it being corrupted by the psychological and political reductionisms which abound. Clearly the Freudian project failed as science, even as it succeeded as art. It was not able to fulfill the vision and hope people had for it. Pastoral care is now being forced back to its own resources where the Holy Spirit is seen as working relationally before, during, and after counseling to move the human spirit toward worship in the Kierkegaardian sense. Science and faith can be dialogue, if it is done with theological integrity. Likewise, spirituality itself must be theologically conceived so it does not become the new narcissism. To maintain theological integrity, and keep from being both ingrown and hopelessly fragmented, Loder would like to see pastoral care and counseling, Christian education, administration, worship and all pastoral functions under the common umbrella of practical theology as it moves into the future. As noted above, Don Browning at the University of Chicago has been working to broaden contemporary pastoral theology into engagement with moral and cultural-social dimensions for years. For him it is justifiable to note spirituality as a new emphasis since theology was not prominent for late-sixties, liberal pastoral care, and now there is a discernable emphasis on both prayer and an experienced religious dimension to pastoral care. Elaine Ramshaws book on ritual has sold well, and there is more attention to the congregational context of care. There is the danger that pastoral psychotherapy, while exuding a spiritual ethos of sorts, simply uses spirituality as an adjunct to personal growth, and hospitals use it in the service of health. Either way there is a disengagement from larger public issues, and no clear bridge between spirituality, ethics, and theology. After reviewing these many opinions, it still seems fair to say that there is a significant ferment of spirituality in the field of white, mainline pastoral care and counseling, and that it is just beginning to be integrated by pastoral theologians. There were many common concerns mentioned throughout the interviews. What does spirituality mean? How can the various uses be understood or organized? Is there a connection to serious theological traditions? Is there some way it can become part of a research agenda and related to other aspects of pastoral care? Is it another form of individual pietism or does it have implications in social-political contexts? Does it go beyond particular practices to have constructive influences on the larger field of theology? An overall sense emerged that the pastoral care community is being swept along with the new emphasis on spirituality both within and without the movement, but is still struggling to get a handle on it. Many understood it as an aspect of the more general attention to theological and ethical issues since 1970, and to a more holistic view of what it means to be human. Although a number of names of spirituality and pastoral care writers were identified as influential, each person interviewed seemed to live in a particular theological world, as we all do, and few seemed to have an overall view of the many contributions that are available. It was interesting that so many persons named the paradox that the secular world of government and managed care is now forcing what had been a fairly secularized form of counseling to go back to its roots, find its uniqueness, and advocate for the power and necessity of the spiritual in the lives of all people who seek healing broadly conceived. Many also named the concern to better train and support local pastors in pastoral care, especially in the strengthening of relational-communal care through the fellowship and ritual of the congregationa key thrust of the spirituality and pastoral care literature. Virtually everyone was happy and encouraging to have such a work as this struggle with such issues on behalf of the pastoral-theological community. End It has been said repeatedly in these pages that the Christian pilgrimage toward increased levels of agency-in-communion results measurably in an increasingly compassionate heart as well as compassionate action, in such a way that the emphasis on the part and on the whole are both honored. Andrew Purves has come to similar conclusions which he expresses well. It is fitting to conclude with some of his thoughts from his book The Search for Compassion: Spirituality and Ministry. Purves notes that for all its power and possibilities, compassion has been a forgotten topic in Christian pastoral theology and ministry. It is necessary to place it back now onto center stage. This is a crucial move for, it is in the search for a renewed compassion that both clergy and laity can find a profound rootedness in the life of God and participate in Gods continuing work of redeeming the world. President Jimmy Carter has recently seconded this need to recover the centrality of compassion and peace. In its commitment to be ready to help diplomatically with peace The Carter Center at Emory University analyzes every conflict in the world on a daily basis, currently around a 110. In regard to the role of the worlds great religions, Carter said this: Quite often, we dont find any concerted effort by Christians or Jews or Muslims or even Hindus to exalt the priority of peace, as the founders of our religions taught. Jesus is known as the Prince of Peace, and the Muslim faith and others, which I need not delineate, also have as a major tenet of their faith the preservation of peace and the alleviation of suffering. . . . I dont know what the potential would be if the various religious leaders could come together with both ministers and bishops and also lay persons with peace for all people as a major goal. That has not been done. I hope in the future it might be done. Moving to the issue of making grace specific, Purves writes that compassion is a situational ministry. Compassionate responses must be tailor-made to the situation, as Jesus Christ responds to us uniquely and personally. Spiritually speaking, compassion is a participation in Jesus compassion, in which we enter into the inner life of the Holy Trinity. . . . Growth in compassion is the fruit of our life in Christ. The balance of the part-in-relation-to-the-whole is maintained where Purves argues compassion is both pastoral [individual] and social ministry. He quotes Walter Brueggemann who writes that the compassion of Jesus is to be understood not simply as a personal emotional reaction but as a public criticism in which he dares to act upon his concern against the entire numbness of his social context. For Purves, Compassion is a ministry that bridges the gap between social and pastoral ministries. For far too long we have had to work with outmoded and stereotypical assumptions about ministries of social action and ministries of pastoral care. We assumed that there was little interconnection. But the plain truth is, there is a problem in our core conception of ministry if we feel that we must choose between a social and a pastoral ministry. Such exclusivism opens up a vicious dualism, causing ministry to become one-sided and fractured. . . . In the New Testament . . . Jesus ministered in compassion to social needs and to pastoral needs. It is the whole person who is the focus of compassion, and at the end of the day that is always the person in community and the person in relationships. Here in the compassionate community we see the common goal of both social and pastoral ministry: the service of the [Realm] of God. Afterword In the Preface I attempted to give some background and fair warning about where I was coming from and what motivated me to undertake this study. While a dissertation makes a valiant effort to balance subjectivity with objectivity, it is appropriate at the end to confess the nature of the perhaps not-totally-underground sermon embedded within the text which I would preach to a gathering asking the so what? question after reading these many pages. The text on my mind is Proverbs 29:18, where there is no vision, the people perish. I am inspired by Carly Simons hymn (see dedication page) which suggests it is the dreamers who hope for the New Jerusalem who are called to wake the nation. If it is not already clear, although this has been an interdisciplinary essay addressed to both the academy and the church, it is pastoral theology which moves my particular heart to dream, and to want to blaze a trail of desire through the darkening dawn as she suggests. While I am happy, moved, and enriched for other people to have their own dreams and passions, if I could share the vision the Spirit has evoked in my own imagination with fellow participants in pastoral theology, and those others interested for their own reasons, I would encourage joining in a number of endeavors. I would say: Lets have a go at struggling with the unity of knowledge, addressing the academy, and further clarifying what we are about. Here, engaging Wilber is a good way into science. His treatment of the basic building blocks of holons solves a lot of problems and illuminates a lot of possibilities. His four quadrant schema honors all the sciences in a non-reductionistic way, and the developmental structuralism of his spectrum of consciousness validates religious states of being both spiritually and scientifically. Likewise Jennings work on linguistics, the religious imagination, and transformative Word-events builds an academic bridge between philosophy, theology, and the psychologies which deal with the organization of experience. Lets affirm that the movement in recent pastoral care from a concentration on self-realization to self-transcendence is not simply an historical phenomenon, but a necessary and important one. Lets take the opportunity and momentum to redefine the field of pastoral theology in terms of spiritual formation and thereby solve our identity issues while embracing the task of encouraging growth in all seekers from the image to the likeness of God in viable community. Lets understand our work in relation to the spiritual quest in the largest Western, American, and pastoral contexts, as well as its present day manifestations. Here Jones theological worlds and Gonzalezs theological traditions build a helpful beginning bridge back to Odens classical consensus and biblical theology, and forward to modern developmental psychology and liberationist theologies. Lets engage in public theology through such concepts as the team meme, driven by such urgencies as the 1999 Fannie Mae Foundation survey which says the most significant factor in the next 50 years will be the growing disparity between the rich and poor. Lets do it through discerning what New Light might mean in relation to the deep themes and symbols of American history, symbolized in the American Dream meme. Lets embrace the lesson that it takes more than the reasonableness of a reconceived dream to counter self-interest and demonic fears and prompt decisions which are better for all. It takes a requisite level of consciousness characterized by compassion which is a fruit of the Spirit. Lets embrace the lesson that it takes more than reason to develop such compassionate consciousness that Christian scriptures only apply to Jesus. It takes communal support of spiritual practices, rituals and therapies which the spirituality and pastoral care literature says is best done in non-ordinary states of consciousness, which foster a greater willingness for the gifts of Gods grace to be received. In a time and culture of loose associations, lets take the best skills of specialized pastoral care in dealing with barriers to Gods specific grace and join them with the best knowledge of spiritual directors to provide some wide-spread, interdenominational program such as clinical spirituality which can undergird the impulse of the Reign of God for right-relatedness among all peoples and nations. In the words of musical prophetess Carly Simon, Its asking for the taking; trembling, shaking. All my heart is aching. Were coming to the edge, running on the water, coming through the fog, your sons and daughters. Let the river run. Let all the dreamers wake the nation. Come the New Jerusalem. Jones, Soul Making, 23-24. J. LeBron McBride, Spiritual Crisis: Surviving Trauma to the Soul (New York: Haworth Pastoral Press, 1998), 9, quoting Edwin H. Friedman, Generation to Generation (New York: Guilford Press, 1985), 5. See also Mary Catherine Hilkert, Naming Grace: Preaching and the Sacramental Imagination (New York: Continuum, 1998) who develops the concept of preaching as the art of naming grace in human experience through the lens of a critical sacramental imagination. (p.192) Schneiders, Spirituality in the Academy, 696. Pettit, Holistic Spirituality, 1, referring to Harville Hendrix, Pastoral Counseling: In Search of a New Paradigm, Pastoral Psychology Vol. 25 (1977): 1157-172. Marv Gardner, Integrating the Pastoral Dimension Into Pastoral Counseling Training Programs, Journal of Pastoral Care Vol. 47 No. 1 (Spring 1993): 56-65; quote p. 63. The study, done 1989-90, employed the utilization-focused education evaluation formulated by Michael Q. Patton, Utilization-focused Evaluation, 2nd ed. (Beverly Hills: Sage Publications). The strategy chosen was triangulation of data. Training programs documents, an analytic survey, and interviews with faculty and students were combined to gather data. Both quantitative and qualitative data about the integrative process were fundamental aspects of the evaluation strategy. (p. 57) Outler, Pastoral Psychology, 14. Leroy Howe, Outlers editor, voices this opinion: Now even more than in Outlers time there is a desperate need for informed, intelligent, and inspired voices sounding a deeply pastoral understanding of the human condition whose base is a critically reflected and emphatically appropriated theological anthropology expressive of the Christian traditions best insights into the transcendent origin and destiny of the humanum. (p. 15) Margaret Kornfeld, Integrating Spirituality and Psychotherapy: What Can Happen When We Stop Our Turf Wars over Mind, Body, and Spirit? American Journal of Pastoral Counseling Vol. 1 No. 1 (1997): 78. See Margaret Zipse Kornfeld, Cultivating Wholeness: A Guide to Care and Counseling in Faith Communities (New York: Continuum, 1998). Kornfeld, Integrating, 79-80, 82. See William Telfer, ed., Cyril of Jerusalem and Nemesius of Emesa (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1955). While it took awhile, pastoral counselors also came to know that doctors should not be anointed as the new priests and healers of society. A lot of what they did was speculation and experimentation at peoples expense masquerading as science, and was anything but non-repressive, neutral, and/or non-toxic. See, for instance, the various works of R. D. Laing; LeShan, Dilemma; Jonas Robitscher, The Powers of Psychiatry (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1980); Thomas Szasz, Cruel Compassion: Psychiatric Controls of Societys Unwanted (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994); and Peter R. Breggin, Toxic Psychiatry (New York: St. Martins Press, 1991). M. Scott Peck, a psychiatrist who gave an influential boost to the spirituality and pastoral care literature through his popular The Road Less Traveled demonstrates some unconscious abuse of patients himself in his People of the Lie: The Hope for Healing Human Evil (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983). Kornfeld, Integrating, 81. Kornfeld, Integrating, 82. Kornfeld, Integrating, 85. Outler, Pastoral Psychology, 115. And in the words of Karl Rahner, who has also been influential in Protestant circles, pastoral theology deals with the action of the church. It is pastoral because it engages concrete circumstances; it is theological because it reflects systematically on the nature of the Church and analyzes the circumstances which confront the church today. See his Theology of Pastoral Action, 25, quoted in Herbert Anderson, Pastoral Theology after Christendom, Journal of Pastoral Theology (1998): 29-42, quote p. 37. This position is consistent with Snook, What in the World is God Doing?, who argues the biblical position that the Spirit is the power of God pervading all forms of secular power. (p. 6) Look for a forthcoming article by Larry Kent Graham which expounds more on pastoral theology as public theology, based on a presentation he gave at the June 18, 1999 Denver meeting of the Society for Pastoral Theology titled Pastoral Theology as Public Theology in Relation to the Clinic. McLoughlin, Revivals, 215. Bormann, Force of Fantasy, 240. Bormann, Force of Fantasy, 241. The search for suitable metaphors which can preach and be persuasive to large segments of the society is hard. The suggestion of being parts of one family does not capture the inherent competitive nature of life; many members of one body is too Christian; the image of the web works well for feminists, but alienates many evangelicals; and while team is understandable to everyone, it has historically been more associated with maleness, than femaleness, though that is changing through such things as professional womens basketball, and the sensational support for the American womans team as it won the world soccer championship in 1999. John B. Cobb, Jr., Postmodern Social Policy in David Ray Griffin, ed., Spirituality and Society: Postmodern Visions (Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, 1988), 99-106; quote p. 103. Cobb, Postmodern Social Policy, 104. Cobb, Postmodern Social Policy, 104. Cobb, Postmodern Social Policy, 105. Cobb, Postmodern Social Policy, 105. Another part of Cobbs vision includes how future habitats would be constructed. He hopes that postmodern cities would be organized to encourage human interchange within them. . . . They would minimize the time and expense devoted to transportation. (p. 106) They would not be spread out over sprawling suburbs covering precious farm land, but built more compactly and efficiently on the land least suited for organic production. From the possibilities he has seen the arcologies of Paolo Soleri would best accomplish all these goals of a postmodern vision. (p. 106) Kortens, The Post-Corporate World was referenced earlier. He is one thinker who believes that when there is sufficient clarity and participation, that corporate-capitalism will give way to more of a democratically governed market economy, more in line with the original market principles envisioned by Adam Smith. Sally Morgenthaler, Worship Evangelism (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999), 59-60. Again, Bormann, Force of Fantasy, 241 would counsel: The rhetoric of restoration requires a redramatization and reinterpretation of the events of the founding. Rhetoricians of restoration need to discover heroic figures from the past and to create new scenarios relating to those times. Converts to the reform movement which contains the restoration theme become more committed to the basic values implied by the unifying vision of the community. The process of conversion . . . is essentially a matter of chaining into and sharing the fantasy themes of the new vision. In that process, the old values are revitalized for the convert. To the extent that pastoral theology could prepare the ground for encouraging people to adopt something like the team-meme out of their deepest spiritual values, it would be working to counter Stephen Carters present perception that religion is made largely irrelevant by capitalism, large scale bureaucracies, and scientific technology. See his The Culture of Disbelief: How American Law and Politics Trivialize Religious Devotion (New York: Basic Books, 1993). Edwards, Spiritual Friend, 24; Miroslav Volf, After Our Likeness: The Church as the Image of the Trinity (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1998), 2. Rodney J. Hunter, Religious Caregiving and Pedagogy in a Postmodern Context, Journal of Pastoral Theology (1998): 15-28. Larry Kent Graham and Nancy Ramsay, Editorial, Journal of Pastoral Theology (1998): iii-viii, quote p. v. Hunter, Religious Caregiving, 21. Pettit, Holistic Spirituality, 10, quoting Wimberly, Prayer, 14. Wimberly, Prayer, 15. This position doesnt seem a large step away from the way Wimberly outlines pastoral counseling in general. He notes that, pastoral counselors can assume that the interceding Spirit is already at work within parishioners lives, seeking to bring wholeness and healing. His discernment model then draws on narrative language to express how the Spirit works at deep psychological levels in the lives of people. And pastoral counseling is viewed as a process of enabling faith in Gods healing work; this awareness assists in the therapeutic process. When believers come to trust Gods relational presence, they gain the security to make necessary growth changes toward health and wholeness. Wimberly, Prayer, 13, 11 In terms of Deborah van Deusen Hunsinger application of the Chalcedonian pattern in her Theology and Pastoral Counseling this general approach might be criticized as not being without confusion or change but would agree with her argument for the conceptual precedence or asymmetrical order of theology over psychology in their dialogue. David Lyall, Counselling in the Pastoral and Spiritual Context (Buckingham: Open Univ. Press, 1995), 135, says this in relation to multiple contexts: It is important that counsellors should be aware of all the different stories that are present in any counselling situation. These will include the client or parishioners own life-story, the counsellors story, and stories and myths [theological worlds] that may be part of a shared culture [Type ABC theologies plus the America Dream] or community of faith. One of the tasks in the training and supervision of carers and counselors is to enable them to understand the place of these stories both in the lives of their clients and in the counselling process itself, a task which has been explored in detail elsewhere. See J. Foskett and D. Lyall, Helping the Helpers: Supervision and Pastoral Care (London: SPCK, 1988). Anderson, Pastoral Theology after Christendom, 31. Anderson, Pastoral Theology after Christendom, 32.  David Lyall, Counselling in the Pastoral and Spiritual Context (Buckingham: Open Univ. Press, 1995), 107. Earlier it was mentioned that Lawrence LeShans work (Cancer As a Turning Point) with cancer patients demonstrated the life-saving importance of not just working barriers which clean up issues in the past but barriers to moving forward with hope into Gods future. Likewise, Hunter, Moltmanns Theology of the Cross and the Dilemma of Contemporary Pastoral Care, 87, writes: For eschatological theology, the human problem is not to be who we are, but to begin being who we shall be, to be reoriented beyond our present reality toward the God who is to come, who makes all things new, who forgives the sinner and raises the dead. Johanson, Feed My Sheep, 7. Johanson, Feed My Sheep, 8. Outler, Pastoral Psychology, 245. Outler, Pastoral Psychology, 238. Outler, Pastoral Psychology, 236. Also: I am no more concerned to depreciate paranormal states of consciousness than I am willing for the mystics to depreciate normal consciousness. . . . There is nothing wrong in our hunger for ecstasy. Our memories of rapture color all our subsequent experience, and so do our expectations of raptures still to come. . . . Our humdrum and ecstatic states do not come unhallowed or hallowed, in and of themselves. Both have to be hallowed--by our conscious, willing recognition of the givenness of the holy in them and by the application of the same moral and social norms to [their] human consequences. (p. 237) Outler, Pastoral Psychology, 245. For if you are led by the Spirit [and this is what St. Paul means by charismatic experience, in any of its contexts], you are not under the law. . . . This is because the fruits of the Spirit are love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, fidelity, gentleness, self-control. There is no law dealing with such things as these. If, therefore, the Spirit is the source of our life, then let the Spirit also direct our course (Galatians 5:18, 22, 25). (p. 245) Loder, The Logic of the Spirit, 34-35. A helpful guide through Kierkegaards complexity is C. Stephen Evans, Soren Kierkegaards Christian Psychology: Insight for Counseling & Pastoral Care (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1990). Wuthnow, After Heaven, 17-18. See Sharon Peebles Burch, Collective Absolute Presuppositions: Tectonic Plates for Churches (New York: Peter Lang, 1999) who also suggests practical theology should concentrate on practices, but more in the realm of cultural interpretation of underlying presuppositions which organize such practices, what we were considering in the previous section. Wuthnow, Loose Connections, 203. Wuthnow, Loose Connections, 203, 204-05. In the context of recommending closer affiliation with institutional communities of faith, Hunter, Religious Caregiving, 23-24, writes this: Institutional religious participation involves personal, subjective participation if it is to be influentially engaging--meaning a practice of personal devotion appropriate to the religious culture of the institution. Traditionally this has meant specific practices like the reading of scripture, prayer, and corporate and individual worship, and meditation. Possibly new devotional practices or revisions of old ones will need to be created for postmodern spiritual practice. The particular form is not as important here as the principle of devotional practice itself. An interest of this kind appears to be emerging strongly in our field, expressed mainly as an interest in retrieving and critically redeveloping the older praxis of spiritual direction, and in exploring how this set of pastoral traditions relates to the psychological-therapeutic traditions of contemporary pastoral counseling and pastoral psychotherapy. For more on the nature of todays spiritual seekers see Tom Beaudoin, Virtual Faith: The Irreverent Spiritual Quest of Generation X (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998), and Richard Cimino and Don Lattin, Shopping for Faith: American Religion in the New Millennium (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998). Cimino and Lattin write that many Americans say they want to be come more spiritual but have little interest in organized religion. (p. 5) For these many spirituality has become a private affair. Rather than gathering in religious congregations, millions of seeker curl up at home with the latest self-help book or inspirational tome. . . . [T]hey pray and meditate in their own private temples. (p. 5) Cimino and Lattin specifically point out that the way they read the numbers, there is little to support the secularization thesis. (p. 3) But they add: Secularization has occurred within certain American institutions. Some professions, such as the media, psychiatry, academia, and entertainment, have lower levels of religious commitment and practice than those found among business people or blue-collar workers. Sociologist Peter Berger has said that America often appears as secular as Sweden at the top, but more like India in the profuse religious expression of the people. Since knowledge class professionals produce much of the cultures media, someone watching television or reading newspapers can easily think that America is more secular than it really is. (p. 3) R. Laurence Moore, Selling God: American Religion in the Marketplace of Culture (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1994) argues that the secularization in American religion shows up in its commodification.  Sally Morgenthaler, Worship Evangelism, 56-57, says more about why the churches cannot be complacent about new ministries for reaching those outside. The unchurched today are, by many measures, more religious than they were a decade ago. George Gallup, Jr., penned that sentence in 1988. Since then the spiritual side of life has become even more important. Our whole culture seems to be on a fevered quest to rediscover its spirituality. . . . . . . Yet, according to Gallup, there remains a huge and widening gap between believing and belonging. . . . . Seventy-six percent nationwide think a person can be a good Christian or Jew apart from an organize religious community. . . . . . . In short, the way most people define their faith in the 90s has very little to do with what goes on inside the four walls of an institution. Rather, they define it by what goes on inside their own heads and hearts. . . . . . . Since religious and spiritual are now separate entities, churches and synagogues are superfluous to ones relationship with God. In the post-Christian age, spirituality is an individualized pursuit and has to do with an inner state of being. Wuthnow, Loose Connections, 204, expresses part of the communitys need like this: Because a strong civil society depends on citizens who interact with one another, one of the most basic questions is whether Americans still have meaningful connections with significant others--people with whom they can share their lives and to whom they can turn when in need. Such connections may have little to do with politics, voting, or taking part in community organizations. But they are the elemental condition on which all other forms of civic involvement are based. People who do not have friends and family are less likely to hear about opportunities or needs in the community. They are less like to trust others. Edwards, Spiritual Friend, 25-26. As always in pastoral care, while the personhood of the pastoral should not be reified into idolatry, it is always a central consideration. Rod Burton, Therapeutic spiritual direction, 20, writes: It is one thing to learn about soul care. It is something else to incarnate these truths within ones life and ministry. In order for that to happen, the training process must facilitate the students personal experience of traditional Christian ascesis. Students need to experience for themselves the healing power of prayer; they need to discover, at a personal level, the light, life and love of Christ transmitted to them through the sacraments. They need to respond in acts of loving service. Such learning must also aim at increasing the students capacity for risk, trust and surrender which are essential for any degree of facility on the spiritual journey. Training for therapeutic spiritual direction must enable counsellors to become reliant upon the grace of God. Outler, Pastoral Psychology, 243-44. Richard Dayringer, The Heart of Pastoral Counseling: Healing Through Relationship, Rev. Ed., (New York: Haworth Pastoral Press, 1998), 20. Dayringer adds: Especially relevant is the Revised Standard Versions translation of the Greek name of the Paraclete as the counselor. The Holy Spirit is in truth, the counselor in every interpersonal relationship. . . . Knowing that the counselee is actually in the hands of God helps the minister to be more secure in the role of counselor. (p. 20) Gardner, Integrating the Pastoral Dimension Into Pastoral Counseling Training Programs, 63-64. For a good example of a pastoral counseling center that is integrating a spiritual perspective into both the administrative and clinical aspects of its work see John C. Karl, Discovering Spiritual Patterns: Including Spirituality in Staff Development and Delivery of Psychotherapy Services, American Journal of Pastoral Counseling Vol. 1 No. 4 (1998): 1-23. Judith V. Kehe, Joseph W. Ciarrocchi, Joanne M. Greer, Robert J. Wicks, The Pastoral Counselor in the Nineties: The Quest for Spirituality Among Religious Integration and Pastoral Care Functions, American Journal of Pastoral Counseling Vol. 1 No. 4 (1998): 41-53 Kehe, et al., Pastoral Counselor in the Nineties, 51. Kehe, et al., Pastoral Counselor in the Nineties, 51-52. See John Charles Kwasny, An Imitation in Search of a Tradition: Returning to the Roots of Christian Counseling (M.A. thesis, Regent Univ., 1990). Rod Burton, Therapeutic Spiritual Direction, 18-19. Rod Burton, Therapeutic Spiritual Direction, 20-21. Along with Wimberly, see also Archie Smith, Jr., Navigating the Deep River: Spirituality in African American Families (Cleveland: United Church Press, 1997). Look for the forthcoming volume by W. Paul Jones on pastoral care implications of theological worlds. Pettit, Holistic Spirituality, 5, referring to Edward E. Thornton, Finding Center in Pastoral Care, in Borchert, Spiritual Dimensions, 21. Thornton, Center, 21, quoted in Pettit, Holistic Spirituality, 9. Pettit, Holistic Spirituality, 10, referring to Edward E. Thornton, Transpersonal Psychology, (Lecture given at The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, KY, recorded January 22, 1980). In addition to those known directly to the author, invitations by letter to participate in the interviews were sent to a number of theorists and practitioners within the field, many of whom are or have been on the editorial board of the Journal of Pastoral Care. The ones reported here responded favorably to the request and were able to coordinate schedules with the author within the fairly narrow window of opportunity mandated by writing deadlines. Purves, Compassion, 133. President Jimmy Carter quoted in an unsigned article Tutu, Carter Examine the Makings of Peace in the Candler Connection of Emory University (Summer 1999): 11. Purves, Compassion, 130, 132. Purves, Compassion, 132, 131. Purves, Compassion, 131.     PAGE  PAGE 760 X? L      J } ~   /GCL7"/0 @!##R$j$$2&s&'''(++++ h})6h}) h})5>*h})5>*CJjh})0JCJU h})6CJ h})>*CJ h})5CJ h})CJL  6XYZ  {* @@^@`@dh`@dh^@@^@$a$s`* .!A!B!!!."l""#E#x###$$'+-dh`#$d%d&d'dNOPQ @dh^@`dh+------/8/ 0 00111c1y111h3}3"6768G88y9:/;:;O;5<z<?"???A'BFFGGiHHHHJJ"PPMQ_QRRS SFTNTUUVVWWZZ"\f\]]c^^_$_aaCbbWcXcc=dee$g1ghDh h})6CJ h})>*CJjh})0JCJU h})CJX-L. 0 0 11L5780;<?AEGJMPERSfW[]aYcZcfivk@^@dh`Dhj(jk'kkkkkllmmGm]mmmnnLoWoq(qOq{qrrrs+v=v6wxwxxxxyyyz?zmz{{_}}2Ђ)<%ц'6܇Un &, s+Nms<5Π h})>*CJ h})CJ`vkmnpnru6wdyz{_}2DX܇*ioȜ\=]dh`ΠʢƩ֩]^atܬݬLeu".)!Um,zv>cefgh})6>*CJ h})6CJh})5>*CJjh})0JCJU h})>*CJ h})CJQ]_`aެͮβFD',eg@^@ @@^@`@$dha$$a$dh`(Sy4 ]o  $dha$$a$dh` @@^@`@<S&'-OQRHW| YtNaBwO0KG9*gh Q       )_`a35h})5>*CJ h})6CJjh})0JCJU h})CJ h})>*CJT F  J sl^q#$d%d&d'dNOPQ@^@dh`5cef  1D   {};No6NKL""Y#v#-%M%r%{%&&&&':'''jh})UmHnHu h})5CJ jh})5>*UmHnHuh})5>*CJjh})0JCJU h})CJ h})>*CJH1v f{45678&$$d%d&d'dNOPQa$#$d%d&d'dNOPQ8~;MNC#$&&'**+-.168:<dh@^@dh`#$d%d&d'dNOPQ'((**,,3//1122303555556667 889<<I??@'@"BBBBCDDDNEE*HHnIoI{IICJLJYJJLLLLMMOPzQMTNT^TTXXXXDYeYYYYY][]^^_.```aa=b|bh}) h})6CJjh})0JCJU h})>*CJ h})CJW<?@BBDFpIqILOPOTPT[UXXgYhYZ]_?`aabcfdh@^@dh`|bbb9c?cccdMdffg:gggghhjjl2lxmm?nVnppppqrrhrtXu?x@xsyy{{Z||}}abR IWXˇ͇̇_tƈ_֎Jt|#h})0JCJh})5>*CJh})6>*CJ h})>*CJjh})0JCJU h})6CJ h})CJNffgjj5mpqAxBx{cYŽiq @@^@`@dh`@^@#RƕǕ×s+g¡Ny1Wuv}UV7w)^կ9:;-./vߴ:ٵ`mָUd5[f+TQݽ h})6CJjh})0JCJU h})>*CJ h})CJXqwxWXYݨvެ;01ߺ@$@^@dh`[}(a 0EQy!K stuMZhxpR`G_")[m %     !0&V~!0g h})6CJh})5>*CJ h})>*CJjh})0JCJU h})CJUN  5uMhR [ !$a$dh@^@dh`!!gc%]+\046"=&BF*J0MORRRRRT:VWZZ[i] a a@^@$a$dh`gx"$%$:$=$c%q%]+h+\0j046A6"=8=*B5BFFRRcTT8V9VZZ[[Z][]i]]^_:_K_v__`aaa aaac0cdd1fjfiIjVk^kyll;nnZooopappqrrssssss h})6jh})0JUjh})0JCJUh})5>*CJh}) h})>* h})6CJ h})CJ h})>*CJK a aaabdiylnpprsssuuuuuvvv yycyzz@^@``dh`$dha$$`a$ssstKtctttuuuuuuFvYvvvwvvvwwyyy,ycyyzzzzp{{{|;|<|a|b|{||||S}<~C~W~o~~~++^ÀĀ%]j΂  2RȃɃ  $,-6 h})>* h})6h})jh})0JU[z:|;|`|a|||€À ǃȃ  +,MN܇݇``6FNO݇އ'TňƈgpҌ 0JCefoϑLhz{ȒGMTU_elmz39CDۗ4  BCyz7 h})>*jh})0JUh}) h})6[݇Ĉň~Edeyz @@^@`@``STklBC4  ABxycdÞĞ@^@``7Νdeo|ĞŞ͞^auv~Eklsڣ+OPYeʤ-ХѥڥNFOPԪY"JkfA~$<ͱ h})6jh})0JU h})>*h})\ĞtujkNOϥХNO. @@^@`@`@^@`ͱ&Ӵ4pZ[dv|}~GWZ[cvԼ{hstھ4#AB 0NO]^CnoL`gh|}jDEMW_` $%-7 h})6jh})0JU h})>*h})\YZ}~GYZ rs@AMN\]``@^@]mnfg{|CD^_#$CD^_`bc``7DEMW`acdfgijlmstuwx~ h})CJhRT0JmHnHu h})0Jjh})0JUjh})U h})6jh})0JUh})cefhikluvwdh`h]h&`#$9 000&PP/ =!p"#$% 8@8 Normal_HmH sH tH F@F Heading 1$dh@&`CJD@D Heading 2$$@&a$ 5>*CJDA@D Default Paragraph FontVi@V  Table Normal :V 44 la (k@(No List 6@6  Footnote Text@&@@ Footnote ReferenceH*.)@. Page Number4@"4 Header  !4 24 Footer  !8B@B8 Body TextdhCJ #%% ()W[]ܤe&Qg`e K").4:<nADMLPY[^bh?psawWƍuU9. s8NRSZUY  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLM+mD(  " A h'Li<$Mvn[Hn"#j'''F(***#+G+-/0/2R2}26Z=ADDHHJLMM%NNNO5PPQQSScTTTTT 6XYZ{ *.AB.lEx#%L& ( ( ))L-/003479=?BEHEJKfOSUYY[Z[^avcefhnjm6odqrs_u2yD{X}~*ioȔ\=]_`aޤͦΪFD'ݻ,eg(Sy4 ]oF      J   sl^q1v f{45678~;MNC""#-&).02478::<>pAqADGHOLPL[MPPgQhQRUW?XYYZ[^^_bb5ehiApBpscwx|Y†iqwxWXYݠvޤ;01߲@$N  5uMhR [! !gc]#\(4."5&:>*B0EGJJJJJL:NORRSiU Y Y YYYZ\aydfhpjkkkmmmmunvn qqcqrr:t;t`tatttxxxxxxxx{ {{{|| } }+},}M}N}Āŀ~EdeyzSTklBC4  ABxycdÖĖtujkNOϝНNO.YZ}~GYZ rs@AMNŹƹ\]mnջֻfg{|CD^_#$CD^_`bcefhikluvw00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000\(0\(0\(0\(0\(0\(0\(0\(0\(0\(0\(0\(0\(0\(0\(0\(0\(0\(0\(0\(0\(0\(0 Y0 Y0 Y0 Y0 Y0 Y0 Y0 Y0 Y@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@00T@00@00@00@00@0@0@0@0@0@00 &&&&&)+DhΠ5'|b#gs67ͱ7eikmpruwy{~*-vk] 8<fq! az݇Ğ]cfhjlnoqstvxz|}g ")!!8$'@&(  NB  S DNB  S DNB  S DNB  S DNB  S DNB   S DNB   S DNB  S DNB  S D NB  S D HB  C DHB  C D(2   (2  (2  (2  ( "  ( $  ( % ( & B S  ?   {|}_}tAt**tq%tt tBABt %tAt9t q t"t! t$9pd t= t%qBt) t&UtYu t}} t"i$qkDcm=qE Dq^i{h+L qҴ|R"ti  UoS \DkTUg<$>Lqtvfu4u46677;;WJWJss ff<q((      !z4z46677;;\J\JstǬǬmmCw ..  !B*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagscountry-region8!*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsCity9"*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsplace P "!"!"!"!"!"!"""!""!""""""!"FL +5 ei 'a!i!!!v"~"$$33668%8:8C8M8W8::z;;d?i?BBFFcGiG|GGGGNN5O?ODOOOPPP$PQQ#^-^__aisipppp tt(&,V^ir-;s~OSYc#(# ***---->>t@@EEHH@RIRWWXXU\a\``7f>f iiOpXpt|\g-7<Falgsyϵڵ϶ڶз۷}77::::<<y@@ YY?`H`cdjjkkkmnwn{n=qEqyqqrrssntttttttKvUvvvwwy%y$.4ĄЄl{$\bclITґؑQ\ $)/?F$/{LP\fOSع޹BJ``bbccefhikl*..2%)01u4z46677;;h>l>BBEEHHWJ\JMNNRRUVmmsszz|}*:ߜa'*ƪ̪ΪѪ¿οos[Twk``bbcdeghjkltw333333333333333333333333333333333333333jk``bbccefhikltwk``bbccefhikl })RT Xlpjk_`behk@Xerox WorkCentre 470cxLPT1:Xerox WorkCentre 470cxXerox WorkCentre 470cxXerox WorkCentre 470cxDC od,,LetterDINU"4'~KMXLXerox WorkCentre 470cxDC od,,LetterDINU"4'~KMXLG `@UnknownGz Times New Roman5Symbol3& z Arial"hI4&jg4&#Eg\ Eg\ 4dii2HX ?RT2 CHAPTER VLeif Nathan Johanson John FormanOh+'0  4 @ L Xdlt| CHAPTER VLeif Nathan JohansonNormal John Forman5Microsoft Office Word@@*s@n@#ģEg\՜.+,0 hp|    i  CHAPTER V Title  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~      !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~Root Entry F|HCģData 1TablesWordDocument;SummaryInformation(DocumentSummaryInformation8CompObjq  FMicrosoft Office Word Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q