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On the academic side, many would have been happy to ignore the ferment of spirituality all around them, or to keep it as a phenomenological object of curiosity for sociology. Acknowledgment of spirituality as a field in itself, which could contribute to the discourse of the academy has been slow to materialize. Sandra Schneiders has offered a helpful outline of the progression of spirituality as a province within the academy. She notes that spirituality is a new field that has been developing rapidly over the last twenty years. It is moving closer to being a full partner in the dialogue of the academy, where it once had little or no place to speak from. Schneiders acknowledges that spirituality is inherently broad, polyvalent, and ambiguous, because it refers at once to a dimension of being human, to the lived experience of that dimension, and to the academic discipline which studies that experience. Historically, spiritual was a word coined by Paul to refer to any reality, activity, charisma, etc. under the influence of the Holy Spirit. In I Corinthians 2 he contrasted the spiritual person with the natural person who was not under the influence of the Spirit. This usage held through the Patristic period in which theology was a unified endeavor that held intellectual and spiritual aspects of life together. In the twelfth century philosophical categories took precedence over biblical ones in theology. Spiritual was put in opposition to material, which Paul had not done. In the thirteenth a juridical meaning was introduced which contrasted the spiritual domain of power and property from that of the non-ecclesiastical. Thomas Aquinas was highly influential when he wrote of spirituality as an aspect of Christian experience. The two were placed in Part II of the Summa, which made spirituality a subdivision of moral theology, which in turn took its principles from dogmatic theology. Splitting theology from spirituality, Christian thought from Christian living, foreshadowed the post-Enlightenment split in Western consciousness of mind and heart, thinking and feeling. In the seventeenth century spirituality was narrowed further to refer to the interior life of the believer. The term ascetical theology was used to describe studying principles of the spiritual life. The eighteenth century added an elitist element by developing spiritual theology which studied the spiritual life in itself as a life oriented toward perfection and mystical experience. This was understood as something beyond and in contrast to the common life of faith of normal believers. Spiritual theology was comprised of two sub-divisions; ascetical theology which studied the life of perfection in its active phase before achieving mystical experience, and mystical theology which studied the life of perfection in its passive, post-mystical phase. These understandings of the terms were constant up to Vatican II in 1963. Spirituality in general was associated with Catholicism. Vatican II produced fresh perspectives which tended to disown the term spiritual theology because of its elitist connotations. Vatican II emphasized the call of all believers to holiness, and favored the general term spirituality. After Vatican II, in conjunction with the general spiritual awakening happening world-wide, the term spirituality rapidly took on a radically expanded usage both by lay people and academics. Today most academic writers think of Christian spirituality as a subset of spirituality in general, which has come to embrace Christian, non-Christian religious, and non-religious expressions such as radical feminism and Marxism. Some writers continue to make a case for defining spirituality dogmatically from above in terms of a specifically Christian usage. Schneiders makes a case for allowing a more inclusive, anthropological definition from below. It is desirable to have an anthropological definition so that the field can embrace as wide a range as possible of phenomenological studies. That is what is taking place today. The field of spirituality is taking shape around the study of lived experience. It is building through cross-denominational, cross-cultural, interdisciplinary studies. A number of scholars from more established fields are finding they can address more of their concerns, more freely, through entering into the field of spirituality. Schneiders proposes that the field take as its object of study lived experience through which someone is trying to transcend and more fully integrate their lives around what they feel are more authentic values. If the lived experience orients around some symbol of the Absolute, we can refer to religious spirituality. If the experience revolves around the encounter with the person of Jesus Christ through the gift of the Holy Spirit, we can talk about Christian spirituality. If it centers on nature, then creation-centered spirituality could be designated. Some writers argue that it is tricky to propose any definition of spirituality, because it runs the danger of defining actual instances out of existence. A phenomenological alternative is to consider as spiritual, whatever particular people themselves label as spiritual when they do it. Schneiders admits that spirituality is hard to define and point to, but it still has advantages as the name of a discipline. For one, it is already in common usage by lay people and academics alike. For all its vagueness, it does provide people with a word that allows communication. It has the advantage of discontinuity, of distancing itself from its nineteenth century forebears. Cross-religious communication is better facilitated by a dialogue about spirituality than a dialogue about theology. The term spirituality allows for non-theological expressions, and leaves open the question of how theology might or might not be related. By not subsuming spirituality under moral and dogmatic theology, it is allowed to make independent contributions to theology like psychology, sociology, language theory, etc. Karl Rahner was one theologian who specifically said that the experimental mystic contributed material to theology not available from traditional sources. Keeping an anthropological definition helps make spirituality a highly integrative, interdisciplinary field. Indeed, spirituality is rapidly developing through new publications, new masters and doctoral programs, academic societies opening divisions of spirituality, etc. Schneiders also discerns a basic methodology emerging in what she calls a descriptive-critical, as opposed to proscriptive-normative discipline. The first phase of the method attends to description; the second to critical analysis; and the third to creative appropriation in Ricouers sense of transformational assimilation of meaning. Although it is tricky to prevent ones own subjectivity from pushing a particular agenda which takes away ones critical self-awareness, spiritual studies move toward praxis in a similar way that psychology informs psychotherapy. Researchers are normally working on some issue they have personal experience with, and their methods of research involve a participatory aspect. This, of course, raises questions in the academy about subjectivity and objectivity. However, Schnieder argues that the quality of research coming out of the field belies the worry. Spiritualitys emphasis on concrete experience, inclusiveness, and inter-connectedness makes it quite compatible with feminist studies. Both spirituality and feminist studies are informed by the post-modern deconstruction of grand meta-narratives, the appreciation of local knowledge and experiential involvement, and sensitivity to issues of power and context in terms of where one is speaking from, as are those who work in ethnic minority studies. Spirituality In Pastoral Care In the seventies a renewed, intensified dialogue between spirituality and pastoral care blossomed which nobody had predicted. Part of the groundwork was the general cultural context which had even found its way into the academy as outlined above. There was also fertilization from developments in theology. The sixties saw the emergence of writers such as Juergen Moltmann and Wolfgang Pannenberg. They were astute, European trained, liberal theologians, sensitive to political economic issues, now writing biblically-centered works on traditional topics such as eschatology and the cross. This helped a generation of pastors schooled in realism, social action, and historical-critical biblical studies to reclaim the biblical tradition which they had surrendered in large part to their more evangelical (non) colleagues. There had also been a spiritual tradition in Protestantism maintained by such respected writers as Howard Thurman and Douglas Steere, joined with increasing openness to Catholic writers such as Thomas Merton. The memory of Martin Luther King, Jr. filled contemporary consciousness with a powerful image of vital faith joined with realistic social concern. Moltmann and Pannenberg themselves wrote essays on spirituality. Psychiatrist Gerald G. May wrote a JPC article in 1974 which broached the question of why therapists in general and pastoral counselors in particular had such difficulties integrating spirituality into their work. May recounted the history we have been outlining of the beat generation leading the way in rejecting materialistic, technological, utilitarian values; the hippie generation embodying the values of the expressive ethic; the subsequent developments of the conservative Christian, humanistic, and eastern expressions of spiritual community; as well as the explosion and diffusion of the sacred throughout the culture, all of which revealed a deep, pervasive, continuing, universal need for spiritual experience, and spirituality itself as a basic human drive. In the midst of this post-sixties renaissance of spiritual hunger and searching May notes that ministers and pastoral counselors are the logical ones to turn to for spiritual guidance, but that is precisely where it is generally not found. He names some of the factors. No one is usually a spiritual mentor to the pastor in training. Theology school is an intellectual exploration barren in experiential guidance or prayer. The white, Protestant parish has succumbed to the rationalism of both the reformation and the modern world view which makes ritual, liturgy, and prayer rote, formal, tame, limited or empty procedures which fail to feed the hunger for direct experiences of the Spirit. Sadly, one place where such matters [of spiritual sharing] are not likely to be shared directly is in meetings or conferences of clergymen. And finally, writes May, I have frequently heard related comments expressing concerns that pastoral counselors lose their pastoral identity, and that clinical pastoral education or training in counseling techniques often represents the first step on the road to leaving the ministry. May addresses two general reasons for the avoidance of spirituality on the part of both secular and pastoral therapists: 1) The shame and revulsion toward the obviously neurotic distortions of spirituality associated with hysterical, immature, or fanatical connotations of those who use it to escape the realities of life, avoid responsibilities, or justify countless other neurotic actions. 2) A basic dread concerning legitimate spiritual experience which makes us want to keep our ego safe, and never have to really face the awesome impact of total oneness with the universe . . . where subject and object are one . . . and out own ego but a delusion. This threat involves the loss of ego boundaries, the loss of individual identity, the loss of control, and the possibility of being swallowed and consumed into infinity. Thus the threat is really that of loss of self, of nonexistence, of death. Whatever the truth or solutions might be, Mays main concern in this pioneering article was to concentrate on the question of Why is it that we dont openly share and investigate spirituality with ourselves, our friends, our colleagues, and our clients? and to argue that nothing of consequence will happen until the issue of spirituality is first raised, faced, and acknowledged as a credible, legitimate, problematic, and unfulfilled need which is subject to tremendous psychological and social distortions. Another JPC article by a psychiatrist took up the issue of spirituality as a credible, legitimate, problematic. Ruth Tiffany Barnhouse, writing on spiritual direction and psychotherapy, named a number of the historical movements considered above in explaining why there had been such a sudden eruption of interest in spirituality and pastoral care, coming from such a generally rationalistic, reductionistic ebb in theology and pastoral practice: Due to a variety of cultural influences, including not only Vatican II and the rising interest in Eastern religions but also the study of parapsychology and psychotropic drugs, this tide has begun to turn. The most recent issue of The Center Magazine contains an article suggesting that much of this welcome change should be credited to Thomas Merton. He pioneered a viewpoint that, among other things, focused less on religion as an instrument of social and political reform [social gospel of Third Great Awakening] and more on religion as a means of interior awareness and psychological self-disclosure. The predominantly materialist and instrumentalist mentality which resulted from the unbridled rationalism of the Enlightenment has been found wanting, and so the interior life once more has a chance. But this change is very recent--it has only begun to unfold in the last ten years. In 1977 Gerald G. May looked back a few years on his original 1974 article, and commented on the explosion of interest in spirituality from his perspective. Three years ago this journal published some of my beginning insights and concerns about human spiritual need and how it was neglected in usual forms of psychotherapy and religious activity. . . . A lot has happened in the past three years. Spirituality has moved from its position of closet-skeleton in the houses of psychotherapy and organized religion into the role of the in thing. Transpersonal psychology is becoming recognized as a legitimate fourth force of the behavioral sciences. The alteration of consciousness has become the latest gimmick for improving oneself. Meditation has become a household word. Room has been found in many congregations for charismatic and Pentecostal groups, even though they are still the objects of much suspicion and prejudice. All over the country parishes, congregations, and counseling offices are opening to more frank and direct examination of basic spiritual need. It is my impression that the fields of CPE and pastoral counseling continue to lag a bit behind in this race for spiritual goodies, and perhaps they should be commended for this. They are legitimately suspicious of fads. They have had enough experience with new and better ways of doing things, and their conservatism reflects an admirable and sensitive caution. In a companion JPC editorial Edward Thornton analyzed the lagging behind May mentioned as an actual ambivalence in the relationship between pastoral care and spirituality, naming the truth that matters of the Spirit meant nothing and everything. On the reticent side, Thornton noted: The emerging vogue of spirituality has the potential for a renascence of pietism at its worst--complete with anti-intellectual attitudes, magical religious thinking and intra-psychic game playing. But no one we know who is serious about both pastoral care and spirituality is an old-fashioned pietist. On the contrary, they are persons who take the behavioral sciences seriously and who own the full humanness of their own experience. Ironically, as this issue illustrates, they are more likely to be psychiatrists than clergy-persons. The other side of our ambivalence is to say that spirituality has everything to do with pastoral care. Authentic pastoral ministry, along with authentic theology, derives from genuine experience of God consensually validated by the people of God. But we are as spiritually repressed today as the Victorians were sexually repressed. Let us, therefore, jettison the theological abstractions of the past and invest totally in re-experiencing God--in immediacy and power. Let us exorcise the reliance on intellectualization that clings to formal theological writing (and too much pastoral care writing as well.) Thornton actually became one of the prominent writers at the interface of pastoral care and spirituality because he personally knew that in spirituality deeply experienced, the Otherness of God becomes not a theological proposition but an existential certitude. However, he knew that his own enthusiastic endorsement of spiritual exploration and that of others would necessary need to be restrained by a corresponding commitment to scientific and theological objectivity in the ministries of pastoral care and counseling. Gerkin goes beyond Thorntons theme of ambivalence by noting the outright suspicion and hostility that has existed between the two fields. In terms of history, Gerkin notes that in the early years of the Christian community, spiritual direction was informal and common in the practice of pastoral care. Later, in the middle ages, it became more rigid, formalized, and prescription based. Thus it became separated from the day-to-day care of the people in relation to their problems of living within the community of faith. With some exceptions this separation has continued to the present. Practitioners of spiritual direction have suggested that pastoral care offers merely temporary solutions to immediate problems, whereas spiritual guidance offers more positive guidance aimed at the development of creative gifts of the spirit. Practitioners of pastoral care have made an equally biased distinction by saying that whereas pastoral care deals with the real problems of individuals, spiritual direction only encourages navel gazing and Gnostic searching for the Christ who is better found where people are in pain. In recent times there are signs that these two long-separated pastoral traditions may be seeking a new rapprochement. So, although there were precipitating factors in the general culture that fed into a groundswell of interest in spirituality, not just anyone would be able to broker a rapprochement with contemporary pastoral care which was so entrenched in psychological sciences, a theological rationalism divorced from and suspicious of mystic inclinations, and a corresponding aversion to the unconscious and/or infantile desires and/or magical thinking of pietistic emotionalism. In the early seventies that not just anyone appeared in the person of a Roman Catholic priest from the Netherlands, Henri J. M. Nouwen. In 1969 he had published a book titled Intimacy: Essays in Pastoral Psychology which evidenced the influence of Anton Boisen, Seward Hiltner, and Thomas Merton. It emerged from the classes he pioneered in pastoral psychology at Notre Dame (1966-68), following his study at the Menninger Foundation (1964-66). The book caught the attention of Colin Williams, Dean of the Yale Divinity School, who asked Nouwen to return to the United States from his position in the Netherlands, and bring his special integration of ministry, psychology, and spirituality to Yale. Nouwen accepted the offer, and taught at Yale from 1971-1981, but with the stipulation from the start that he could write whatever he felt needful, without regard to the standard norms of the academy for publishing or tenure. In an unusual and far-sighted move, Yale consented to his conditions. In 1972 Nouwen published The Wounded Healer, and Creative Ministry, the first of many popular books that integrated spirituality and pastoral care. He found a wide-spread following among ministers in general, and also within the specialized pastoral care community. Nouwen was uniquely positioned in a number of ways to reclaim spirituality, biblical topics such as hospitality, and to talk directly about witnessing to Christ: He was well-versed in the Thomas Merton tradition; did doctoral work in psychology; had a liberal European education as well as strong training in theology; knew pastoral care in America through his experience at the Menninger Foundation; integrated current existential motifs and expressive values such as the search for authenticity; picked up the sixties theme of immediate knowledge and the self-authenticating authority of experience, as opposed to hierarchical authority; taught in prestigious American universities (also Harvard Divinity School 1983-85); and wrote in simple, brief, accessible form. Nouwen can be said to be the fountainhead of what was to follow. Also in the early 70s, William E. Hulme, a well known, well-published professor of pastoral counseling at Luther-Northwestern Seminaries in St. Paul published his Pastoral Care Comes of Age which did not talk so much of spirituality, but legitimated God-language, and encouraged others to open to more specifically theological resources in pastoral care. At this same time the Menninger Clinic, which had a strong program in psychiatry and pastoral care, called into question the pastoral accommodation to psychology through psychiatrist Karl Menningers book Whatever Happened to Sin? and psychologist Paul Pruysers book The Minister as Diagnostician. Having the prestige and blessing of psychology and psychiatry to do so, impetus and courage was given to pastoral care and counseling to re-claim its spiritual heritage. Don Browning, a clinically trained pastoral theologian in Chicago picked up the theme of reclaiming the tradition through his 1976 book The Moral Context of Pastoral Care, and a number of subsequent works dealing with pastoral attention to the long neglected nexus connecting values (IC) with behavior (EI). Morton Kelsey, an Episcopalian priest steeped in Jungian thought, had been writing about spiritual topics for years from that perspective. (Transcend, 1981; God, Dreams, and Revelation, 1974; Healing and Christianity, 1973; Christo-Psychology, 1982). In 1976 he published The Other Side of Silence: A Guide to Christian Mediation, which received a wide and favorable hearing from mainline pastors. His 1982 Prophetic Ministry was sub-titled The Psychology and Spirituality of Pastoral Care. Kelsey said he was stimulated to write because it seemed that people all around were pursuing Zen, Yoga, or T M out of ignorance that there were any Judeo-Christian alternatives in meditation. A couple of events in the seventies also gave impetus to spirituality within the field. In 1975 the Clinical Pastoral Movement celebrated the 50th anniversary of the first training program that had been started by Boisen. At that meeting Glenn Asquith presented a well-received talk on Boisen which emphasized the beginnings of the movement when much of religion, including Boisens own religious ideation while hospitalized, was considered pathological; the hope of Boisen for the movement was that case study work could lead to the closer integration of theology with actual religious development; and how upset he was with the more purely psychological direction the movement was taking. The talk eventuated in Asquiths book on Boisen Vision From a Little Known Country. Then in 1977 Henri Nouwen was invited as the principle speaker to the International Conference of the Association for Clinical Pastoral Education and the Canadian Association for Pastoral Education, signaling the movements receptiveness to the emphasis on spirituality. That presentation resulted in Nouwen book The Living Reminder: Service and Prayer in Memory of Jesus Christ which was immediately popular, and remains in pastoral care courses today. In 1977 Kenneth Leech, an Anglican priest with a good background in personal counseling, and a great passion for social concerns, introduced the forgotten art of spiritual direction into American Protestant pastoral care through his book Soul Friend. Leech underlined the paradox of pastors being under-employed while the great spiritual revival noted above was going on all around them. As Henri Nouwen noted in the books introduction, Leechs effort was unique in that it introduced spiritual direction in the context of the counseling-psychotherapeutic tradition pastors were already familiar with. Leech not only delineated the identity of ministers as bearers of the Spirit who helped others discern the movements of the Holy Spirit in all the areas of their lives, he wove in the connections with psychological counseling. This bridge building, as opposed to a confrontational-antithetical, approach helped give the book wide acceptance and appreciation. His Spirituality and Pastoral Care followed in 1989. 1980 saw the publication of Tilden Edwards Spiritual Friend. Tilden followed many of Leechs suggestions in establishing the Shalem Institute for Spiritual Direction in Washington, DC. Tilden was able to influence mainline pastors because he himself was a mainline, liberal, Episcopal priest who was psychologically sophisticated, and sympathetic to social action concerns, and world religions. Likewise in 1980, William B. Oglesby, Jr. published Biblical Themes for Pastoral Care. Oglesby taught in the Reformed tradition which took the Bible quite seriously at Union Theological Seminary in Richmond. In dialogue with biblical scholarship, he extracted certain themes (as opposed to rules or recipes) from the Bible. He exemplified their application in pastoral encounters in an attempt to give pastors a responsible way to use the Bible to undergird their ministries. He was speaking to mainline pastors who were not biblical literalists, and who knew the limitations of advice giving for transformation -- from any source, biblical or otherwise. In 1981 William Hulme built on his previous work by publishing a book on pastoral care and counseling with the subtitle, Using the Unique Resources of the Christian Tradition including faith, scripture, meditation, prayer, worship, fellowship, healing, and the church as witnessing community. James Loder, a pastoral theologian at Princeton also published The Transforming Moment: Understanding Convictional Experiences in 1981. Loders was the first book by a mainline professor of practical theology to be prompted by a personal experience of the transforming power of the Holy Spirit which forced him to reopen the question of reality. For Loder, it came after being hit by a car. In his book, he carefully outlines a view of transformational knowing, development, and logic useful in discerning subjective intoxication from Divine Presence. 1981 also saw the publication of James Fowlers Stages of Faith, writing from his position as Director of the Center for Faith Development at Emory University. Fowler was not writing specifically about spirituality, but his book was decisive in opening up the serious study of meaning and faith development for both religious and psychological teachers and practitioners, in a manner similar to what Piaget had done with cognitive development and Kohlberg had done with moral development. Legitimating the questions of meaning, faith, and religious development in an empirical way helped grease the skids for further consideration of spirituality.  In 1982 Gerald May, MD, who worked with Edwards at the Shalem Institute, published Will and Spirit: A Contemplative Psychology. It was a good counterpoint to fellow psychiatrist, M. Scott Pecks bestseller The Road Less Traveled. Peck wrote of the need for us to be diligent and focused, and to endure the harsh realities of life with openness to the transcendental grace of God that could teach us the miracle of love. May took the more contemplative road, writing of the willingness to give up mastery in favor of mystery which could lead in ways beyond our control to be graced by the gift of knowing ultimate oneness. May also published in 1982 his Care of Mind/Care of Spirit: Psychiatric Dimensions of Pastoral Care. Here he made an explicit distinction between spiritual direction and psychotherapy for the sake of protecting spiritual formation from psychological reductionism. He also affirmed the traditional position that the Holy Spirit is the real director that worked through graceful, human relationships. In 1982 Edward Wimberly published his Pastoral Counseling & Spiritual Values: A Black Point of View in which he noted that post-70s counter-modernizing trends were making pastoral counseling more relevant to the black Christian experience which had never given up the concept of soul for psyche. However, Wimberly is so well-versed in mainline, majority-church pastoral care, that his work was prescient of precisely the direction white church pastoral care needed to go. 1983 saw the publication of Tom Odens Pastoral Theology and the first of the books in his series on Classical Sources of Pastoral Care. Oden was self-consciously reacting to the disappointments of the modern age. He specifically attempted to be unoriginal in outlining a classical, ecumenical consensus on pastoral care issues. He sought to help pastors creatively re-appropriate a rich, theologically-based tradition they had largely rejected in favor of a Twentieth Century psychology which had not fulfilled its promise. Edward Thorntons 1984 book Being Transformed: An Inner Way of Spiritual Growth was, like Loders, based on an uninvited, unanticipated awesome experience of the Holy which called into question Thortons previous, largely Jungian, clinical training as a pastoral theologian. His inner way is one shaped by a desire to be one with God. It is formed by core disciplines, such as transformational Bible study, that lead beyond ordinary consciousness and knowing to an experience of the Presence of God, which melds love and will into obedient service. Nelson S. T. Thayer published the first book titled Spirituality and Pastoral Care in 1985. He emphasized the spirituality of the lived moment, and the cultivation of that moment through largely apophatic forms of meditation. Many books related to the field were published in 1986. Charles Gerkins Widening the Horizons: Pastoral Responses to a Fragmented Society proposed a narrative hermeneutical theology which facilitated a unifying fusion of horizons; a connection of ones personal story with the lager story of the Judeo-Christian heritage. In his The Presence of God, Wayne Oates stated that the next wave in pastoral counseling would be spiritual direction. All pastoral care and counseling needed to consciously, without self-consciousness, attend to the presence of God. Previously, in 1985 a festschrift in honor of Oates was published titled Spiritual Dimensions of Pastoral Care. David Augsburgers important book, Pastoral Counseling Across Cultures was also published in 1986. It broke the field out of its limited American context by outlining many cross cultural issues related to development, therapy, values, world view, and spirituality. From Europe, Jacob Firets work on Dynamics of Pastoring was translated. Firet dealt with both the hermeneutical moment in counseling which led to understanding, and the agogic moment in which the new understanding was translated into transformation and change. He underlined the Holy Spirit as the power which enabled humans to respond to the Gospels offer of freedom. In 1987 a book was finally published by Elaine Ranshaw which dealt with Ritual in Pastoral Care. In 1988 the still prolific Lutheran pastoral theologian William E. Hulme published Celebrating Gods Presence: A Guide to Christian Meditation. He put prayer in the context of Christian life understood as growing in grace. The book was a practical guide to meditation as the listening phase of prayer, and cathartic prayer as a way of dealing with troubling emotions that often interfered with spiritual growth. In 1990 Wimberly added his Prayer in Pastoral Counseling. Mention should also be made of Robert J. Wicks whose work through the pastoral counseling program at the Catholic Loyola College in Maryland and his numerous printed works have always integrated a place for spirituality in a way that has affected the Protestant world as well. In 1995 he edited a well-received Handbook of Spirituality for Ministers. During this period there were a parallel series of books published that dealt with spirituality and ministry in general. The writers were not pastoral theologians in the limited sense of pastoral care and counseling specialists. They specifically indicted pastoral care for having become so narrowly associated with pastoral counseling. One of the first and most popular was Will Willimons Worship as Pastoral Care published in 1979. Urban T. Holmes Spirituality for Ministry followed in 1982. Alan Jones, Dean of Grace Cathedral in San Francisco, published Soul Making: The Desert Way of Spirituality in 1985. Ben Campbell Johnson, a professor of evangelism, published his Pastoral Spirituality: A Focus for Ministry in 1988. From the Roman Catholic side, the creation-centered spirituality promoted by Matthew Fox in such books as A Spirituality Named Compassion and Original Blessing: A Primer in Creation Spirituality drew a number of laypersons, and secular healers as well as Protestant pastors who desired to integrate more spirituality into their personal and professional lives. Parallel books like Parker Palmers To Know As We Are Known: A Spirituality of Education and his The Company of Strangers: Christians and the Renewal of Americas Public Life sought to integrate spirituality into all dimensions of life, and not wait for pastors to lead the way. Another development toward the end of the eighties was the appearance of a number of works related to feminist spirituality, which might not have been by pastoral care persons, but which were used and referenced in pastoral care courses involving spirituality: Judith Plaskow and Carol P. Christ, eds., Weaving the Visions: New Patterns in Feminist Spirituality; Kathleen Fischer, Women At The Well: Feminist Perspectives on Spiritual Direction; and Reclaiming the Connections: A Contemporary Spirituality; Joann Wolski Conn, ed., Womens Spirituality: Resources for Christian Development; Margaret R. Miles, Practicing Christianity: Critical Perspectives for an Embodied Spirituality; Paula Cooey, Sharon Farmer, and Mary Ellen Ross, Embodied Love: Sensuality and Relationship As Feminist Values; Marie Harris, Dance of the Spirit: The Seven Steps of Womens Spirituality; and Virginia Mollenkott, Godding: Human Responsibility and the Bible. These contributions, of course, were simply a foretaste of more feminist contributions to come in the nineties and beyond. The combination of spirituality finding a home in the academy and major pastoral care writers taking up the subject in books translated into theses and dissertations coming forth in theological graduates schools. By 1981 Bruce Willate was advocating the need for pastoral theology to develop clearer theories of religious experience and spiritual maturity that allow for encounter with a non-reductionistic God, and still employ the psychological perspectives which help guard against the ego-inflation that often attends such experiences. Elizabeth Liebert lamented in 1986 that there is not more cross-fertilization between spiritual direction and psychotherapy because ego development and spiritual development are so intimately intertwined in the human person (distinguishable only in theory.) Her own work concentrates most on what spiritual directors can learn from structural development theories of psychology (Loevinger). However, going the other way: Spiritual direction and discernment also critique and relativize the theory of ego development, as well as the reverse. These spiritual disciplines widen the context in which to understand human development by asserting that God can be located there. Likewise, they contextualize the experience of falling apart which accompanies all transitions as a kind of desolation and therefore also a privileged locus for Gods action. They also corroborate from long tradition that at some point one is fulfilled precisely in handing oneself over to a bigger vision or Presence. She calls for the extension of a an interdisciplinary vocabulary which lies between psychology and spirituality, recognizable to each discipline though lacking the richness of either. Pastoral psychotherapists should be the obvious ones to carry forth the integration, but it is happening more with secular therapists drawn to spirituality. She argues that the bipolar tension between autonomy and interdependence [agency and communion] carries the potential for a more mature rapprochement between moral theology and spirituality, but says that developmental theorists need to contribute more to the multifaceted understanding of the human person, than older theories of the autonomous self do. More also needs to be done in structural theories of change which can shed further light on the discussion about how to develop a deepened social consciousness through spiritual direction. Finally she hopes that a structurally-informed practice of spiritual direction might offer clinical insight to pastoral counselors. 1990 saw a dissertation by Vance Penley on family spirituality which brought the work of Gerald May and Murry Bowen into dialogue. A number of D.Min., Th.M., and Ph.D. thesis touched on topics related to spirituality and pastoral care (see Appendix A). By 1992 Rhonda Pettit was writing on a general approach for a holistic model of pastoral counseling and spirituality. The present work is the first integrative overview of pastoral care and spirituality. In 1993 Mary Frohlich wrote a dissertation driven by the question, How can we explain God-experience in a way that both respects its non-reducible theological character and clearly indicates its integral relation with concrete psychological and social change? It should be noted that the question of combining non-reductionistic pastoral care and counseling with spiritual direction is also being pursued by many from the spiritual direction side. A good example is Sister Donald Corcorans work on the spiritual guide as a midwife of the Higher Spiritual Self who integrates insights from Jung and Hillman in particular. Switching from dissertations to popular works, we can also note that during this period writers like Carolyn Stahl Bohler, Opening to God: Guided Imagery Meditation on Scripture and Flora Slosson Wuellner, Prayer, Stress & Our Inner Wounds and Prayer and Our Bodies began to produce pastorally helpful materials which also found their way into seminary classrooms, thus feeding the student demand for more of the integration of spirituality and pastoral care in their educations. Ron DelBene, an Episcopal parish priest, was also a popular author who began to feed this felt need within students and on-line parish workers through such books as The Breath of Life, and The Hunger of the Heart. This chronology of key works is symbolic of the hundreds of contributions that have sprung up in the post-sixties, along with new periodicals, institutes, seminars, classes, and academic programs, all of which foster the integration of pastoral care and spirituality. But, what do we make of them? Once we look beyond their common theme it becomes harder to find a common understanding of either the word spirituality or the process of encouraging spiritual growth. Such a wide variety of definitions are offered. Here are a representative fifty: 1) discovering and living out ones deepest values and life goals; 2) the process whereby we develop into fuller personhood; i.e. the process of integration; 3) becoming a person in the fullest sense; 4) the means by which we are able to move out from ourselves in relationship to others; 5) a deepening of sensitivities to self, to others, and to God; 6) the development of fuller consciousness in the individual; 7) the basic human drive for meaning, purpose, and moral relatedness among people, with the universe, and with the ground of our being; 8) the human spiritual nature as such; the spiritual component in the human being; 9) a concern for transcendence: the sense that something in life goes beyond the here and now and the commitment to that something; 10) a lived reality, the lived moment; 11) particular ways of advancing spiritual growth as advocated by different traditions or schools; 12) the beliefs and practices that a particular person follows in order to nourish his or her spiritual sensitivities and growth; 13) a study of what to do and how to do it, within a particular school of spirituality, in order to grow spiritually; 14) the study to explain how and why spiritual practices do what they do in terms of the structures, processes, and mechanisms inherent in human spiritual experience as such; 15) communication with human spirits or non-human spiritual entities, including those who have physically died; 16) involvement with extra-ordinary human powers that result in psychic or psi phenomena like clairvoyance, telekinesis, precognition, and out-of-body experiences; 17) the experience of consciously striving to integrate ones life in terms not of isolation and self-absorption but of self-transcendence toward the ultimate value one perceives; 18) every human activity that entails the distinctively human realities of meaning and value; 19) ways of living that specifically strive for what is noble, lofty, and good; 20) all those facets of daily life that relate us to the highest and best that God made us to be in Christ; 21) human living insofar as it is geared toward integration of the intrinsic human dynamism toward authentic self-transcendence, as created by God; 22) nature; 23) authenticity; 24) everything one does that expresses or enhances ones awareness of, and commitment to, the transcendent dimension of life; 25) all of life; the fullness of reality; 26) a simultaneous commitment to God and to persons; 27) following Jesus, in community, and in solidarity with the poor and oppressed; 28) a passage of a people through the solitude and dangers of the desert, as it carves out its own way in the following of Jesus Christ; 29) liberation, radically understood; 30) the human subjective response to whatever is regarded as the real; 31) faithfulness to the given of the Christian story about Jesus that defines the Christian community; 32) celebrating Gods presence; 33) the dimension that reflects the need to find meaning in existence and in which we respond to the sacred; 34) bringing men and women into touch with the central meaning of the universe and enabling them to relate all aspects of their lives to this meaning; 35) a search for the sacred; 36) however people think, feel, act, or interrelate in their efforts to find, conserve, and if necessary, transform the sacred in their lives; 37) that which deals with our identity as essence or soul; 38) the perennial philosophy; 39) a centered activity of awakening to the caring of God and responding by loving God wholeheartedly; 40) loving God; 41) the deliberate effort to transcend, through self-transformation, the limits of the given and to realize some portion of this unbounded potentiality through pursuit of a future goal that can neither be fully foreknown nor finally attained; 42) the direct feeling level experience of the ground of being, or of the process or flow of the universe; 43) experiences in which one feels at one with the creation, deeply meaningful, and in pervasive union with all things; 44) the central organizing process of the psyche and its therapy; 45) the self as a relation that relates itself to itself; 46) needing something more; 47) the art of making connections; 48) indwelling the transforming moment and letting it move the person into an unfolding of Christs transformational work in personal life and World history; 49) being aware and open to ultimate reality, immanent and transcendent; 50) a human capacity for relationship with that which transcends sense phenomena, perceived by the subject as an expanded or heightened consciousness independent of the subjects efforts, given substance in the historical setting and exhibiting itself in creative action in the world. Beyond the definitions, how do the myriad approaches to spirituality come out of and relate to the general critique of pastoral care that has been developed historically here? If the pastoral task can be conceived in terms of growing from the image toward the likeness of God through bringing grace to bear on barriers to increased communion, how does the new literature on spirituality and pastoral care relate to the splits, tensions, and fragmentation of the post-sixties era we are still in?: the loss of confidence in American institutions vs. the need for institutions which provide structure and support; the widespread loss of moral authority vs. the need for that which is intrinsically valuable; the exposure of religion as another means of maximizing self-interests vs. the need for religion that is connected to virtue, charity, and community; the utilitarian, consequential use of relationships vs. the need for genuine, authentic relationships; the need for realistic, future-visioning hope vs. the need to functionally run a non-utopian society; suburban flight of the increasingly rich vs. urban poverty of the increasingly poor; the assertion of self-authenticating authority vs. the need for authority beyond the self; strengthening and developing the capacities of the ego to gain a self vs. emptying and self-surrender of the ego to gain a soul; direct access to God vs. God mediated through tradition and community; feelings and heart vs. thinking and mind; immediate, passionate, radical affections and ecstatic experience vs. purpose, order, and the meaning of chronic affections; simple living vs. complex economy; national vs. global; white, male, Protestant dominance vs. multi-ethnic, multi-racial, and female ascendance; inner work vs. outer work; community context, rules, and disciplines vs. personal identity, growth, and expression; individual choice and responsibility vs. small group nurture and accountability; freedom from restraint vs. freedom to serve; charismatic leaders vs. professionals trained to do a job; contemporary teachings vs. traditional knowledge; deepening into our own traditions vs. ecumenical dialogue and cooperation in a pluralistic context; ultimate spiritual work vs. non-ultimate pragmatic work; the breakdown of Type AB theology combined with utilitarian individualism vs. the need for a new Type C theology that gives purpose and meaning; therapeutic competence vs. theological identity; specialized pastoral care settings vs. parish context; the development of strong agents vs. the development of powerful community; fleeing the many to embrace the One vs. embracing the many as the One; etc., etc. Does the new literature on spirituality help pastoral care regain its theological function of fostering a Christian imagination which represents, orients, communicates, and transforms in relation to a community of faith, thereby promoting religion in an authentic cultural-linguistic framework? Does it help foster the pastoral task of making grace specific? Is there any New Light in these further developments which can be offered as memes, conventions, or core organizing beliefs for supporting the American Dream of perfecting the individual, nation, and world? The task of offering some way of ordering these pastoral-theological questions in relation to the multiplicity of spiritual choices which have arisen in the post-1970 period moves now to the next chapter which explores a typological perspective. Thayer, Spirituality, 15. Sandra M. Schneiders, Spirituality in the Academy, Theological Studies Vol. 50 (1989): 676-697. Schneiders, Academy, 680. See Jacob Firets discussion of the Holy Spirit in relation to pastoral care in his Dynamics in Pastoring 116-134. For instance: To be led by the Spirit of God is not to be possessed. On the contrary, it is to be liberated from possession, from the alien domination of evil. Man only becomes himself through the operation of the Holy Spirit. We do not of course deny that the way in which the Holy Spirit works in a person, or through an interpersonal relationship, remains incomprehensible to us, but one thing is very clear: the work of the Holy Spirit never takes place at the expense of our essential humanity. On the contrary, it finds its central focus in restoring the human person to her freedom and responsibility. . . . (p. 125) . . . The person who by faith remains in fellowship with the Spirit; who allows herself in her entire existence and conduct to be led by the direction of the Holy Spirit; who in the responsibility of faith lives in this freedom, can and may relate herself to other people in such a way that on that interhuman level the word of God comes to pass. (p. 126) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In pastoral role-fulfillment a human being is a subject--not depersonalized, but restored to fullness of personality. Sometimes the term synergism is used to characterize the relation between human and divine action . . . . (p. 129) . . . only then will it be completely catholic when God is not alone and unilaterally at work, but when God and man are at work together, in synergism that is total. This synergism, this reciprocity, is characteristic for the work of the Spirit . . . . the work of the Spirit consists by definition in the fact that He makes the human partner a full co-participant. The full catholicity of the Christian religion brings with it that God and man stand pneumatologically in a synergistic relationship . . . . (p. 129) . . . An activity becomes pastoral in a formal sense when it cooperates with grace, by the use of human means, in order to bring forth better fruit in individuals and communities. (p. 130) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Spirits way of working is by authorizing and empowering people as human beings to serve God in his coming. The Spirit does not make human deliberation and action superfluous; he makes it possible by conferring freedom and responsibility to that end. (p. 134) Schneiders, Academy, 681. Schneiders, Academy, 681. Schneiders, Academy, 687. Schneiders, Academy, 687-690. Schneiders, Academy, 692-694. Schneiders, Academy, 695. Schneiders, Academy, 696-697. Jurgen Moltmann, Experiences of God, (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1980). Wolfhart Pannenberg, Christian Spirituality, (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1983). Gerald G. May, The Psychodynamics of Spirituality, Journal of Pastoral Care Vol. 28 No. 2 (June 1974): 84-91, quotes pages 86, 89. May, Spirituality,: 90, 84. May, Spirituality, 89, 85, 89, 88, 87. May, Spirituality, 91, 90. Barnhouse, Spiritual, 151 quoting Walter H. Capps, Thomas Mertons Legacy, The Center Magazine Vol. 12 No. 2 (1979): 4. Gerald G. May, The Psychodynamics of Spirituality: A Follow-Up, Journal of Pastoral Care Vol. 31 No. 2 (June 1977): 84-90, quote page 84, referring to May, Spirituality, 84-91. Edward E. Thornton, Editorial: Spirituality and Pastoral Care, Journal of Pastoral Care Vol. 31 No. 2 (June 1977): 73-75, quote page 73. Thorton, Spirituality, 73, 74. Gerkin, Introduction, 86. Gerkin, Introduction, 86, quoting Martin Thornton, Spiritual Direction; History and Tradition of, in Hunter, gen. ed., Dictionary, 1210. Henri J. M. Nouwen, Intimacy: Essays in Pastoral Psychology (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1969). The historical material here follows the exposition of Nouwens biographer, fellow Dutchman Jurjen Beumer, Henri Nouwen: A Restless Seeking for God (New York: Crossroad Publishing, 1997). Henri J. M. Nouwen, The Wounded Healer: Ministry in Contemporary Society (New York: Doubleday, 1972) and Creative Ministry (New York: Doubleday, 1972). In a personal communication, Glenn Asquith of the Moravian Theological Seminary in Bethlehem, PA confirmed that Nouwen had contact with Seward Hiltner at the Menninger Foundation and also did special research on Anton Boisen at the Boisen archives in Chicago where he met Asquith, who has also researched Boison. See Asquiths book on Boisen, Vision From a Little Known Country (Decatur: Journal of Pastoral Care Publications, 1992) which has includes a Nouwen article on Boison. Thanks to Ed Wimberly, personal communication, for emphasizing the contribution of William Hulme, Pastoral Care Comes of Age (Nashville: Abingdon, 1970). Karl Menninger, Whatever Became of Sin? (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1973); Paul W. Pruyser, The Minister As Diagnostician: Personal Problems in Pastoral Perspective (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1976); Morton T. Kelsey, The Other Side of Silence: A Guide to Christian Meditation (New York: Paulist, 1976); Companions on the Inner Way: The Art of Spiritual Guidance (New York: Crossroad, 1983); Christianity As Psychology: The Healing Power of the Christian Message (Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1986); Prophetic Ministry: The Psychology and Spirituality of Pastoral Care (New York: Crossroad, 1982); Christo-Psychology (New York: Crossroad, 1982); God, Dreams and Revelation (Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1974); Healing and Christianity (New York: Harper & Row, 1973); Transcend (New York: Crossroad, 1981). Thanks to Glenn Asquith for input on this paragraph. See Henri J. M. Nouwen, The Living Reminder: Service and Prayer in Memory of Jesus Christ (New York: Seabury Press, 1977). Kenneth Leech, Soul Friend: The Practice of Christian Spirituality (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1977), Spirituality and Pastoral Care (Cambridge: Cowley, 1989). Tilden Edwards, Spiritual Friend: Reclaiming the Gift of Spiritual Direction (New York: Paulist Press, 1980); William B. Oglesby, Jr., Biblical Themes for Pastoral Care (Nashville: Abingdon, 1980). For a fuller discussion of the Bible in pastoral care see Pattison, A Critique, chapter six The Bible and Pastoral Care, 106ff. William E. Hulme, Pastoral Care & Counseling: Using the Unique Resources of the Christian Tradition (Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1981); James E. Loder, The Transforming Moment: Understanding Convictional Experiences (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1981); James W. Fowler, Stages of Faith: The Psychology of Human Development and the Quest for Meaning (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1981). Writing about Mays position, David Lyall, Counselling in the Pastoral and Spiritual Context (Buckingham: Open Univ. Press, 1995), 52, says May examines the differences between psychotherapy and spiritual direction in the light of content and intent. As far as content is concerned, while psychotherapy focuses more on mental and emotional dimensions, spiritual direction focuses more precisely in spiritual issues such as prayer life, religious experiences and relationship to God. To fail to keep these two dimensions separate, to label every experience a spiritual experience and every therapy a form of spiritual direction, usually means that any real attention to spiritual matters is lost in the undertaking. The main intent of psychotherapy is normally to strengthen the individuals autonomy and to enable the satisfaction of needs and desires. Spiritual direction, in enabling self-surrender to the discerned will of God, may run counter to the apparent cultural values of psychotherapy. Gerald G. May, Will and Spirit: A Contemplative Psychology (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1982), Care of Mind Care of Spirit: Psychiatric Dimensions of Spiritual Direction (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1982); M. Scott Peck, The Road Less Traveled: A New Psychology of Love, Traditional Values and Spiritual Growth (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978). Edward P. Wimberly, Pastoral Counseling and Spiritual Values: A Black Point of View (Nashville: Abingdon, 1982). Edward E. Thornton, Being Transformed: An Inner Way of Spiritual Growth (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1984). Nelson S. T. Thayer, Spirituality and Pastoral Care (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985). William E. Hulme, Celebrating Gods Presence: A Guide to Christian Meditation (Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1988), Edward P. Wimberly, Prayer in Pastoral Counseling: Suffering, Healing, and Discernment (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1990). See also Wimberlys Using Scripture in Pastoral Counseling (Nashville: Abingdon, 1994). Robert J. Wicks, Handbook of Spirituality for Ministers (New York: Paulist Press, 1995). Parker J. Palmer, To Know As We Are Known: A Spirituality of Education (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1083), The Company of Strangers: Christians and the Renewal of Americas Public Life (New York: Crossroad, 1996; 1st published in 81); Ben Campbell Johnson, Pastoral Spirituality: A Focus for Ministry (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1988); Alan W. Jones, Soul Making: The Desert Way of Spirituality (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985); Urban T. Holmes, III, Spirituality for Ministry (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1982). Judith Plaskow and Carol P. Christ, eds., Weaving the Visions: New Patterns in Feminist Spirituality (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1989); Kathleen Fischer, Women At The Well: Feminist Perspectives on Spiritual Direction (Mahwah: Paulist, 1988); Joann Wolski Conn, ed., Womens Spirituality: Resources for Christian Development (New York: Paulist Press, 1986); Margaret R. Miles, Practicing Christianity: Critical Perspectives for an Embodied Spirituality (New York: Crossroad, 1990); Paula Cooey, Sharon Farmer, and Mary Ellen Ross, Embodied Love: Sensuality and Relationship As Feminist Values (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1987); Marie Harris, Dance of the Spirit: The Seven Steps of Womens Spirituality (New York: Bantam Books, 1989); and Virginia Mollenkott, Godding: Human Responsibility and the Bible (New York: Crossroad, 1987). Bruce Willate, The Ego-Self Axis as a Paradigm for Understanding Religious Experience and Spirituality Maturity, (Ph.D. diss., Graduate Theological Union, 1981). Elizabeth Liebert, The Process of Change in Spiritual Direction: A Structural-Developmental Perspective, (Ph.D. diss., Vanderbilt Univ., 1986), 290. Liebert, Process of Change, 296. Liebert, Process of Change, 296. Liebert, Process of Change, 296, 297. Vance Davis, Family Spirituality: A Paradigm for Contextual Pastoral Care of Families, (Ph.D. diss., Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1990), Rhonda Pettit, Toward A Model of Holistic Spirituality for Pastoral Counselors, (Ph.D. diss., Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1992), Mary Frohlich, The Intersubjectivity of the Mystic: A Study of Teresa of Avilas Interior Castle (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1993). Sister Donald Corcoran, The Spiritual Guide: Midwife of the Higher Spiritual Self, (Ph.D. diss., Fordham Univ., 1989). Carolyn Stahl, Opening to God: Guided Imagery Meditation on Scripture (Nashville: The Upper Room, 1977); Flora Slosson Wuellner, Prayer, Stress, & Our Inner Wounds (Nashville: The Upper Room, 1985), Prayer and Our Bodies (Nashville: The Upper Room, 1987); and Ron DelBene (with Herb Montgomery), The Breath of Life: Discovering Your Breath Prayer (Minneapolis: Winston Press, 1981), and The Hunger of the Heart: A Call to Spiritual Direction (Minneapolis: Winston Press, 1983). All of these definitions are actual quotes or close to it. The sources are not listed, since it does not seem fair to simply pick a definition out of an authors work without saying something about the larger context it was written in.     PAGE  PAGE 443 ?AB+ , - . 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