ࡱ> 7 ZbjbjUU /7|7|ZB*l8<P4"41S"$# %fw"w""LdLL 6j> LL4"0"L&&L((Host Note: This is the preface dealing with the authors viewpoint to Making Grace Specific, a Ph.D. dissertation by Greg Johanson that dealt with an AQAL approach to spirituality and pastoral care)) PREFACE Overview Vocatus adque, non vocatus, Deus aderit. This interdisciplinary inquiry seeks to bring some initial order and understanding to the recent (1970-90), unanticipated literature which attempts to integrate spirituality and pastoral care. It provides critical analysis, historical perspective, and constructive appropriation through interweaving historical and contemporary contributions from the philosophy of science, the psychology and sociology religion, pastoral theology, and the history of spirituality and pastoral care. The general thesis is that the literature represents a movement within white mainline pastoral care that progresses the field from its recent emphasis on self-realization to the inclusion of, and concentration on, self-transcendence. The opening methodological chapter draws heavily from Ken Wilbers philosophy of science, Juergen Habermas theory of knowledge, and Ted Jennings conceptions of the linguisticality of experience and the religious imagination. Together these perspectives help to define terms and issues, and situate the various disciplines in relation to one another. A definition of spirituality is reached as the self-transcendent quest for identity with expanded contexts of agency-in-communion. Spirit is understood as the source of life and consciousness which manifests in the exterior and interior realms of personal and social existence, but which cannot be reduced to any one dimension. Pastoral theology is conceptualized in terms of the specificity it brings to mediating the universal specific of the Christian mythos, considered under the rubric of grace. The next three historical chapters trace the vicissitudes of the spiritual quest within Western culture, the American experience, and white pastoral care in particular, in relation to the underlying dynamic of self-transcendence, and with a view to characterize the 1970 context of ministry according to Wilbers four-quadrant, full spectrum analysis. A fifth chapter offers a critique of pastoral care circa 1970, which helps makes understandable the rise in interest in spirituality and pastoral care chronicled in chapter six. A seventh chapter utilizes the specificity of W. Paul Jones typology of Theological Worlds to delineate five major approaches to viewing and living in the world theologically, with specific attention to how they understand the concepts of grace and self-transcendence. Chapter eight then applies the Theological Worlds to the recent spirituality and pastoral care literature as a way of organizing the diverse contributions into similar schools. A typology of personal, characterological ways of viewing the world is offered next in chapter nine, with further implications for the pastoral work of making grace specific. A study is referenced to test the correlation of personal ways of viewing the world with theological ways, employing two self-rating inventories. Jointly, the chapters honor and weave together the intentional, cultural, social, and behavioral aspects of life, as they apply to the phenomenon of the late-blooming spirituality and pastoral care literature. The overall methodology joins in critical tension the particular perspective of self-transcendent spirituality, deduced from a variety of sources, with historical and phenomenological viewpoints. In terms of praxis, conceptualizing pastoral care from the viewpoint of the spirituality of self-transcendence gives a unifying perspective, a way of integrating the field, as well as a specific notion of the overall pastoral task. The self-rating inventories, assessing theological and personal ways of viewing the world, offer two diagnostic frameworks for understanding the specificity with which individuals and congregations organize themselves. A summary chapter reflects on the significance of the contemporary dialogue of spirituality with pastoral care for the field of pastoral theology and for the New Light it could shed on current efforts to redefine the American Dream. Viewpoint The present crisis of identity among many priests has occurred at the very time that thousands of people are seeking spiritual guidance and cannot find it. Perhaps the reason that many clergy feel under-employed is that what they have to offer is not what is needed. The above words by Kenneth Leech give a clue to the viewpoint I have brought to this effort. Entering into dialogue with any person or text(s) is an intersubjective endeavor. I have striven to allow the material to have its own reality which can call my viewpoint into question. At best, however, this is only partially possible. My questions and biases have necessarily influenced the final form and content of this work. It is appropriate then, to offer some biographical notes that describe how I became involved in this writing, and what social location and perspectives I have brought to it. I was born in the post-war forties in Portland, Oregon, the only child of immigrant Scandinavian parents. They had lived through the Great Depression and concentrated on middle-class concerns of providing the basics of food, housing, and clothing, out of a knowledge that these things were not a given. It was not a center of meaning I could appreciate much in my younger years. Mom worried a lot about being a good mother, and about dads need to drink as much as he did. Dad brooded with a hidden guilt that would not allow him to stay successful in a number of fields where he demonstrated promise. School, sports, scouts, and the neighborhood took up a lot of my childhood time. Church attendance and Sunday School had a benevolent, though conventional, unremarkable quality. I was aware, however, that my mother poured genuine tears, anguish, and hope into her private prayers. During my turbulent adolescent years, Roy Fedje, a Norwegian Methodist minister, influenced and inspired me with his charisma, faith, and intellect. Without being able to name it, I had been struggling with the obsessio of conditional love, which even if unintended, can evoke significant depression and despair. When Fedje preached eloquently of the unconditional love of God, a powerful longing and curiosity in me took note. I subsequently had meaningful epiphania experiences of a Christian-mystical nature, centered on absolute love, and dedicated, grateful service. In college, (Willamette University in Salem, Oregon; a small, Methodist-related, liberal arts school), my faith set out in search of fuller understanding. It prompted me to major in both psychology and philosophy, with a minor in religion. Studying the histories of Christianity, philosophy, and psychology imbued me with an ongoing respect for historical perspective. I still remember Professor James Hand saying, If we are going to get anything at all from studying these ancient writers, we are going to have to assume that they were at least as smart as we are. To which could be added, just as sinful, blind, and limited. I felt I learned a lot about the human condition reading both ancient and contemporary materials. In part, both disappointed me. The discontent fuels my ongoing search. While reading traditional and modern authors, I easily intuited and identified with a felt-sense of the experience they were writing from. This made me quite comfortable with the Wesleyan emphasis on the importance of experience in doing theology, plus the hermeneutical stance that a system is best understood from within. At the same time, I became quite aware of how our experiences are idiosyncratically dependent on how we organize our experience. Psychological studies made it clear how my religious experience had roots in early childhood relationships. It was not clear that those historical dispositions completely explained away the reality of Divine or Ultimate Otherness. I was also struck that some of my professors could identify with my religious experiences, but thought of them in Buddhist categories. This opened the question of the Perennial Philosophy. Was there one spiritual reality underlying all mystical experience? Obviously so, if one is in the monotheistic tradition. But was the continental linguistic tradition not correct in saying that there is a particularity to the experiences different traditions foster? From the polarities mentioned above, it is not hard to understand how I identified with Soren Kierkegaard, who argued that we must keep the alternate poles of various issues in tension. We must resist a too-facile synthesis of opposites that would inappropriately collapse one pole into another. I took this bias with me to the Candler School of Theology at Emory University, a school I chose because of another polarity. Evangelical, pietistic persons in my life encouraged me to go to Asbury Seminary, where I feared I would be narrowly indoctrinated into that camp of the church. Liberal, social action mentors oriented me toward Boston School of Theology, where I anticipated getting the opposite bias. Emory seemed the best compromise that would provide opportunity for a fuller dialogue. This proved correct. There was a spirited encounter between first-rate, radical intellectuals on the faculty, and conservative, pietistic students. There was also a healthy exchange between professors schooled in Germany, who tended to reframe the entire Christian tradition in line with various philosophical principles, versus those schooled in England, who painstakingly kept raising orthodox issues that had been ruled out-of-court by their colleagues. This was also the end of the Sixties when the Civil Rights Movement and so much social upheaval was in play. I was disenchanted, frankly, with a lot of the semi-passionate civil rights sermons I was hearing in Oregon from preachers who had little, if any, discernible contact with black persons. I was inspired to the core by Martin Luther King, Jr. I went to Atlanta to borrow some soul from the South, where people were dealing with hard realities on a daily basis. Seminary was continuous with college; a marvelous, intellectual, graduate school adventure in the liberal arts that related religion to all of life. Reformation and Neo-Orthodox writers still inspired me, especially the theme of justification by grace as opposed to works. The non-coercive lure of God in Process Theology appealed to me. It seemed well-suited for the modern mind, though it could not account for the pro-active aspects of God in the Canon. While I enjoyed the opportunity for continued intellectual searching and integration, I became worried about the pragmatics of how these high-level abstractions might address congregants back in the parish. During college, I had been a student pastor for over a year in a small, rural United Methodist Church. Being a pastor was, and is, a superb experience in humility. I was especially impressed with how words can give rise to both the birth and death of meaning. Plus, the ability of people to hear what they want to hear is uncanny. It is a testimony to the reality of Spirit whenever healing and reconciliation happen through organized, self-serving bureaucracies with religious trimmings. The issue of transformation became central for me. These praxis-driven concerns led me to enroll in seven part and full-time quarters of CPE (Clinical Pastoral Education). At the same time, my wife and I were in three years of conjoint, marital counseling with therapists who were all CPE Supervisors and AAPC (American Association of Pastoral Care) affiliates. The clinical experiences were personally helpful overall. I went back to the parish with a measure of hope for significant ministry. My clinical background both helped and hindered my return. There was a theology implied in the pastoral care and counseling movement, as I experienced it. However, there was a reticence to claim the confessional nature of pastoral counseling as a theological discipline, and a resulting identity problem of distinguishing itself from secular psychotherapy. There was a reluctance to initiate theological language or use the Bible, except as it is was functionally useful in a projective, diagnostic way for expressing a counselees experience. There was a de-emphasis, or actual devaluing, of preaching. This led me to edit a couple of books of pastoral care sermons that I hoped would help build a bridge between the parish and the clinical pastoral movement. When I returned to serve in the Oregon-Idaho Conference of the United Methodist Church, I had no intention of being anything but a parish minister. I felt I could do valuable service through referring deeply troubled parishioners to quality therapists. But, the resources were not plentiful in the rural West, the referrals did not pan out well, and I was increasingly dismayed by outcome studies which documented therapys lack of efficacy. I decided to delve more deeply into psychotherapeutic training myself, so that I could help my parishioners integrate their faith with the depths of their experience, as Frank Lake was doing in England. My clinical training in Atlanta had been heavily influenced by traditional psychodynamic schools of therapy. The thinly veiled East Coast bias was that any other approach was froth on the water; a bias that my youthful enthusiasm and ignorance bought into. However, when I sought out training opportunities on the West Coast, it became obvious that significant work was being done through the experiential, here-and-now therapies. I became immersed in Gestalt, Bioenergetics, Psychodrama, and a wealth of other body-mind approaches. I eventually met Ron Kurtz and became a Founding Trainer and Certified Therapist of Hakomi Therapy; a spiritually consistent way of working that integrates the use of mindfulness, non-violence, and the body in psychotherapy. The roots of Hakomi were in Buddhism, Taoism, the sciences of self-organizing, dissipative systems, as well as contemporary, experience-near psychotherapies; although I understood it best in terms of Judeo-Christian categories. This mix of perspectives stimulated my life-long pursuit of the unity of knowledge which has always been in polar relation to my bootstrapper ability to enter into a number of different explanatory systems. Hakomi also balanced the humanistic bias of being open to a persons unique, spontaneous, creative reality with the practical usefulness of learning from typologies which provide clues to common ways people have of organizing their experience. A paradox of becoming involved in so many secular approaches to psychotherapy, was to find myself in the midst of a community of spiritual seekers outside the church who were openly pursuing practices related to prayer, spiritual disciplines, and right-living--all the practices that my intellectually respectable college and seminary education had critically called into question--all the things a mainline Protestant pastor wished his own congregation would pursue. A lot of this New Age approach to spirituality involved exploring states of consciousness and transpersonal psychology through writers like Ken Wilber. These studies brought into focus the East-West issue of whether therapy and transformation have more to do with actively reorganizing the psychological self, or letting go and embracing the mystical No-Self. My curiosity in the Eastern Orthodox mystical tradition deepened. The evangelistic question arose of whether people must buy into the Western metaphysics of Being to be Christian, or could subscribe to the Eastern metaphysics of Change. Contemporary thought is also deeply, and appropriately, systems based. My pastoral experience led me to work with middle-class suburbanites, inner-city blacks, Native-Americans on a reservation, an international clientele at a holistic-health hospital in Mexico, and to be involved with numerous community-based, social action projects. This sensitized me to the necessity of honoring cross-cultural issues, and to the importance of respecting all the levels of life, including the metabolic, intrapsychic, interpersonal, social, cultural, and spiritual. It also became clear that community-based, primary prevention programs could be effective in addressing social problems such as crime, at the same time that individuals were accorded the dignity and freedom of being held responsible for their actions. I had studied with Charles V. Gerkin in Atlanta, who has always said white pastoral care needed to embrace the communal-political-economic dimensions of life, but the field has only recently begun to balance the personal-social polarity. One help has been feminist theology and psychology, which has developed the notion of context and the self-in-relation. To me, this was a crucial corrective to the pervasive emphasis on the autonomous self in American psychology. It was much more congruent with Biblical anthropology, and Pauls body-theology. However, I didnt see that pastoral theology had yet come up with a fully satisfying theory of the self. Including a spiritual horizon as it went about that task also seemed crucial for helping it maintain a sense of humor and perspective. In addition to this, my field experience showed me that integrating the fruits of concrete spiritual disciplines with service was transformative, and remained fundamental for counteracting burnout in either individual or social-level ministry. Experiences which communicate assurance of a grace-full, underlying spiritual ground are not simply a nice, pietistic, heartwarming, subjective, egocentric extra on the real stuff of faith . . . [something] extraneous and optional for those who like warm fuzzy religious highs. Research showed that there was a positive correlation between those with a strong sense of transcendence, and those with a concern for life threatening crises such as the environment and overpopulation. The stakes are high in whether or not we see the world through sacred eyes. The overall course of my ministry has conspired to sustain my stance as a bridge person who has different feet in oppositional communities. The liberal-conservative standoff, is one continuing instance. While hardly anyone has a more liberal-radical education and background than I, I have had a good deal of contact with evangelical-pentecostal-fundamentalistic (which are not all the same) camps. A number of these people take the Bible literally instead of seriously. They believe in the Bible totally, even if they havent read it. Their politics can be narrow and reactionary. My free-wheeling, enlightened, spiritually-seeking friends ask me how I can possibly be part of such a repressive, institutional religion which only illustrates Karl Barths point that people go to church to defend themselves against God. However, my experience often mirrors that of Will Willimon, who says that it these same people that liberals summarily dismiss, who are precisely the ones he would turn to in times of need. Many times it is these same people who gravely question public spending on social programs in the name of individual responsibility, that privately give sacrificial amounts to direct service programs for those who are disadvantaged. On the theological front, I have noticed evangelical scholarship is much more in dialogue with mainstream writers than before. On the pastoral care front, liberals talk about, and pass resolutions in relation to many debilitating conditions. However, mainline classrooms generally use whatever secular literature is available to address the conditions. It is the conservative press which actually publishes many more products which bring the resources of the faith to bear on particular conditions, integrating a fairly high-level understanding of the psycho-social dynamics involved. The self-help books of David Seamands, which combine evangelical theology with a depth understanding of inner-child healing, have probably outsold all mainline pastoral care writers combined. This frustrated me as a mainline pastor, since I was always in the market for good resource books I could use with various church-related groups. On the white mainline front, it didnt seem to me we were doing much creative work with either our pastoral care or social action agenda. The church was becoming increasingly marginalized as secularization theory predicted. When I decided to pursue a doctorate, I was likewise unimpressed with most mainline interdisciplinary degrees in psychology and religion, which didnt appear to do a great job of teaching either, and usually had a nine to one balance of clinical courses to theological ones. I enrolled in a straight doctoral program in clinical psychology, and felt I would have to do the theological integration more on my own. There were signs of new life in the white mainline camp, however. At the beginning of the seventies Henri J. M. Nouwen began to write psychologically informed books that integrated spirituality and ministry. Others followed. In 1986-87 I wrote three book reviews which dealt with works relating spirituality and pastoral care. I suggested that this literature might represent a new, hopeful chapter in the history of pastoral care in America. What was so hopeful to me was the way in which the spirituality-pastoral care literature held the promise of honoring and holding in tension a number of the polarities mentioned above: anthropology--theology; personal faith--social action; absolute responsibility--total dependence; works--grace; subject--object; traditional sources--contemporary materials; spiritual direction--psychotherapy; ordinary consciousness--contemplative states of consciousness; seriousness--playfulness; traditional Christianity--world religions; denominational respect--inter-denominational emphasis; particularity--universality; and more. In the Fall of 1987 I trucked with my family across country to Drew Graduate School in Madison, New Jersey to enroll in the doctoral program in psychology and religion. I wanted to follow this hope further. So, the subject of this manuscript is spirituality and pastoral care. It strikes me after tracing my pilgrimage to this point and noting the underlined subjects in the narrative, how true it is that whatever is written is hopelessly autobiographical. Im sure that if fifty manuscripts were thrown in a room with fifty unattached biographies, that it would take little effort to match mine with what follows. The hope in writing is that it is also true that particularity and universality belong together, and that Harry Stack Sullivan was right when he argued that we are all more alike than different. Leonard I. Sweet, Quantum Spirituality: A Postmodern Apologetic (Dayton: Whaleprints, 1994), 230. Called or not called, God will be present. Sweet notes that this is the motto of the Delphic oracle which Carl Jung had carved over the doorway of his villa in Kuesnacht, Switzerland. Jung explained its personal and professional meaning for him in a 1960 letter to a friend. I have put the inscription there to remind my patients and myself: Timor dei initium sapientiae [The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom]. Here another not less important road begins, not the approach to Christianity, but to God himself and this seems to be the ultimate question. See Michael Downey, Understanding Christian Spirituality (Mahwah: Paulist, 1997), 118. Spirituality is concerned with . . . all dimensions of human life. . . . Consequently, no one discipline of study will do justice to the complexity of this subject. Insights are necessarily drawn from anthropology and sociology, aesthetics and studies of language, psychology and history, just to name a few. The study of spirituality must be an interdisciplinary discipline, a field-encompassing field. See his pages 129ff. for more on the appropriate method. There is a lot of underlining throughout this manuscript. It is normally meant to high-light the major topic of a paragraph as an aide to reading. Unless specified otherwise, the underlining is mine, even if within a quote. W. Paul Jones, Theological Worlds: Understanding the Alternative Rhythms of Christian Belief (Nashville: Abingdon, 1989). Kenneth Leech, Soul Friend: The Practice of Christian Spirituality (San Francisco: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1977), 2. The terms obsessio and epiphania are from W. Paul Jones, who considers them the two poles that existentially drive the theological enterprise. See his Theological Worlds. Theodore H. Runyon, The Importance of Experience for Faith, ed. Randy L. Maddox, Aldersgate Reconsidered (Nashville: Kingswood Books, 1990), 93-108. Gregory J. Johanson, The Birth and Death of Meaning: Selective Implications of Linguistics for Psychotherapy, Hakomi Forum Vol. 12 (Summer 1996): 45-55. To assimilate as opposed to accommodate in Piagets terminology. Gregory J. Johanson, Not Going to Church: Helping People Make Their Case, The Christian Ministry Vol. 15 No. 5 (September 1984): 25. In Judeo-Christian terms: How are people converted so as to live in a right relationship with God, self, and neighbor? Gregory J. Johanson, The Parish Revisited: Reflections on How CPE Helped and Hindered a Return to Parish Ministry After Training, Journal of Pastoral Care Vol. XXXII, No. 3 (September 1978): 147-154. Johanson, Parish Revisited, 152-54. Gregory J. Johanson, The Common Thrust of Counseling and Preaching, Pulpit Digest Vol. LXV No. 477 (January/February 1986): 70-72. Gregory J. Johanson, The Psychotherapist as Faith Agent, The Journal of Pastoral Counseling Vol. XIV No. 2 (Fall/Winter 1979-80). An interesting note about this article is that it was first invited by a secular psychotherapy journal and subsequently rejected. The editor did not buy the articles premise that psychotherapy of any variety is a value-laden enterprise. He believed therapists could consciously let go of their value base when with another. Rodney J. Hunter, The Use and Interpretation of the Bible in Contemporary Pastoral Care and Counseling. Paper presented to CP400 seminar, Candler School of Theology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, March 2, 1972. Gregory J. Johanson, ed., Pastoral Care Issues in the Pulpit: An Anthology (Lima: C. S. S. Publishing Co., 1984), and idem, ed., Feed My Sheep: Sermons on Contemporary Issues in Pastoral Care (Ramsey: Paulist, 1984). Gregory J. Johanson, review of Clinical Theology: A Theological and Psychological Basis to Clinical Pastoral Care by Frank Lake, Abridged by Martin Yeomans, in Pulpit Digest Vol. LXIX No. 497 (May/June 1989). The unabridged 1282 page version, titled Clinical Theology: A Theological and Psychiatric Basis to Clinical Pastoral Care, was published by Darton Longman & Todd (London: 1966). CPE group work was heavily indebted to the perspectives of Bion and Yalom. AAPC individual work was influenced by the interpersonal approach of Harry Stack Sullivan, and the emotive style of Carl Whitaker and Tom Malone. See Greg Johanson and Ron Kurtz, Grace Unfolding: Psychotherapy in the Spirit of the Tao-te ching (New York: Bell Tower, 1991) for a short, book-length overview of Hakomi Therapy, or Gregory J. Johanson and Carol Taylor, Hakomi Therapy with Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents, in Innovative Interventions in Child and Adolescent Therapy, Charles E. Schaefer, ed., (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1988) for an article length introduction. Gregory J. Johanson, Matters of Unity, Truth, and Morality: Science and Theology in the Quarterly Review of the Methodist Episcopal Church South 1847-1851, Methodist History Vol. XXXI No. 2 (January 1993): 76-90. Gregory J. Johanson, All the Lonely People: The Use of Characterology in Ministry, The Journal of Pastoral Counseling Vol. XXIV No. 1 (Spring/Summer 1989): 104-119 which is a work in the tradition of both Frank Lake ibid. and St. Gregory the Greats, Pastoral Care trans. Henry Davis, (New York: Newman Press, 1978). Gregory J. Johanson, The Hierarchical Approach of Ken Wilber to the Psychology and Sociology of Religion, The Counseling Journal No. 4 (1989): 10-17. Jack Engler, Therapeutic Aims in Psychotherapy and Meditation: Developmental Stages in the Representation of Self, Hakomi Forum No. 9 (Winter 1992): 31-50. Gregory J. Johanson, The Ladder and the Seed: Gregory of Nyssa and John Wesley on Christian Perfection, Wesleyan Theological Journal forthcoming. Jung Young Lee, The Theology of Change: A Christian Concept of God in an Eastern Perspective (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1979). Gregory J. Johanson, Reflections On A Native American Funeral: The Ways of a Spiritual People, New World Outlook Vol. XLVI No. 7 (May 1986): 38ff. Gregory J. Johanson, A Critical Analysis of David Augsburgers Pastoral Counseling Across Cultures, Journal of Pastoral Care Vol. 46 No. 2 (Summer 1992): 162-173. One book that is both refreshing and practical in honoring multiple levels of the system is Douglas C. Breunlin, Richard C. Schwartz, and Betty Mac Kune-Karrer, Metaframeworks: Transcending the Models of Family Therapy (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1992). See also my editorial, Encouraging Communion, Hakomi Forum No. 9 (Winter 1992): 1-13. Gregory J. Johanson, Klamath Liaison Worker Makes An Impact in Chiloquin Area, United Methodist (Portland, OR) August 1987. Pamela D. Couture, Blessed Are the Poor?: Womens Poverty, Family Policy, and Practical Theology (Nashville: Abingdon, 1991); Larry Kent Graham, Care of Persons, Care of Worlds: A Psychosystems Approach to Pastoral Care and Counseling (Nashville: Abingdon, 1992); John Patton, Pastoral Care in Context: An Introduction to Pastoral Care (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1993), Stephen Pattison, Pastoral Care and Liberation Theology (Cambridge: Univ. of Cambridge Press, 1994). Although he is not referenced by Couture, Graham, Patton or Pattison, Archie Smith, Jr., writing from a background in both psychology and sociology, made an important contribution to challenging the individualistic bias of pastoral care in his 1982 book, The Relational Self: Ethics & Therapy from a Black Church Perspective (Nashville: Abingdon). Also unreferenced was the 1973 book, Two Ways of Caring: A Biblical Design for Balanced Ministry (Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House) written by William E. Hulme, Professor of Pastoral Care at Luther Seminary in St. Paul. Of course, these modern efforts at affirming the importance of community are echoing what was self-evident in earlier times, and explicitly treated throughout the tradition in such works as George Herberts 17th Century The Country Parson, The Temple, ed. John N. Wall, Jr. (New York: Paulist, 1981). Two recent additions to the field, George M. Furniss The Social Context of Pastoral Care (Louisville: Westminister John Knox, 1994), and Pamela D. Couture and Rodney J. Hunters, Eds., Pastoral Care and Social Conflict (Nashville: Abingdon, 1995) do reference Smith. Hazel Addy, Life Cycles: Women and Pastoral Care (London: SPCK, 1993); Riet Bons-Storm, The Incredible Woman: Listening to Womens Silences in Pastoral Care and Counseling (Nashville: Abingdon, 1996); Erica Burman, ed., Feminists and Psychological Practice (London: SAGE, 1990); Anne E. Carr, Transforming Grace: Christian Tradition and Womens Experience (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1988); Nancy Chodorow, The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1978); Paula Cooey, Religious Imagination and the Body: A Feminist Analysis (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1994); Patricia H. Davis, Women and the Burden of Empathy, Journal of Pastoral Theology, Vol. 3 (Summer 1993): 29-38; Valerie M. DeMarinis, Critical Caring: A Feminist Model for Pastoral Psychology (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1993); Joan Chamberlain Engelsman, The Feminine Dimension of the Divine (Wilmette: Chiron, 1987); Victoria Lee Erickson, Where Silence Speaks: Feminism, Social Theory, and Religion (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996); Carol Gilligan, In A Different Voice: Psychological Theory & Womens Development (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1982); M. Glaz and J. Stevenson Moessner, eds., Women in Travail and Transition (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991); Isabel C. Heyward, The Redemption of God: A Theology of Mutual Relation (Lanham: Univ. Press of America, 1982); Judith V. Jordan et al., Womens Growth In Connection: Writings From the Stone Center (New York: The Guilford Press, 1991); Emma Justes, Women, in Clinical Handbook of Pastoral Counseling, eds., Robert Wicks, Richard Parsons, and Donald Capps, (New York: Paulist, 1985), 26-36; Catherine Keller, From A Broken Web: Separation, Sexism, and Self (Boston: Beacon Press, 1986); Elaine Graham and Margaret Halsey, eds., Life Cycles: Women and Pastoral Care (London, SPCK, 1993); Marie McCarthy, Empathy amid Diversity: Problems and Possibilities, in Journal of Pastoral Theology Vol. 3 (Summer 1993): 15-28; Jean Baker Miller, Toward A New Psychology of Women (Boston: Beacon Press, 1986); Luisa Passerini, Womens Personal Narratives: Myths, Experiences and Emotions, in Interpreting Womens Lives: Feminist Theory and Personal Narratives, ed. the Personal Narrative Group (Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1989); Rosemary Radford Ruether, Sexism and God-talk: Towards a Feminist Theology (London: SCM Press, 1983); Carroll Saussy, God Images and Self Esteem: Empowering Women in a Patriarchal Society (Louisville: Westminister/John Knox, 1991); Elisabeth Schuessler Fiorenza, Feminist Spirituality, Christian Identity, and Catholic Vision, in Womanspirit Rising: A Feminist Reader in Religion eds. Carol Christ and Judith Plaskow (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1992), and Lynn N. Rhodes, Co-Creating: A Feminist Vision of Ministry (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1987); Christie Cozad Neuger, ed., The Arts of Ministry: Feminist-Womanist Approaches (Louisville: Westminister/John Knox, 1996). The best bet to date might be to integrate the results of William S. Schmidts The Development of the Notion of Self: Understanding the Complexity of Human Interiority (Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1994) with Richard Schwartzs Internal Family Systems (New York: Guilford Press, 1995), through the matrix of Eastern Orthodox thought on humans created in the image and likeness of God. Stephen Pattison, Laughter and Pastoral Care, Hakomi Forum No. 8 (Winter 1990): 45-50. This article is based on material in Pattisons book A Critique of Pastoral Care (London: SCM Press, 1988) which gives an interesting English view of American pastoral care. See also Conrad Hyers, And God Created Laughter: The Bible as Divine Comedy (Atlanta: John Knox, 1987), and Karl-Josef Kuschel, Laughter: A Theological Reflection (New York: Continuum, 1994), pp. 127-133 especially. Somewhere Reinhold Niebuhr once said, Humor is a prelude to faith, and laughter is the beginning of prayer. In the introduction to his The Living God: Systematic Theology Volume One (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1987) Thomas C. Oden writes: Because of pietys penchant for taking itself too seriously, theology--more than literary, humanistic, and scientific studies--does well to nurture a modest, unguarded sense of comedy. Some comic sensibility is required to keep in due proportion the pompous pretensions of the study of divinity. (p. 1) Gregory J. Johanson, An Assurance Doctrine of the Cross, Challenge to Evangelism Today (Summer 1989): 8. Gregory J. Johanson, The How of Being Religious: A Book Review Article of David Wulffs Psychology of Religion, Journal of Pastoral Care Vol. 47 No. 3 (Fall 1993): 308. Wulff also notes that fundamentalism, which some view as a religious response to a diminishing sense of transcendence, is negatively correlated to concern for the environment and overpopulation. L. Robert Keck, Sacred Eyes (Indianapolis: Knowledge Systems, Inc., 1992). For instance, see the two multi-volume series Resources For Christian Counseling and Contemporary Christian Counseling edited by Gary R. Collins for Word Incorporated. The Journal of Psychology and Theology: An Evangelical Forum for the Integration of Psychology and Theology published by the Rosemead School of Psychology, Biola University, often contains articles of professional interest and application. However, it is sometimes too scandalously or simplistically evangelical for most mainline professors of pastoral care to consider reading. David Seamands, Healing for Damaged Emotions (Wheaton: Victor Books, 1981); Putting Away Childish Things (Wheaton: Victor Books, 1982); Healing of Memories (Wheaton: Victor Books, 1985); and more. This was through the Oregon Graduate School of Professional Psychology in Portland, OR which has since become a part of Pacific University. I let the program lapse after our first child was born and I needed to take a job beyond commuting distance to the school. Having children reopened the nature--nurture debate for me. I began to give more points to nature. Gregory J. Johanson, review of Will and Spirit: A Contemplative Psychology by Gerald May, and The Road Less Traveled by M. Scott Peck, in Pulpit Digest Vol. LXVI No. 481 (September/October 1986). Idem, review of The Transforming Moment: Understanding Convictional Experiences by James E. Loder, Care of Mind, Care of Spirit: Psychiatric Dimensions of Spiritual Direction by Gerald G. May, Being Transformed: An Inner Way of Spiritual Growth by Edward E. Thorton, and Spirituality and Pastoral Care by Nelson S. T. Thayer, in Pulpit Digest Vol. LXVII No. 482 (November/December 1986). Idem, review of Widening the Horizons: Pastoral Responses to a Fragmented Society by Charles V. Gerkin, and The Presence of God in Pastoral Counseling by Wayne E. Oates, in Pulpit Digest Vol. LXVII No. 485 (May/June 1987). A note on the use of white mainline pastoral care: Twentieth century mainline pastoral care in America has been and is influenced by black and ethnic writers, as well as caucasian. This is more and more true as we head toward the centurys end. Much of what is written in this manuscript applies to pastoral care in all the churches. However, when it comes to critiquing the short-comings of mainline pastoral care toward the end of the sixties, which helps explain the rise of the new materials relating spirituality and pastoral care, the burden of the critique falls on the white churches. In a number of places that follow it is suggested that had the white churches been in dialogue and closer communion with their ethnic sister churches, they would not have fallen so prey to the utilitarian individualism of the culture. The ethnic churches, in general, have always done a better job of holding in tension the individual, biblical-theological-cultural-social-behavioral aspects of the faith community. Thus, they deserve to be separated out from some of the generalizations made in reference to the foibles and fallibilities of mainline pastoral care. As suggested above, mainline pastoral care has also been slow to include feminist influences. For all the tension around that issue, however, white males and females have still generally shared the same church, and so the designation white, male mainline pastoral care is not used. 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